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JOURNAL  OP  OAS  LiaHTINQ,  Ac,    OCT.   18.  1910.1 

THE  ^; 







JULY    TO     SEPTEMBER,  1910. 



11,    BOLT     COURT,    FLEET     STREET,  E.C. 


\  \  \ 



[For  Index  of  Register  of  Patents,  Correspondence,  and  Parliamentary  and  Legal  Intelligence,  see  pp.  vllL,  Ix.,  and  x.1 

Aber  Valleys  Gas  and  Water  Company,  598 

Aberdeen  Gas  Supply,  669,  670,  733 

Abertillery  Water  Supply,  662 

Aberystwyth  Gas  Co  mpany,  602 

Aberystwyth  Water  Supply,  543 

Accounts,  Analysis  of  Gas  Companies',  or  1909,  116 

Accrington,  Electric  Light  Fatality  at,  381,  415 

Accrington  Gas  and  Water  Supply,  345 

Acton  Public  Lighting,  60 

Acts,  Gas,  for  1910,  835 

Adams,  Mr.  B.  C,  on  High  Pressure  in  a  Low 

Pressure  System  of  Gas  Distribution,  458 
Aeronautical  Congress,  512 
Air,  Action  of,  on  Coal,  28 

Aldershot  Gas,  Water,  and  District  Lighting  Com- 
pany, 178,  405 

Aldwych,  Intensified  Gas  Lamp  Tests  in,  400 

Alexandria  Gas  Company,  218 

Alkali  Works  Inspector's  Annual  Report,  16,  21, 
92,  275 

Allan,  Dr.  F.  J.,  on  the  Dangers  of  Unventilated 

Gas  Stoves,  474 
Aluminium,  Use  of,  in  Gas  Works,  119 
America  {see  also  New  York) — 

Gas  Association  Affairs  in,  99 

High  Pressure  Gas  in,  326 

Long  Gas  Pipe  Line  in,  783 

Natural  Gas  and  Petroleum  in,  119 
American  Gas  Institute,  317 
American  Producer  Gas  Practice,  258 
Amersham  Gas  Company,  479,  534 
Amman  Valley  Gas  Company,  134 
Ammanford  Gas  Company,  342 
Ammonia,  Purifying  Gas  and  Recovering,  392 
Ammonia  and  Methane,  Interaction  of,  in  the  Pre- 
sence of  Carbon,  170,  191 
Ammoniacal  Liquor,  Treatment  of,  in  Small  Gas 
Works,  117 

Amsterdam,  Blue  Water  Gas  v.  Carburetted  Water 

Gas  at,  511,  859 
Amsterdam  Gas  Supply,  791 
Angers  Gas  Works,  40 
Annan  Gas  Company,  284 

Anstruther  and  Cellardyke  Gas  Company,  142 

Antwerp  (Hoboken)  Gas  Works,  100 

Antwerp  Water  Company,  674 

Arbitration  {see  also  Purchase  Questions),  Lisburn 

Gas,  343,  415 
Arbroath  Gas  Supply,  478,  796 
Arden  Hill  and  Co.,  Messrs.,  639 
Arding  and  Hobbs',  The  Recent  Fire  at,  705 
Ardrossan  Gas  Supply,  451,  478 
Argentine  Centenary  International  Exhibition,  579 
Arkansas  Natural  Gas  Company,  783 
Arlecdon  and  Frizington  Gas  Supply,  707 
Armstrong,  Professor,  on  the  Provident  Use  of 

Coal,  703,  721 
Assessment  Increase  in  South  London,  409 
Association  of  Consulting  Engineers,  173,  185,  249, 


Association  of  Engineers-in-Charge,  770 
Association  of  Municipal  and  County  Engineers, 

Aston  Electricity  Supply,  353 

Auchterlonie's,  Mr.  J.  W.,  Presidential  Address 

to  the  Eastern  Counties  Association,  846 
Auchtermuchty  Gas  Company,  478 
Australian  Gaslight  Company,  634  (2),  662 
Austro-Hungarian  Association  of  Gas  and  Water 
Engineers — 
Gas  Fire  Investigations,  264 
Geipert,  Dr.  R.,  on  Retorts  v.  Large  Chambers, 
324,  388 

Keller,  Herr  V.  O. ,  on  a  Safety  Tap  for  Flexible 
Connections,  720 

Peischer,  Herr  O.,  on  Retorts  k.  Large  Cham- 
bers, 388 

Ranch,  Herr  H.,  on  the  Munich  Carbonizing 
Chambers,  262 
Automatic  Gas  Lighter,  Limited,  144 
Bacup  Water  Supply,  122,  282 
Baines,  Mr.  C.  O.,  on  Tar  for  Road  Surfaces,  383 
Bakers'  Ovens,  Gas  for  Heating,  197 
Balloons,  Special  Coal  Gas  for  Inflating,  512 
"  Bamag"  Distance  Pressure  Lighters,  712 
Banff  Public  Lighting,  736 

Barking  Gas  Company,  601 

Barnard,  Mr.  E.  B.,on  the  Water  Supply  of  London, 


Barnet  District  Gas  and  Water  Company,  220, 543, 


Barnsley  Gas  Company,  178,  602 
Barrow-in-Furness  Water  Supply,  282 
Beardmore  and  Co.,  Messrs.  W.,  595 
Beaufort  Gas  Company,  469  (2) 
Beckenham  Electricity  Supply,  251 
Belfast  Gas  Undertaking — 

Engineership,  178,  218,  381 

Escape  Caused  by  Electrolysis,  122 

Finances,  415 

Proposed  Extensions,  135,  737,  766,  786,  863 
Belgian  Association  of  Gas  Managers,  197 
Belgium — ■ 

Gas  Supply  Statistics,  94 

Subterranean  Water  Supply  of,  251 
Bellshill  Gas  Company,  218 
Bennis,  Messrs.  Ed.,  and  Co.,  793 
Berlin,  Extension  of  High  Pressure  Gas  Lighting 
in,  582 

Bermondsey  Electricity  Supply,  287,  315,  347,  836 

Berry,  Mr.  J.,  on  Retort  House  Governors,  779 

Berwick  and  Tweedmouth  Gas  Company,  284 

Berwick  Water  Supply,  662 

Beverley  Gas  and  \Vater  Supply,  481 

Bexhill  Water  and  Gas  Company,  871 

Bideford  Water  Supply,  673 

Birkenhead  Water  Supply,  599 

Birmingham — 
Proposed  Extension  of  the  Boundaries  of,  865 
Public  Lighting,  287 
Tar  Treatment  of  Roads  in,  524 

Birmingham  Gas  Undertaking- 
Census  of  Burners,  799 
Coal  Contracts,  65 

Birmingham  Metallurgical  Society,  51B 

Birmingham  Workhouse,  The  Gas  Supply  at  the, 

Bishop's  Stortford,  Harlow,  and  Epping  Gas  and 
Electricity  Company,  672,  835 

Blackburn  Electricity  Supply,  338 

Blackpool  Gas  Supply,  733 

Bland  Light  Syndicate,  25,  274,  604,  717 

Blyth  and  Cowpen  Gas  Company,  601 

Board  of  Trade  — 
Coal  Tables,  570,  573 
Electric  Supply  Provisional  Orders,  175 
Strikes  and  Lock  Outs  in  1909,  770,  836 
Wages  and  Hours  of  Labour  in  1909,  14,  575 

Bodmin  Gas  Company,  671 

Boiler,  The  "  Ramassot,"  841 

Bolton  Gas  Supply,  52,  145,  286,  415,  543,  603,  636, 

Bolton  Water  Supply,  673 

Bone  and  Coward,  Messrs.,  on  the  Synthesis  of 

Methane,  387 
Bone's,  Dr.,  Report  to  the  British  Association  on 

Gaseous  Combustion,  638,  648 
Bo'ness  Gas  Company,  418 

Bonnet,  M.  E.,  on  Steel  Gasholder  Tanks  made 

with  Bulging  Sides,  37,  122,  201,  264,  577 
Books  Received — 
American  Producer  Gas  Practice,  258 
Directory  of  Manufactures  of,  and  Dealers  in, 
Engineers'  and  Contractors'  Machinery  and 
Supplies,  221 
French  Gas  and  Electricity  Directory,  31 
Gas  Turbine,  The,  31 

"Gas  World"  Analyses  of  Gas  Companies' 
Accounts  for  1909,  116 

German  Text  Book  on  Producer  Gas,  261 

Memoir  of  the  Geological  Survey  on  the  Water 
of  Hampshire,  22 

Modern  Coking  Practice,  573 

Schaffer's  Text  Book  on  Gas,  510 

Transactions  of  the  London  and  Southern  Dis- 
trict Junior  Gas  Association,  777 

Transactions  of  the  Scottish  Junior  Gas  Associa- 
tion (Western  District),  32 
Boulaye,  M.  R.  dela.on  the  Combined  De Brouwer 

Retort  Charger-Discharger,  40 
Bournemouth  Gas  and  Water  Company,  473,  530 
Braddock's,  Messrs.  J.  &  J.,  Meter  Works,  779 

Bradford  Electricity  Supply,  221 

Bradford  Gas  Supply,  135 

Bradford  Water  Supply,  281 

Bradley  Process  of  Rust  Proofing,  574 

Brechin  Gas  Company,  284 

Brentford  Gas  Company,  46,  406,  569 

Bridge  Lighting  by  Incandescent  Gas,  724 

Bridgwater  Gas  Company,  789 

Bridlington,  Failure  of  the  Electric  Light  at,  422 

Bridport  Gas  Company,  481,  482 

Brighton  and  Hove  Gas  Company,  20,  53,  422,  507, 

513.  529.  571 
Brighton  Electricity  Supply,  146,  175 
Brighton  Railway  Station,   High   Pressure  Gas 

Lighting  at,  507,  513 
Brisbane  Gas  Company,  734 
Gas  Meter  Testing  in,  352 
Public  Lighting,  353,  601 
Bristol  Electricity  Undertaking,  381,  452 
Bristol  Water  Company,  873 

British  Association    for   the    Advancement  of 
Science — 

Armstrong,  Professor,  on  the  Provident  Use  of 

Coal,  703,  721 
Coker,  Professor  E.  G.,  on  Engine  Cylinder 

Temperature  Changes,  719 
Cowan,  Mr.  E.  W.,  on  the  Price  of  Electricity, 


Dolby,  Professor  W.  E.,  on  Measuring  Air  or 

Gas  Supply  to  Engines,  721 
Editorial  Comments,  569,  632,  703  (2),  704 
Gaseous  Combustion,  Dr.  Bone's  Report  on, 

648,  704 

Gaseous  Explosions,  Report  of  the  Committee 

on,  637,  640,  703 
Programme,  451 
British  Coalite  Company  {see  Coalite) 
British  Engine,  Boiler,  and  Electrical  Insurance 

Company,  704,  710 
British  Gaslight  Company,  604,  828,  862 
British  Medical  Association,  322 
British  Water  Main  and  Sewer  Company,  541 
Brixham  Gas  Company,  214 
Brixton  Road  Fire,  The  Cause  of  the,  764,  828 
Bromham,  M. — 
On  a  Gas  Heated  Bakers'  Oven,  197 
On  a  Turbine  for  the  Continuous  Treatment  of 

Sulphate,  115 
Patent  Regulator  of  the  Primary  Air  Supply  to 
Generators,  190 
Bromley  and  Grays  Gas  Company,  411 
Broughty  Ferry  Gas  Supply,  218 
Brownhills  and  District  Gas  Company,  123 
Brussels — 
Exhibition  — 
Awards,  518,  774,  856 
Fire  at,  452,  507,  639,  673,  853 
Water  Tower  at,  781 
Forest  Gas  Works  at,  23,  113 
Municipal  Gas  Works,  112 
Bucks  and  Oxon  District  Gas  Company,  56,  221, 

275.  469.  474t  529 
Bueb  Vertical  Retort  {see  Retorts) 
Burnden  Tar  Company  (Bolton),  Limited,  872 
Burners  {see  also  Incandescent,  Intensified,  In- 
verted, Lamps,  c&c.)— 
Census  of,  in  Birmingham,  799 
Igniting  and  Extinguishing  Devices  for — 
"  Bamag  "  System,  712 
New,  674 

Robson's  System,  272 

Westhoughton  District  Council  and,  482 
Burns,  The  Right  Hon.  John,  on  Cheap  Gaseous 

Fuel,  15,  60 
Burntisland  Gas  Supply,  218 
Burton-on-Trent  Gas  Supply,  200,  800 
Bury,  Mr.  E.,  on  Modern  Coking  Practice,  573 
Bury  Gas  Supply,  216,  417 
Cairo  Water  Supply,  220 
Calcutta  Public  Lighting,  36 
Calorific  Power  Standard  for  Gas- 
Canadian  Gas  Association  Report  on,  172,  196 
Economic  Aspects  of,  13 
Calorific  Value,  The  Relation  of,  to  Illuminating 

Power  in  London  Gas,  254 


{.JOURNAL  OP  OAS  LIOHTINO,   &c.,   OCT.   18,  1910. 

Calorimeter  Strache,  387 
Camborne  Company,  595,  671 
Camborrater  Company,  595 
Cambroas  Company,  317,  410,  843 
Cambr Philosophical  Society,  217 
Can^g  Water  Company,  97,  217,  421 
^^I.  Calorific  Power  Question  in,  172,  ig6 
^San  Gas  Association,  36,  172,  189,  196 
^  Water  Filters,  463 
jterbury.  Electric  Liglit  v.  Gas  at,  798,  836 
apital  and  Dividend  Charges,  381 

Jarbon  Dioxide  and  Hydrogen  Sulphide,  Remov- 
ing, from  Illuminating  Gas,  725 

Carbon  Monoxide,  Action  of  Hydrogen  upon,  458 

Carbonization  (see  also  Retorts)— 
Further  Studies  in,  170,  191 
Munich  Chambers  for,  262 
Retorts  v.  Large  Chambers  for,  324,  388 

Cardenden  Gas  Company,  418,  540 

Cardiff  Gas  Company,  542 

Cardiff  Water  Supply,  287,  873 

Carlisle  Gas  Supply,  146,  216 

Carluke  Gas  Company,  62 

Carmarthen,  Inartistic  Lamp  Columns  at,  706 

Carr's,  Mr.  I.,  Test  Burner  Diagram,  129,  172,  203 

Catalogues,  Pamphlets,  &c.,  422,  544  (3),  872 

Caulking  Gas  Mains  by  Machine,  268 

Ceara  Gas  Company,  829 

Cement,  Concrete  (see  Concrete) 

Cement,  Portland,  Standard  Specification,  575 

Census  of  Gas  Burners,  in  Birmingham,  799 

Census  of  Production  Statistics,  458 

Chandeliers,  Water  Slide,  798 

Chapel-en-le-Frith,  Chinley,  and  District  Gas  Com- 
pany, 674,  829 

Chapel-en-le-Frith  Gas  Works,  479,  671,  674,  829 

Charco,  Tests  of,  475 

Charging  and  Discharging  Machinery — 
De  Brouvver  Combined,  40 
Sautter-Harle,  at  Paris,  39 

Charters  Towers  Gas  and  Electricity  Supply,  734 

Cheltenham  Gas  Company,  174 

Chemical  Society,  The,  96,  387 

Chester  Gas  Company,  410 

Chester  Water  Company,  481 

Chevalet,  M.  F.,  on  Treating  Ammoniacal  Liquor 

in  Small  Gas  Works,  117 
Chichester  Gas  Company,  674 
Chigwell,  Loughton,  and  Woodford  Gas  Company, 


Chlorine,  Sterilization  of  Water  by,  217 

Church  Lighting,  Inverted  Burners  for,  218 

Church  Stretton  Public  Lighting,  541 

Annual  Report  of  the  City  Engineer  on  the 

Public  Lighting  of  the,  416,  448 
Experimental  Gas  Lighting  in  the,  7G7 

City  and  Guilds  of  London  Institute  Examinations 
in  Gas  Engineering  and  Supply,  21,  29,  106, 
108,  174,  186,  259,  317,  323,  337,  868 

Clapham  Junction  Fire,  The  Recent,  705 

Clark's  Syphon  Stoves,  839 

Cleator  Moor  Gas  Supply,  707 

Clement  and  Egy,  Messrs.,  on  the  Thermal  Con- 
ductivity of  Fire  Clay,  17 

Clown  Water  Scheme,  420 

Coal — 

Action  of  Air  on,  28 

Determining  the  Volatile  Matter  in,  585 
German  Purchases  of  British,  454 
Provident  Use  of,  Professor  Armstrong  on,  703, 

Storage  under  Water,  719 
World's  Supply  of,  570,  573 
Coal  Mines  (Eight  Hours)  Act,  16,  450,  538,  634, 


Coal  Smoke  Abatement  Society  {see  Smoke  Abate- 
Coalexld,  737 

Coalite,  Professor  Armstrong  on,  703,  721 
Coalite  Company — 

Competitors  of  the,  172 

Correspondence,  46,  123 

"  Daily  Chronicle  "  and  the,  792,  827,  864 

Debenture  Issue,  93 

Editorial  Comments,  827 

Foreign  Contracts,  353 

Position  of  the,  602 
Coatbridge  Gas  Company,  94,  478,  829 
Cobham  Gas  Company,  275 
Coke  Manufacture  and  Products  Recovery,  522 
Coke  Oven  Waste  Gases  for  the  Supply  of  Towns, 

Coker,  Professor  E.  G.,  on  Engine  Cylinder  Tem- 
perature Changes,  7x9 

Coking  Practice,  Modern,  573 

Colman,  Dr.  H.  G.,  on  Analysis  of  Ferrocyanides, 

Colne  Valley  Water  Company,  178,  477 

Colonial  Gas  Development,  730 

Colwyn  Bay  Gas  Supply,  215 

Combination  Burners,  Limited,  420 

Combustion,  Gaseous,  Dr.  Bone's  Report  to  the 
British  Association  on,  638,  648,  704 

Combustion,  Gaseous  Fuel  and.  Advanced  Lec- 
tures on,  450,  458 

Commercial  Gas  Company,  98,  179,  254,  410,  448, 
469,  471,  569,  860 

Compagnie  Continentale  du  Gaz,  146 

Companies,  New  Joint  Stock,  145,  146,  353,  420, 
422,  482,  541,  603,  674,  798,  829 

Company  Promoters    and  the  Gas  and  Water 
Industries — 
Amman  Valley  Gas  Company,  134 
Beaufort  Gas  Company,  469 

ipany  Promoters  and  the  Gas  and  Water 
Industries  (continued) — 
Bucks  and  Oxon  District  Gas  Company,  56,  221, 

275.  469.  474,  529 
East  Sussex  Gaslight  and  Coke  Company,  469 
Mid  Oxfordshire  Gas  Company,  56,  469,  829,  860 
Natural  Gas,  671 

North  Oxfordshire  Water  Company,  469 
North  Sussex  Gas  and  Water  Company,  275,  419, 
469,  474 

Rawcliffe  (Yorks)  and  District  Gas  Company,  469 

Robertsbridge,  Salehurst,  &c.,  Water  and  Gas 
Company,  469 

South  Luton  Gas  Company,  469 

Ticehurst  Water  and  Gas  Company,  338,  469 

Toddington  (New)  Gas  Company,  278 
Compensation  Act  (Workmen's) — 

Litigation  under  the,  338 

Working  of  the,  250 
Conciliation  in  Labour  Disputes,  836 
Concrete,  Reinforced  — 

For  Engineering  Structures,  656 

For  Water  Works,  590 

Gasholder  Tank  at  San  Sebastian,  266 

Water  Pipes,  465 

Water  Tower,  781 
Condensation  and  Naphthalene  Extraction,  581 
Consolidated  Gas  Company  of  New  York,  581 
Consulting  Engineers,  Proposed  Association  of, 

173,  185,  249,  383 
Consumption,  Prices,  and  Capital,  569 
Conveying  and  Elevating  Machinery — 

At  the  Moosach  Gas  Works,  Munich,  319 

Electric  Telpher  for  Hot  Coke,  201 
Cooking  and  Heating  by  Electricity,  508,  635,  706, 

Co-Partnership — 

Annual  Dinner  of  the  South  Metropolitan  and 

South  Suburban  Gas  Companies,  339 
Cambridge  Gas  Company  and,  410 
Coming  of    Age  of  the  South  Metropolitan 

Scheme,  59 
Croydon  Gas  Company  and,  532 
Gloucester  Gas  Company  and,  533 
Grantham  Gas  Company  and,  421 
Little,  Mr.  Gilbert,  on,  798 
Statistics,  481 
Cork  Consumers'  Gas  Company,  594 
Coventry  Gas  and  Water  Supply,  58 
Cowan,  Mr.  E.  W.,  on  the  Price  of  Electricity,  647 
Coward  and  Bone,  Messrs.,  on  the  Synthesis  of 

Methane,  387 
Cramer,  M.,  on  the  new"  Mars"  Inverted  Burner, 

Cripps,  Mr.  F.  S.,  on — 
Gasholder  Cups,  384 

Gasholder  Tanks  with  Bulging  Sides,  122,  201,  264 
Croydon  Gas  Company,  338,  473,  482,  507,  532,  569 
Cullen  Gas  Company,  418 
Cupar  Gas  Company,  218 
Cupar  Public  Lighting,  669 

"  Daily  Chronicle  "  on  the  Coalite  Company,  792, 

827,  864 
Dalbeattie  Gas  Supply,  381 

Dalby,  Professor  W.  E.,  on  Measuring  Air  or  Gas 

Supply  to  Engines,  721 
Dalkeith  Gas  Company,  178 
Darch,  Mr.  J.,  on  Practical  Illumination,  780 
Darlington  Gas  Supply,  216 

Davis  and  Fieldner,  Messrs.,  on  Determining  the 

Volatile  Matter  in  Coal,  585 
Davis  Gas  Stove  Company,  716,  739 
Davranche's  Itinerant  Sulphate  of  Ammonia  Plant, 


Dawson,  Mr.  S.  S.,  on  Municipal  Trading,  17 
Deacon,  The  Late  Dr.  G.  F.,  Memorial  to,  317 
Deaths — 

Archer,  Mr.  M.,  452 

Bell,  Mr.  A.,  178 

Bickerton,  Mr.  J.,  22 

Bullivant,  Miss  D.,  190 

Claypole,  Mr.  A.  H.,  582 

Gainsford,  Alderman  T.  R.,  22 

Gandon,  Mr.  H.,  829 

Hanks,  Mr.  J.,  636 

Haynes,  Mr.  R.  H.,  571 

Hutchinson,  Mr.  Stanley,  178 

Leigh,  Mr.  F.,  253 

Marshall,  Mr.  J.,  571 

Porritt,  Mr.  H.,  382 

Schaar,  Herr  G.  F.,  636 

Schreyer,  Herr  A.,  22 

Smedley,  Mr.  G.  B.,  452 

Smith,  Mr.  J.,  22 

Stelfox,  Mr.  J.,  769,  787 

Taylor,  Mr.  A.  C,  571 

Trewby,  Mr.  G.  C,  247,  253 

Vale,  Mr.  Thomas,  571 

Whimster,  Mr.  T.,  708,  735 

Wild,  Alderman  L.,  636 
De  Brouwer  Combined  Retort  Charger-Discharger, 

Decimal  Punctuation,  Proposed  Change  in,  507 
Depreciation,  Capital  Redemption,  and  Renewal 

and  Extension  Funds,  267 
Derby  Gaslight  Company,  422,  769,  860 
Derbyshire  Villages,  Supply  of  Gas  to,  479,  671 
Derwent  Valley  Water  Board,  22 
Dessau  Vertical  Retort  System  (see  Retorts) 
Devonport  Gas  Undertaking,  215 
Dickson,  Mr.  J.,  on  the  Checking  of  Working  Costs 

in  Small  Gas  Works,  393 
Directory  of  Manufacturers  of,  and  Dealers  in. 

Engineers'  and  Contractors'  Machinery  and 

Supplies,  221 

Distance  Lighting  Company,  712 
Distribution — 

High  Pressure,  458 

High  V.  L.ow  Pressure,  723 
Distribution  Pressures,  Past,  Present,  and  Future, 

Dividend  Warrants,  Lost,  97 
Divining  for  Water,  The  Cost  of,  673 
Dodworth  Public  Lighting,  863 
Doherty's  Process  for  Treating  Combustible  Gases, 

Doncaster  Gas  and  Water  Supply,  147 

Donkin,  Mr.  C.  Bryan,  on  Exhausters  in  Small 

Gas  Works,  461 
Dorchester  Water  Supply,  107 
Dover  Gas  Company,  790 
Downpatrick  Gas  Company,  482 
Dowson  and  Mason  Gas  Plant  Company,  422 
Droitwich  Gas  Supply,  65 
Dronfield  Gas  Supply,  288 

Duckham  and  Cloudsley,  Limited,  Messrs.,  C03 

Dumbarton  Gas  Supply,  218 

Dumfries  Gas  Supply,  317,  381,  478,  539,  658 

Dundalk  Electricity  Supply,  274 

Dundee  Gas  Supply,  19,  283,  796 

Dunfermline  Gas  Supply,  142,  218 

Dunlop's,  Mr.  W.,  Presidential  Address  to  the 
Scottish  Junior  Gas  Association,  854 

Dupoy,  M.,  on  the  Alteration  of  Ordinary  to  Con- 
stant Level  Gas  Meters,  580 

Dutch  Gas  Engineers,  Institution  of,  255 

East  Stonehouse,  Gas  v.  Electricity  at,  783 

East  Stonehouse  Water  Supply,  221 

East  Surrey  Water  Company,  140 

East  Sussex  County  Council  and  the  Brighton  and 
Hove  Gas  Bill,  422 

East  Sussex  Gaslight  and  Coke  Company,  469 

East  Worcestershire  Water  Company,  542 

Eastbourne  Gas  Company,  400,  597 

Eastern  Counties  Gas  Managers'  Association — 
Editorial  Comments,  825,  826 
General  Business,  845,849 

Peace,  Mr.  J.  B.,  on  Theory  and  Practice  in 

Engineering,  849 
Presidential  Address  of  Mr.  J.  W.  Auchterlonie, 


Visit  to  the  Cambridge  Gas  Works,  843 
Edinburgh,  Gas  Meter  Testing  in,  535 
Edinburgh  and  District  Water  Trust,  352 
Edinburgh  and  Leith  Gas  Commissioners — 

Annual  Accounts,  57,  61 

Engineership,  340,  351 
Egy  and  Clement,  Messrs.,  on  the  Thermal  Con- 
ductivity of  Fire  Clay,  17 
Electric — 

Junction  Boxes,  Prevention  of  Gas  and  Water 

Accumulations  in,  258 
Lamps  (see  Lamps) 
Shock  Victims,  Treatment  of,  95 
Wires  and  Fittings,  Corporations  and,  252,  505, 

5-9,  571,  836 

Electric  Lighting  Failures,  56,  65,  146,  174,  338, 

422,  542,  667,  800 
Electric  Supply  Publicity  Committee,  767,  836 
Electricity — • 

Dangers  of,  313,  315,  346,  415,  452,  573 

Fire  Risks  of,  381,  415,  674,  705 

Free  Wiring  Schemes,  252,  505,  529,  571,  836 

Gas  V.  (see  Gas) 

Heating  by  (see  Heating) 

Installations,  Defective,  95 

Legislation  in  1910,  635 

Price  of,  647 

Profession,  The  Prospects  of  the,  836 
Stations,  Coal  Supplies  to,  836 
Systems  of  Charging  for,  95,  767 
Electricity  and  Gas  Appliances,  Dangers  of  Mixed, 

Elsecar,  Wentworth,  and  Hoyland  Gas  Company, 

Embezzlement,  Charge  of,  56 

Employees,  Gratuities  to  Old,  on  Retiring,  800 

Enfield  Gas  Company,  602 

Engine,  Gas,  A  Large,  856 

Engine  Cylinder  Temperature  Changes,  719 

Engineering,  Theory  and  Practice  in,  849 

Engineering  and  Machinery  Exhibition,  536 

Engines,  Gas  (see  also  Turbines) — 
Failures  of  Electricity  and,  704,  710 
Measuring  Air  or  Gas  Supply  to,  721 
Troubles  with  Producer,  1 19 

England,  Messrs.  R.,  and  Co.,  Liquidation  of, 

European  Gas  Company,  214 

Exeter  Corporation  and  the  Cost  of  the  Opposition 

to  the  Standard  Burner  Bills,  783 
Exhausters  in  Small  Gas  Works,  461 
Exhibitions — 

Argentine  Centenary  International,  579 

British  Medical  Association,  322 

Brussels  International,  452,  507,  518,  639,  673, 
709,  774.  781,  853,  856 

Engineering  and  Machinery,  636 

Japan-British,  177,  331,  709 

Naval,  Mercantile  Marine,  and  General  Engi- 
neering and  Machinery,  463 

Smoke  Abatement,  417,  539,  766,  772,  795,  834 
Exmouth  Water  Supply,  414 
Explosions — 

Acetylene,  59 

Gas,  146,  214,  738,  798 

Gaseous,  Report  of  the  British  Association  Com- 
mittee on,  637,  640,  703 
Factories  and  Workshops,  Annual  Report  of  the 
Chief  Inspector  of,  26,  95,  170,  171,  191 

JOURNAL  OF  OAS  LWHTINO,  &c.,  OCT.  18,  1910.] 

Falding's  Patent  for  Purifying  Gas  and  Recovering 

Ammonia,  392 
Falk,  Stadelmann,  and  Co.,  Messrs.,  571,  581,  791 
Falkirk  Gas  Supply,  283,  868 
Falmouth  Gas  Company,  660 
Farmer's,  Dr.  R.  C,  Gas  Calculator,  262 
Farnham  Gas  Company,  835 
Fauldhouse  Gas  Company,  540 
Faversham  Electricity  Supply,  381 
Ferrocyanides,  Analysis  of — 
Colman,  Dr.  H.  G.,  on,  583 
Skirrovv,  Dr.  F.  W.,  on,  583 
Fieldner  and  Davis,  Messrs.,  on  Determining  the 

Volatile  Matter  in  Coal,  585 
"  Financial  News  "  on  Gas  Receiverships  Day  by 

Day,  .\6g 

Finsbury  Public  Lighting,  145,  279 
Fire  Clay,  Thermal  Conductivity  of,  17 
Fires,  415,  452,  674,  764,  828 
Fires,  Gas — 
Advances  in,  765 

Austro-Hungarian  Association  of  Gas  and  Water 

Engineers'  Investigations  on,  264 
Guards  Suggested  for,  284 
New,  576,  639,  716,  769,  775,  777,  778,  839 
Float  Turguand  Gas  Detector  Company,  Limited, 

Foillard,    M.   A.,    on    the    Paris  Discharging 

Machines,  39 
Folkestone,  Gas  v.  Electricity  for  Museum  Light- 
ing in,  134 
Forres  Gas  Company,  600 
Forsbrook  Gas  Supply,  422 
Foster  High  Pressure  Gas  Governor,  720 
France,  Directory  of  Gas  and  Electricity  Under- 
takings in,  31 
Free  Maintenance  and  Supervision,  730 
Free  Wiring  Schemes,  252,  505,  529,  571,  836 
Freight  Rates  on  Inverted  Mantles,  475 
Frimley  and  Farnborough  Water  Company,  542, 

Frund,  Mr.  H.  W.,  on  High  v.  Low  Pressure  Dis- 
tribution, 723 

Furnaces,  Generator,  Controlling  the  Water  Supply 
to,  268 

Fylde  Water  Board,  314 

Gainsborough  Gas  Supply,  214 

Galashiels  Gas  Company,  142 

Garnant  Gas  Company,  835 


And  Air  Mixing  for  Heating  Purposes,  41 
Commercial  Situation  of,  13 
Electricity  Ousted  by,  286 
Electricity  verstis — 
Comparisons  of  the  Cost  and  Efificiency  of,  18, 
93.  116,  134,  251,  278,  279  (2),  315,  318,  452, 
660,  706,  798 
For — 

Large  Hall  Lighting,  285 
Museum  Lighting,  134 
Unfair  Statements  and  Comparisons,  93,  252, 

Failure  of  Supply,  98 
For  Balloons,  512 
For  Library  Lighting,  279 
German  Text  Book  on,  510 
Heating  Bakers'  Ovens  by,  197 
In  Industry,  93 
Promotion  of  the  Sale  of,  188 
Publication,  A  New,  517 

Removing   Hydrogen    Sulphide    and  Carbon 

Dioxide  from,  725 
Supply,  Standardization  of,  633 
Use  of,  for  Industrial  Purposes,  35 
"  Gas,"  517 

Gas  and  Electricity  Appliances,  Dangers  of  Mixed, 

Gas  Driven  Cargo  Vessel,  458 
Gas  Engineering  and  Supply  Examinations — 
Answers  to  Questions,  29,  108,  186,  259,  323,  324, 

Classes  for,  868 
Programme  for  1910-11,  21 
Successful  Candidates,  21,  106,  174,  317 
Gas  Examiner,  The  Professional,  383 
Gas  Fitters,  &c..  Instruction,  Report  of  the  German 
Gas  and  Water  Association  Committee  on,  35 
Gas  Fitting,  Free,  Corporation  Committees  and, 

Gas  Oils  and  Oil  Gas,  325,  391,  457 

Gas  Power  and  Bye  Products  Company,  595 

Gas  Power  and  the  Use  of  Producer  Gas  in  Textile 
Mills,  709 

Gas  Publicity  Committee,  825 

Gas  Ring,  Fatality  Caused  by  a,  542 

Gas  Works — 

Checking  of  Working  Costs  in,  393 
Estimate  for  Erecting,  Seeking  a  Cheap,  173 
Plans  and  Descriptions  of — 
Antwerp  (Hoboken),  100 
Brussels  (Forest),  23,  113 
Cambridge,  843 
Konigsberg,  31,  iii 
Moosach  (Munich),  319 
Paris  (Gennevilliers  and  Le  Landy),  182 
Proposed  Sale  of  the  Amersham,  479,  534 
Transfers,  Points  on,  400 

"Gas  World"  Analyses  of  Gas  Companies'  Ac- 
counts for  1909,  116 

Gaseous  Combustion,  Dr.  Bone's  Report  to  the 
British  Association  on,  638,  648,  704 

Gaseous  Explosions,  Report  of  the  British  Associa- 
tion Committee  on,  637,  640,  703 

Gaseous  Fuel ;  The  Duty  of  Gas  Supply  Authori- 
ties to  the  Public,  331 

Gaseous  Fuel  and  Combustion,  Advanced  Lectures 

on,  in  London,  450,  458 
Gases — 

Doherty's  Process  for  Treating  Combustible,  657 
Supply  of  Towns  with  Waste,  110 
Gasholder,  The  Largest  Spiral  Guided,  392 
Gasholder  and  Tank  for  the  Manchester  Corpora- 
tion, 838 

Gasholder  Catastrophe  at  Hamburg,  The  Storage 

of  Gas  and  the,  506,  519 
Gasholder  Cups,  Mr.  F.  S.  Cripps  on,  384 
Gasholder  Tank,  A  Reinforced  Concrete,  at  Sar. 

Sebastian,  266 
Gasholder  Tanks  with  Bulging  Sides — 
Bonnet,  M.  E.,  on,  37,  201,  264,  577 
Cripps,  Mr.  F.  -S.,  on,  122,  201,  264 
"  Engineering  Record  "  on,  577 
Gaslight  and  Coke  Company — 
Accounts,  343 

Consumption,  Price,  and  Capital,  569 
Death  of  Mr.  G.  C.  Trewby,  247,  253 
Dividend,  265 

Editorial  Comments,  311,  377,  381 
Half  Yearly  Report,  316 
Hospital  Saturday  Fund  Contributions,  263 
Illuminating  and  Calorific  Power  of  the  Gas,  254 
Litigation,  134 

Meeting  of  Shareholders,  403 
Quality  of  the  Gas,  98,  179,  254 
Thefts  from  Prepayment  Meters,  602,  860 
Gautier,  M.  A.,  on  the  Action  of  Hydrogen  upon 

Carbon  Monoxide,  458 
General  Electric  Company,  635 
General  Engineeringand  Machinery  Exhibition, 636 
Generator  F'urnaces,  Controlling  the  Water  Supply 
to,  268 

Generators,  Regulating  the  Air  Supply  to,  190 
Gennevilliers  Gas  Works,  The,  182 
German  Association  of  Gas  and  Water  Engineers 
{coittimied  from  Previous  Volume) — 
Kordt,  Herr  F.,  on  Depreciation,  Capital  Re- 
demption, and  Renewals  and  Extension  Funds, 

Lempelius,  Herr  K.,  on  Promotion  of  the  Sale 

of  Gas,  188 
Report  and  Accounts  for  igog-io,  33 
Reports  of  Committees — 
Electrolysis  Committee,  34 
Gas  Meter  Committee,  34 
Heating  Committee,  33 
Instruction  Commiti'^ee,  34 
Photometric  Committee,  266 
Water  Works  Committee,  34 
Schilling,  Dr.  E.,  on  the  Use  of  Gas  for  Indus- 
trial Purposes,  35 
Visit  of  the  Members  to  England,  314,  510,  825 
German  Text  Book  on  Producer  Gas,  261 
Germany — 

Automatic  Public  Electric  Lighting  in,  463,  510 
Manufacture  and  Taxation  of  Mantles  in,  856 
Sulphate  of  Ammonia  in,  508 
Waste  Gases  for  Town  Supplies  in,  110 
Gill,  Mr.  G.  M.,  on  the  Extraction  of  Naphthalene 

by  Water  Gas  Tar,  109 
Gisborne  (N.Z.)  Gas  Company,  535 
Glasgow,  Smoke  Abatement  Exhibition  in,  417, 

539.  75G,  772.  795.  834 
Glasgow  Gas  Supply — 
Annual  Report  and  Accounts,  341 
Bill,  20,  47,  62,  97,  133,735 
Charges  for  Gas,  411,  417 
Contribution  of  Profits  to  Rate  Relief,  478 
Cutting  Off  Gas  and  Electricity  Supply,  62 
Gas  Appliance  Statistics,  539 
Manufacture  of  Smokeless  Fuel,  668 
Official  Change,  829 
Stair  Lighting,  795 
Supply  of  Gas  Fires,  599 
Glastonbury  Gas  Supply,  872 
Glenboig  Union  Fire  Clay  Company,  181 
Gloucester  Gas  Company,  533 
Gloucester  Water  Supply,  403 
Glover,  Messrs.  T.,  and  Co.,  no 
Glover- West  Vertical  Retort  System,  454,  508,634 
Gohrum,  Herr,  on  Horizontal  Retort  Results  at 

Stuttgart,  659 
Goole  Gas  and  Water  Supply,  ig 
Goring-on-Sea,  Proposed  Lighting  of,  603 
Gosport  Gas  Supply,  733 
Gosport  Water  Supply,  735 

Gourley,  Mr.  H.  ].  F.,  on  Reinforced  Concrete  for 

Water  Works,  590 
Governor,  The  Foster  High  Pressure,  720 
Governors,  Retort  House,  779 
Gowerton  Gas  Company,  S35 
Grangemouth  Gas  Supply,  418 
Grantham  Gas  Company,  421 
Grays  and  Tilbury  Gas  Company,  174 
Grebel,  M.,on  Light  Economizing  Reflectors  for 

Street  Lamps,  1 17 
Greenock  Corporation,  Mr.  Ewing's  Action  against, 
62,  134 

Greenock  Gas  Supply,  283,  540,  599,  707,  736 
Guiseley  Water  Supply,  670 
Hackney  Public  Lighting,  144 
Halifax  Gas  Supply,  278 
Halle  Gas  and  Water  Supply,  22 
Hall's,  Mr.  E.  L.,  Process  for  the  Removal  of 

Sulphur  by  Reheating,  583 
Hamburg  Gas  Supply,  661 

Hamburg  Gasholder  Catastrophe,  The  Storage  of 

Gas  and  the,  506,  519 
Hamilton  Gas  Supply,  218,  478 
Hampshire,   Geological   Survey  on    the  Water 
Supply  of,  22 

to  the 

Hanwell  Pendant  Company,  145 
Harrison,  Mr.  W.  P.,  on  the  Prepa^ 

Macadam,  782 
Harrison's,  Mr.  R.,  Presidential 

Irish  As.sociation,  460 
Harrogate  Gas  Company,  665 
Harrow  and  Stanmore  Gas  Company,  571 
Hartlepool  Gas  and  Water  Company,  673  „ 
Haslingden,  Gas  to  Replace  Electric  Light  at,  3i 
Hastings  and  St.  Leonard's  Gas  Company,  663 \j 
Hastings  Electricity  Supply,  140,  252,  452 
Hastings  Workhouse,  ICIectricity  in,  767 
Havant  Gas  Company,  203,  835 
Hawick  Gas  Company,  218 

Hawkins,  Mr.  J.  C,  on  the  Paignton  Water  Works, 

Head,  Wrightson,  and  Co.,  Messrs.,  45 
Heathfield  Natural  Gas  Supply,  671,  734,  799 
Heating — 

Mixing  Gas  and  Air  for,  41 

Report  of  the  German  Gas  and  Water  Associa- 
tion Committee  on,  33 
Heating  and  Cooking  Dy  Electricity,  508,  635,  706, 


Hebden  Water  Supply,  739 
Heckmondwike  Gas  Supply,  790 
Helensburgh  Gas  Supply,  283,  66g 
Hempel,  Dr.  H.,  on  Gas  Oils  and  Oil  Gas,  325, 
391.  457 

Hereford  Corporation  Gas  Supply,  137 
Hereford  Water  Supply,  419 

Hermanns,  Herr  H.,  on  the  Coal  and  Coke  Con- 
veying Plant  at  the  Moosach  Gas  Works  at 
Munich,  3ig 
Hexham  Water  Supply,  480 
Heywood  Gas  Supply,  737 
High  Power  Lighting  {see  Intensified) 
High  Pressure  Distribution — 
Adams,  Mr.  B.  C,  on,  458 
In  the  United  States,  326 
Low  Pressure  v.,  723 
Mannesmann  Tubes  for,  870 
High  Wycombe  Gas  Company,  798 
Hirzel's,  Herr,  Process  for  Removing  Hydrogen 
Sulphide  and  Carbon  Dioxide  from  Illuminat- 
ing Gas,  725 
Holborn  Public  Lighting,  346 
Holmfirth  Electricity  Supply,  706 
Holophane,  Limited,  353 
Holsworthy  Public  Lighting,  220 
Holyhead  Water  Supply,  285,  480,  791 
Hospital  Saturday  Fund,  263 

Howarth,  Mr.  F.,  on  the  Plymouth  Water  Works, 

Howellite  Burners,  Limited,  420 
Howth  Water  Supply,  481 

Hoylake  and  West  Kirby  Gas  and  Water  Company, 

Huddersfield  Gas  Works,  Accident  at,  799 
Humphrey  Pump,  The,  518 

Ilumphrys,  Mr.  N.   H.,   on  Papers  and  their 

Preparation,  521 
Hyde  Electricity  Supply,  665 
Hyderabad  Water  Supply,  481 

Hydrogen,  Action  of,  upon  Carbon  Monoxide,  458 
Hydrogen  Sulphide  and  Carbon  Dioxide,  Remov- 
ing, from  Illuminating  Gas,  725 
Iceland,  Gas  in,  672 

Ilford,  High  Pressure  Gas  for  Shop  Lighting  at,  337 
Ilford,  Municipal  Trading  Jealousy  at,  94 
Ilford  Gas  Company,  219,  337,  732 
Illinois,  Treatment  of  Roads  with  Tar  in,  36 
Illuminating  Power  and  Calorific  Value  of  Gas  in 

Canada,  172,  196 
Illuminating  Power  in  London  Gas,  The  Relation 

of  Calorific  Value  to,  254 
Illumination,  Practical,  780 
Illumination  of  Interiors,  116 
Imperial  College  of  Science  and  Technology,  450, 

Imperial  Continental  Gas  Association,  23,  100,  113, 

Incandescent  Gas   Lighting   (see  also  Burners, 
Intensified,  Inverted,  and  Lamps) — 
For  Bridges,  724 
Mantles — 

Manufacture  and  Taxation  of,  in  Germany,  856 
"  Sirrah,"  The,  452 
Income  Tax,  Depreciation  and,  635 
Industrial  Purposes,  The  Use  of  Gas  for,  35,  93 
Insch  Public  L,i,=;hting,  736 

Institute  of  Municipal  Treasurers  and  Accountants, 

Institution  of  Civil  Engineers— 

Newcastle-on-Tyne  Association  of  Students,  708 
Report  on  Reinforced  Concrete  for  Engineering 

Structures,  656 
Yorkshire  Association  of  Students,  776 
Institution  of  Dutch  Gas  Engineers,  Presidential 
Address  of  Heer  J.  van  Rossum  du  Chattel, 
248,  255 
Institution  of  Gas  Engineers — 

Leeds  University  Professorship,  99,  253 
Visit  of  the  German  Association  to  England,  314 
Institution  of  Municipal  Engineers,  350,  383,  772, 
776,  782 

Intensified  Gas  Lighting  {see  also  Lamps  and  In- 

At  the  Argentine  Centenary  International  Ex- 
hibitions, 279 
Electricity  Ousted  by,  507,513 
Extension  of,  in  Berlin,  582 
For  Textile  Mills,  587,  660,  731 
Keith  System,  257,  337,  507,  513 
Mixing  Gas  and  Air  for,  730 



OP  OAS  UOHTINO,  Ac,   OCT.   18,  1910. 

InvercargUl  (N.Zg  Department,  730 
For  Chur»  2i8 

Freight         Mantles  for,  475 
„  i^Fiurner,  251 

jPiHdio  "  Lamp,  715 
^^^Vibra  "  Burner,  715 
Paco  "  Burner,  396 
Podmore's  Conversion  Fittings  for,  718 
Progress  of,  for  Streets,  567 
"  Veritas  "  Self  Intensifying  Lamp,  581 
"  Viaduct  "  Lamp,  518 
Iowa  District  Gas  Association,  458 
Irish  Association  of  Gas  Managers — 

Donkin,  Mr.  C.  Bryan,  on  Exhausters  in  Small 

Gas  Works,  461 
Editorial  Comments,  449 
General  Business,  459,  461 
Presidential  Address  of  Mr.  R.  Harrison,  469 
Roberts,  Mr.  \V.  H.,  on  Distribution  Pressures, 
Past,  Present,  and  Future,  464 
Iron  and  Steel  Work,  Paints  for,  725 
Ironing  Stoves,  The  "  Paco  Henniger,"  840 
Ironmongers'  Federated  Association,  505,  529 
Isle  of  Thanet  Gas  Company,  870 
Italian  Gas  Society,  322 
Japan,  Gas  Schemes  in,  480,  666 
Japan-British  Exhibition,  177,  331,709 
Johannesburg  Water  Supply,  870 
"  John  Bull  "  on  Gas  Meter  Defects,  202 
Junior  Institution  of  Engineers,  94 
Keith  and  Blackman  Company,  257,  278,  337,  507, 

Keller,  Herr  V.  O.,  on  A  Safety  Tap  for  Flexible 
Connections,  720 

Kelty  Gas  Company,  218 

Kendal  Gas  and  Water  Supply,  59 

Kenilworth  Gas  Company,  134 

Keswick  Gas  Company,  739 

Kinross  Gas  Company,  142 

Kirkcaldy  Gas  Company,  142,  218,  418 

Kirkcudbright  Gas  Supply,  669 

Kirkintilloch  Gas  Supply,  218 

Knaresborough  Gas  Supply,  140 

Konigsberg  Gas  Works,  31,  92,  in 

Kordt,  Herr  F.,  on  Depreciation,  Capital  Redemp- 
tion, and  Renewal  and  Extension  Funds,  267 

Krugersdorp  (South  Africa)  Water  Supply,  463 

Krupp's  Works  at  Essen,  Gas  and  Electricity 
Supply  at,  196 

Kyoto  (Japan)  Gas  Supply,  26 

Labour  Co-Partnership  Association,  481 

Labour  Questions  {see  also  Co-Partnership  and 
Trade  Unions)  — 
Board  of  Trade  Report  on  the  Wages  of  Gas 
Workers,  14 

Coal  Mines  (Eight  Hours)  Act,  16,  450,  538,  634, 

Disputes  during  1909,  770,  836 
Errors  of  Labour  Unions,  451 
Osborne  Case,  The,  568 

Wages  and  Hours  of  Labour  in  1909,  14,  575 
Lamp  Standards,  Inartistic,  706 
Lamps — 

Control  of  Signs  and,  275 
Electric — 

And  Ventilation,  318 
Life  of,  315,  452 
Metalite,  93,  251,  381 

Municipal  Experience  with  Metal  Filament, 

Gas,  New,  518,  715,  718,  720,  776 
Liability  for  Damage  Caused  to  Street,  286 
Light  Economizing  Reflectors  for,  117 

Lan  Gas  Coal  Company,  420 

Lancashire  Electric  Power  Company,  508 

Lancaster  Water  Supply,  769 

Largeron,  M.  A.,  on  a  New  Form  of  Pressure 

Gauge,  118 
Largs  Gas  Supply,  571 

Latta,  Mr.  N.,  on  American  Producer  Gas  Prac- 
tice, 258 
Lauder  Gas  Company,  218 
Launceston  Public  Lighting,  64,  601 
Leatherhead  Gas  and  Water  Company,  473,  482 
Leeds  Corporation  and  the  Rates  Question,  314 
Leeds  Electricity  Supply,  508 
Leeds  Fire  Clay  Company,  482 
Leeds  Fire  Clay  (Canadian)  Company,  146 
Leeds  Fire  Clay  (Construction)  Company,  482 
Leeds  Gas  Supply,  57 

Leeds  University  Professorship  of  Gas  and  Fuel, 
99.  253 

Leeds  Water  Supply,  670,  734 
Leek  Gas  Supply,  214 

Leicester  Gas  and  Electricity  Undertakings,  57,  9/) , 

Leigh-on-Sea  Gas  Supply,  673 
Leighton  Buzzard  Gas  Company,  541 
Leiston  Gas  Company,  798 

Lempelius,  Herr  K.,  on  Promotion  of  the  Sale  of 

Gas,  188 
Lewes  Gas  Company,  799 
Lewisham  Baths,  The  Lighting  of,  285 
Leyden  Municipal  Gas  Undertaking,  346 
Library  Lighting,  Gas  for,  279 
Light  Distribution  in  Various  Directions,  189 
Light  Economizing  Reflectors  for  Street  Lamps,  117 
Lighting  of — 

Bridges,  72^ 

Churches,  218 

Libraries,  279 

Museums,  134 

Shops,  871 

Lighting,  Public,  on  the  Prepayment  System,  463, 

Lincoln  Gas  and  Water  Supply,  58,  137,  867 
Lisburn  Gas  Arbitration,  343,  415 
Little,  Mr.  Gilbert,  on  Profit  Sharing  with  Manage- 
ment of  Men,  798 
Little  Hulton  Urban  District  Council  Bill,  46 
Littleborough  Gas  Company,  420 
Liverpool,  Theft  of  Gas  Brackets  in,  469 
Liverpool  Gas  Company — 

Editorial  Comments,  505 

Half  Yearly  Meeting,  530 

Oil  Storage  Tank  at  Garston,  463 

Test  Burner  Bill,  204 
Liverpool  University  Engineering  Society,  590 
Livesey  Bequests  to  Public  Charities,  647 
Livesey  Professorship  at  Leeds  University,  99,  253 
Loan  Repayments  on  Water  Undertakings  and 

Economy  in  Supply,  793 
Loans,  Urban  District  Councils  and  Applications 
for,  480 

Local  Government,  Politics  in,  705 
Local  Government  Board — 

Deputation  to,  on  the  Smoke  Nuisance,  15,  60 
Urban  District  Councils  and  Loans,  480 
Local  Taxation  Returns,  708 
Lochgelly  Gas  Company,  142,  451,  707 
London  (see  also  London  County  Council  and 
Metropolitan  Water  Board) — 
Assessment  Questions  in,  409 
Municipal  Electrical  Undertakings  in,  767 
Public  Lighting  in  (see) — 
Stoke  Newington 
Quality  of  the  Gas  Supply,  98,  179 
Relation  of  Calorific  Value  to  Illuminating  Power 

in  th"e  Gas,  254 
Suburban  Development,  94 
Suburbs,  Increase  of  Population  in,  602 
London,  Brighton,  and  South  Coast  Railway  Com- 
pany and   the  Water  Charges   for  Railway 
Stations,  338 
London  County  Council — 
Control  of  Outside  I,amps  and  Signs,  275 
Gas  Testing  Department,  21,  279,  353,  383 
General  Powers  Bill,  53,  97 
Quality  of  the  Gas  Supply,  98,  179 
Longridge,  Mr.  M.,  on  Failures  of  Gas  and  Elec- 
trical Machinery,  704,  710 
Longton  Gas  and  Electricity  Supply,  58 
Looe  Gas  and  Coke  Consumers'  Company,  115 
Lostwithiel  Water  Supply,  481 
Loughborough,  Street  Explosion  at,  738 
Lowestoft  Public  Lighting,  220 
Lowestoft  Water  and  Gas  Company,  220 
Machinery,  Failures  of  Gas  and  Electrical,  704,710 
Magdeburg,  Dessau  Vertical  Retort  Installation  at, 

Mahler,  M.,  on  the  Action  of  Air  on  Coal,  28 
Maidstone  Electricity  Supply,  572 
Maidstone  Gas  Company,  534,  572 
Maidstone  Water  Company,  534 
Maikop  Water  Works,  798 
Main,  Messrs.  R.  &  A.,  769,  777 
Mams  (see  Pipes) 

Maintenance  and  Supervision,  Free,  730 
Malton  Gas  Company,  420 
Malvern  Gas  Supply,  146 

Manchester  and  District  Junior  Gas  Association — 
Berry,  Mr.  J.,  on  Retort  House  Governors,  779 
General  Business,  780 
University  Lectures,  828 

Visit  to  Messrs.  J.  &  J.  Braddock's  Works,  779 
Manchester  Corporation  Salaries,  249,  277,  345,  415, 

Manchester  District  Institution  of  Gas  Engineers, 


Manchester  Electricity  Supply,  278,  536,  597,  731 
Manchester  Gas  Undertaking — 

Ammoniacal  Liquor,  Proposed  Works  for  Treat- 
ing, 482 

Coal  Contracts,  288 

New  Tank  and  Holder,  829,  838 

Relations  of  the  Electricity  Undertaking  and, 

278.  731,  763 
Sixteen  Years'  Record,  733 
Terms  for  Laying  Services,  145 
Manchester  Pipe  Line  Fatality,  667,  791 
Manchester  Water  Supply,  537,  667,  674,  791 
Mannesmann  Tubes  for  High  Pressure  Gas,  870 
Mansfield  and   Sons',   Messrs.,   Weight  Driven 

Petrol  Plant,  767 
Mansfield  Gas,  Electricity,  and  Water  Supply,  138, 

214,  785,  800 

Manufacture  of  Gas  Examinations  (see  Gas  Engi- 
neering and  Supply) 
Marple  Gas  Supply,  220 
Marriages,  178,  260,  834 
"  Mars  "  Inverted  Burner,  The  New,  251 
Marse  and  Co.'s,  Messrs.,  Gas  Boiler,  841 
Maryborough  Gas  and  Coke  Company,  734 
Marylebone  Electricity  Supply,  452,  871 
Massachusetts,  Gas  and  Electricity  Supply  in,  140 
Matlock  and  District  Gas  Company,  829 
Meaux,  Fatal  Gas  Explosion  at,  146 
Meker's  Gas  Heated  Baker's  Ovens,  197 
Melbourne  Metropolitan  Gas  Company,  353,  766, 

Meldreth  and  Melbourn  Gas  and  Water  Com- 
pany, 146,  217,  534 
"  Metalite  "  Electric  Lamp,  93,  251,  381 

Meter,  The  Life  of  a,  no 
Meters,  Gas — 

Alteration  of  Ordinary  to  Constant  Level,  580 

Destroyed  by  Fire,  Liability  for,  400 

German  Gas  and  Water  Association  Committee 

Report  on,  34 
Prepayment — 
Consumer's  Agreements  and  Liability,  400 
Thefts  from,  469,  602,  860  (2) 
Stand-By  Charges  for,  274 
Testing  in — 
Bristol,  352 
Edinburgh,  535 
Methane,  Synthesis  of,  387 

Methane  and  Ammonia,  Interaction  of,   in  the 

Presence  of  Carbon,  170,  191 
Metropolitan  Water  Board — 
Annual  Report,  524 
Barnard,  Mr.  E.  B.,  on  the,  668 
Charges  for  Water  for— 

Factories,  402 

Railway  Stations,  338 
Chingford  Reservoir,  Progress  of  the,  265 
Finances,  667 

Hospital  Saturday  Fund  Contribution,  263 
Liability  for  Injury  Caused  by  Uncovered  Trench, 

Official  Change,  178 

Prospective  Water  Rate,  420,  667 

Quality  of  the  Supply,  285 
Mid  Oxfordshire  Gas  Company,  56,  469,  829,  860 
Mid  Rhenish  Association  of  Gas  and  Water  Engi- 
neers, 721 

Middlesbrough  Gas  and  Electricity  Supply,  203 
Millport  Gas  Supply,  451 
Mills,  Textile- 
Gas  Power  and  the  Uses  of  Producer  Gas  in,  709 
High  Pressure  Gas  for,  587,  660,  731 
Milne  and  Son's,  Messrs.,  High  Power  Inverted 

Lamp,  518 
Mine  and  Quarry  Statistics,  590 
Minehead  Water  Supply,  537 
Mitcham  and  Wimbledon  Gas  Company,  543 
Moles  Cause  Leakage  in  a  Reservoir,  674 
Mond  Ammonia  Recovery  Plant,  260 
Montgomery  and  Co.'s,  Messrs.,  Report  on  the 

Nitrate  of  Soda  Market,  17 
Montrose  Gas  Company,  284 

Morris,  Professor,  on  Artificial  Illumination  by  Gas 

and  Electricity,  116 
Morthoe  Public  Lighting,  56 
Motor  Cars — 

Use  of,  by  Gas  Companies,  856 

Water  Charges  for,  281 
Mountain  Ash  Water  Supply,  177 
Muirkirk  Gas  Company,  62 

Munich,  Coal  and  Coke  Conveying  Plant  at  the 

Moosach  Gas  Works  at,  319 
Munich  Carbonizing  Chambers,  262 
Municipal  Trading — 

Commercial   Abilities  of  Municipal  Electrical 

Engineers,  18 
Electric  Wiring  and  Fitting  Schemes,  252,  505, 

529,  571,  836 
Electricity  Undertaking  Results,  174 
Financial  Aspect  of,  17 
Jealousy  at  Ilford,  94 

Local  Government  Board  and  Loans  for,  536,  597 

Parliamentary  Return  on,  261 

West  Ham  Corporation  Illegal  Overdrafts,  275, 
380,  402,  543 
Museum  Lighting,  Gas  v.  Electricity  for,  134 
Naphthalene — 

Extraction,  Condensation  and,  581 

Extraction  of,  by  Water  Gas  Tar,  109 
Napier,  Mr.  J.  W.,  on  Gaseous  Fuel  :  The  Duty 

of  Gas  Supply  Authorities  to  the  Public,  331 
National  Air  Gas  Company,  202,  275 
Natural  Gas — 

For  Locomotives  in  America,  708 

In  Sussex  and  China,  671,  734,  799 
Natural  Gas  and  Petroleum  in  America,  119 
Naval,  Mercantile  Marine,  and  General  Engineer- 
ing and  Machinery  Exhibition,  463 
Neath  Gas  Supply,  216 
Nelson  Gas  Supply,  19 

New  Inverted  Incandescent  Gas  Lamp  Company, 
715.  830 

New  Mills  Gas  Supply,  597 

New  Tredegar  Gas  and  Water  Company,  598 

New  York  Gas  Supply  (see  Consolidated  Gas  Com- 

New  York  Water  Supply,  465 

Newcastle-under-Lyme  Gas  Supply,  317 

Newmarket  Public  Lighting,  278 

Newport  (Fife)  Gas  Supply,  142,  47S 

Newport  (I.  of  W.)  Water  Supply,  415,  800 

Newport  (Mon.)  Gas  Company,  409 

Newport  (Mon.)  Water  Supply,  571 

"  Nico-Radio  "  Lamp,  715 

"  Nico-Vibra"  Burner,  715 

Nitrate  of  Soda  Market,  Position  of  the,  17 

Normanton  Gas  Company,  541 

North  British  Association  of  Gas  Managers — 

Dickson,  Mr.  J.,  on  the  Checking  of  Working 
Costs  in  Small  Gas  Works,  393 

Editorial  Comments,  312  (2) 

General  Business,  327,  330 

Napier,  Mr.  J.  W.,  on  Gaseous  Fuel:  The  Duty 
of  Gas  Supply  Authorities  to  the  Public,  331 

Presidential  Address  of  Mr.  Alexander  Waddell, 

Review  of  the  Proceedings,  351 
Young  Memorial,  The,  174 
North  Middlesex  Gas  Company,  533 

JOURNAL  OF  OAS  UOHTINO,   Sc.,   OCT.   18,  1910.1 

North  Ormesby  Gas  Company,  636 
North  Oxfordshire  Water  Company,  ^69  (2) 
North  Pembrokeshire  Water  and  Gas  Company, 

North  Shore  (Sydney)  Gas  Company,  734 
North  Sussex  Gas  and  Water  Company,  275,  419, 
469,  474 

North  Warwickshire  Water  Company,  871 
Northampton  Gas  Company,  480,  518 
Oechelhaeuser,  Dr.  W.  von,  on  Special  Coal  Gas 

for  Inflating  Balloons,  512 
Office  Heating,  Gas  for,  828 
Official  Changes — 

Andrews,  Mr.  R.  E,,  21 

Batten,  Mr.  G.  H.,  518 

Blundell,  Mr.  W.,  317 

Braidwood,  Mr.  G.,  829 

Brown,  Mr,  J.  W.,  829 

Browne,  Mr.  Percy,  571 

Butterfield,  Mr.  H.  317 

Caton,  Mr.  W.  E.,  7G9 

Culling,  Mr.  P.  E.,  174 

Donald,  Mr.  A.,  451 

Ewing,  Mr.  W.,  707 

Ingham,  Mr.  G.,  178 

Jardine,  Mr.,  381 

Keillor,  Mr.  J.  D.,  451 

Kendrick,  Mr.  H.,  317 

Masterton,  Mr.  A.,  340,  351 

M'Kerrow,  Mr.  J.  W.,  829 

Pooley,  Mr.  H.,  712 

Powney,  Mr.  W.  E.  F.,  21 

Riche,  Mr.  W.  E.,  253 

Sinclair,  Mr.  W.  P.,  178 

Smith,  Mr.  J.  D.,  178,  218,  381 

Smith,  Mr.  J.  M.,  317 

Sumner,  Mr.  A.,  174 

Urquhart,  Mr.  J.,  178 

Wimhurst,  Mr.  F.  L.,  317 

Wilkinson,  Mr.  H.,  707 
Oil  Gas,  Gas  Oils  and,  325,  391,  457 
Oldham  Gas  Supply,  135,  392,  455,  738,  799 
Olney  Gaslight  and  Coal  Company,  145 
Oriental  Gas  Company,  19 
Oswaldtwistle  Gas  Works,  Explosion  at,  214 
Oswaldtwistle  Water  Supply,  870 
Oswestry  Public  Lighting,  138 

Ott,  Dr.  E.,  on  Condensation  and  Naphthalene 
Extraction,  581 

Ottoman  Gas  Company,  671,  790 

Oundle  Gaslight  and  Coke  Company  (1910),  Limi- 
ted, 603 

Overlapping  Local  Authories,  221 
Oxfordshire,  The  Water  Supply  of,  517 
"  Paco  "  Inverted  Burner,  396 
"  Paco-Henniger  "  Gas  Ironing  Stove,  840 
Paignton  Water  Supply,  64,  350 
Paints  for  Iron  and  Steel  Work,  725 
Papers  and  their  Preparation,  521 
Paris  Gas  Supply,  39,  184,  570,  661,  870 
Parkinson  Stove  Company,  778 
Parliament  {see  also  Parliamentary  Intelligence, 
p.  X.)— 

And  the  Gas  Industry,  631 

Gas  Legislation,  828,  835 

Progress  of  Bills,  46,  123,  203,  272,  337,  400 

Protection  of  Water  Supplies  Bill,  54,  280,  348, 

400,  476,  536,  508 
Test  Burner  Bdls,  ig,  96,  124,  176,  203,  204,  211, 
212,  213,  247,  273,  313,  338 
Patent  Appliances  Company,  338,  396,  840 
Patents  Act,  Results  of  the,  250 
Patterson,  Mr.  W.  B.,  on   Bridge  Lighting  by 

Incandescent  Gas,  724 
Peace,  Mr.  J.  B.,  on  Theory  and    Practice  in 

Engineering,  849 
Peat  Gas  and  Coal  Company,  39 
Peischer,  Herr  O.,  on  Retorts  v.  Large  Chambers, 

Personal  Paragraphs  {see  also  Official  Changes, 
Marriages,  Presentations,  Resignations,  &c.) — 

Alverstone,  Lord,  19 

Bell,  Mr.  J.  F.,  769 

Bland,  Mr.  C.  W.,  25 

Bolz,  Herr  C,  829 

Brown,  Mr.  J.  H.,  601 

Bunte,  Dr.  H.,  829 

Coles,  Mr.  H.  T.,  453 

Crookes,  Sir  W.,  107,  639 

Cutler,  Mr.  S  ,  571 

Dawkins,  Mr.  W.  B.,  262 

Eastwell,  Mr.  H.  V.,  36 

Ellis,  Mr.  H.  D.,  19 

Flaval,  Alderman  S.,  451 

Herring,  Mr.  W.  R.,  707 

Hiller,  Mr.  H.  K.,  381 

Jeffreys,  Mr.  R.,  35 

Little,  Mr.  A.  S.  B.,  707 

Lodge,  Sir  O.,  639 

Milne,  Mr.,  381 

Palgrave,  Sir  R.  H.,  254 

Phillips,  Alderman,  451,  707 

Ramsay,  Sir  W.,  639 

Severs,  Mr.  W.,  800 

Thomson,  Sir  J.  J.,  94 

Tysoe,  Mr.  J.,  19 

Waddell,  Mr.  A.,  218 

Williams,  The  Late  Mr.  Greville,  105 

Wilson,  Mr.  A.,  174 
Peith  Gas  Supply,  598,  599,  708,  735 
Perth  Water  Supply,  283 
Peterborough  Electricity  Supply,  596 
Peterhead  Gas  Supply,  735 
Petersfield  and  Selsey  Gas  Company,  146 
Petrol  Plant,  A  Weight  Driven,  767 

Petroleum  and  Natural  Gas  in  America,  119 

Philpott,  Mr.  W.  C,  on  Light  Distribution  in 
Various  Directions,  189 

Photometric  Report  of  the  Committee  of  the 
German  Association  of  Gas  and  Water  Engi- 
neers, 266 

Pipe — 

A  Long,  Cast  Iron  Water,  187 
A  Long,  in  America,  783 

Large  Gas,  under  the  Harlem   River  (N.Y.), 

Raising  a  High  Pressure  Water,  524 
Pipes  — 

Caulking  by  Machinery,  268 
Damage  to,  by  Electrolysis — 

Belfast  Case  of,  122 

Prevention  of,  724 

Report  of  the  German  Gas  and  Water  Associa- 
tion Committee  on,  34 
Leakages  in  Water,  478 
Reinforced  Concrete  Water,  465 
Pipes  and  Connections,  Dis<iualified,  582 
Pitometer,  The,  as  a  Leak  Detector,  574 
Pittenweem  Gas  Company,  62 
Pittsburg  (Pa.),  Bridge  Lighting  by  Incandescent 
Gas  at,  724 

Plymouth  and  Stonehouse  Gas  Company,  6i 

Plymouth  Water  Supply,  141,  221,  480 

Podmore  and  Co.'s,  Messrs.,  Lamp  Conversion 

Fittings  and  New  Types  of  Lamps,  718 
Poisoning  by  Gas  {see  also  Suffocation),  Action  in 

Respect  of,  134 
Pontefract  Gas  Supply,  739 
Pontypool  Electricity  Supply,  56 
Pontypridd  and  Rhondda  Joint  Water  Board,  177 
Poplar  Electricity  Supply,  95 
Porhydrometer  Company,  482 
Port  Dairen  (Manchuria)  Gas  Supply,  340 
Port  of  London  Rates  Inquiry,  139 
Portsea  Island  Gas  Company,  473 
Portsmouth  Water  Supply,  602,  841 
Power  Gas  Corporation,  260,  595 
Power  Gas  Patents,  Rival,  595 
Presentations — 

Baker,  Mr.  R.,  286 

Browne,  Mr.  B.  F.,  381 

Fazakerley,  Mr.  J.,  19 

Fyffe,  Mr.  A.  M.,  19 

Hooper,  Mr.  I.,  107 

Jeffreys,  Mr.  R.,  251 

Keillor,  Mr.  J.  D.,  708 

Smith,  Mr.  J.,  600 

Smith,  Mr.  J.  D.,  636 

Sproxton,  Mr.  K.,  178 

Stephenson,  Mr.  H.  A.,  190 
Pressure  Gauge,  A  New  Form  of,  118 
Preston  Water  Supply,  352 

Primitiva  Gas  and  Electric  Light  Company,  381, 

Producer  Gas — 

A  German  Text  Book  on,  261 

Practice  in  America,  258 

Uses  of,  in  Textile  Mills,  709 
Products  Recovery,  Coke  Manufacture  and,  522 
Profit  Sharing  {see  Co- Partnership) 
Profits,  Gas,  Electricity,  and  Water,  and  the  Rates — 

Aston  Corporation  and,  353,  381 

Carlisle  Corporation  and,  381 

Dewsbury  Corporation  and,  381 

Glasgow  Corporation  and,  478 

Hamilton  Town  Council  and,  478 
Provisional  Orders,  Electric  Supply,  175 
Public  Lighting  on  the  Prepayment  System,  463, 

Purchase  Questions  {see  also  Arbitration)  — 

Cambridge  Water,  421 

Kirkcaldy  Gas,  218,  418 
Purifying  Gas  and  Recovering  Ammonia,  392 
Pyrometers,  Modern,  518 
Radcliffe  andTilkington  Gas  Supply,  738 
Railway  Stations,  The  Charges  for  Water  Supplied 
to,  338 

"  Ramassot  "  Gas  Boiler,  841 

Ramsbottom  Gas  Company,  288 

Ramsen's,  Mr.  I.,  Presidential  Address   to  the 

Society  of  Chemical  Industry,  119 
Rates — 

Gas  Profits  and  {see  Profits) 

Growth  of  the,  250,  314 
Rawcliffe  (Yorks)  and  District  Gas  Company,  469 
Read  Holliday  and  Sons,  Messrs.,  669 
Redcar  Urban  Council  and  the  Cost  of  Water 

Diviners,  673 
Redruth  Water  Supply,  480 

Reductions  in  the  Price  of  Gas,  65,  137,  140,  200, 
214,  216,  288,  422,  482,  541,  601  (2),  669,  738, 
791,  870,  871 

Reflectors,  Light  Economizing,  for  Street  Lamps, 

Reservoir,  Moles  Cause  Leakage  in  a,  674 
Reservoir  Banks,  Protection  of,  from  Wave  Action, 

Resignations — 

Blagden,  Mr.  W.  G.,  381 

Galbraith,  Mr.  W.,  451,  478 

Herring,  Mr.  W.  R.,  340,  351 

Jeffreys,  Mr.  R.,  253 

Jones,  Mr.  R.  H.,  19 

Livingston,  Mr.  W.  J.,  21 

Mount,  Mr.  J.  C,  769 

Spowart,  Mr.  W.,  381 

Tomlinson,  Mr.  W.,  254 
Retort  House  Governors,  779 
Retorts  {see  also  Carbonization) — 

Charging  and  Discharging  {see  Charging) 

Retorts  {continued) — 
Horizontal — 
At  Stuttgart,  659 
The  "  Apotheosis  of, "  506 
Regulating  the  Air  Supply  to  Generato^VyS,  190 
Versus  Large  Chambers,  324,  388  . 
Vertical—  \\ 
Dessau  System —  V\ 
For  Small  Works,  272  ^ 
Installations,  288,  781  ''X 
Magdeburg  Installation,  781  1 
Glover-West  System,  454,  508,  634 
Reykjavik  (Iceland)  and  the  Manufacture  of  Gas, 

Rhyl  Gas  and  Water  Supply,  138,  666 
Rhymney  Valley  Gas  and  Water  Supply,  139,  598, 

Richmond  Gas  Stove  and  Meter  Company,  669,  775 

Road  Board,  The,  35 

Roads,  Tar  for  {see  Tar) 

Roads  Improvement  Association,  253 

Roberts,  Mr.  W.  H.,  on  Distribution  Pressures, 
Past,  Present,  and  Future,  464 

Robertsbridge,  Salehurst,  &c..  Water  and  Gas 
Company,  469 

Robson's  Automatic  Gas  Lighter,  272 

Rochdale  Corporation  Gas  Supply,  145,403 

Rochdale  Corporation  Water  Supply,  146,  254 

Roche,  M.  Camille,  on — 
Controlling  the  Water  Supply  to  Generator  Fur- 
naces, 268 

The  Use  of  Aluminium  in  Gas  Works,  119 
Rofe's,  Mr.  Henry,  Presidential  Address  to  the 

Sanitary  Institute,  793 
Rossendale  Union  Gas  Company,  595 
Rossum  du  Chattel,  Heer  J.  van — 

On  Blue  Water  Gas  v.  Carburetted  Water  Gas 

at  Amsterdam,  511,  859 
Presidential  Address  to  the  Institution  of  Dutch 

Gas  Engineers,  248,  255 
Rowley  Regis  and  Blackheath  Gas  Company,  46 
Royal  Sanitary  Institute,  793,  794,  780 
Royal  Society  of  Arts,  19 
Rugby  Gas  Company,  672 
Rust  Proofing,  The  Bradley  Process  of,  574 
St.  Andrews  Gas  Company,  736 
St.  Anne's  on  the  Sea  Gas  Company,  382 
St.  David's  Water  and  Gas  Company,  529,  601 
St.  Helens  Gas  Supply,  143 
.St.  Mary  Church  Gas  Works,  870 
Sale  of  Gas,  Promotion  of  the,  188 
Salford  Gas  Supply,  136,  146,  420,  451,  707,  738 
Salisbury  Gas  Company,  597 
Saltcoats  Gas  Company,  218 
San  Sebastian  Gas  Supply,  266 
Sanitary  Inspectors'  Association,  668 
Sanitary  Institute  {sae  Royal) 
Sautter-Harle  Discharging  Machinery,  39 
Scarborough,  Failure  of  the  Electric  Light  in, 


Schafer's,  Herr  A.,  Text  Book  on  Gas,  510 
Scheuss,  Herr,  on  the  Storage  of  Gas  and  the 

Hamburg  Gasholder  Catastrophe,  519 
Schilling,  Dr.  E.,  on  the  Use  of  Gas  for  Industrial 

Purposes,  35 
Scottish  Junior  Gas  Association — ■ 
Eastern  District — 

Comments,  633,  868 

General  Business,  856 

Presidential  Address  of  Mr.  W.  Dunlop,  854 
Syllabus  for  1910-11  Session,  639,  669 
Western  District — 
Transactions,  32 
Scottish  Smokeless  Coal  Syndicate,  Limited,  172, 

Seattle  (U.S.A.)  Raising  a  High  Pressure  Water 

Pipe  in,  524 
Selkirk  Gas  Company,  283 
Seville  Water  Company,  538 
Shanghai  Gas  Company,  381 
Shanklin  Water  Supply,  406 
Shares  and  Stocks — 

A  Gas  Debenture  Stock  Anomaly,  870 

Sales  of,  46,  220,  603,  787 
.Sheffield  Automatic  Lighting  Experiment,  799 
Sheffield  Gas  Company,  666,  785 
Sheffield  Water  Supply,  22,  217 
Shenton,  Mr.  H.  C.  H.,  on  the  Sterilization  of 

Water,  794 
Ship,  A  Gas  Driven,  45S 
Shoebury  Gas  Supply,  64,  79: 
Shop  Lighting,  871 

Short,  Mr.  A.,  on  Coke  Manufacture  and  Products 

Recovery,  522 
Shrewsbury  Gas  Company,  664 
Silsden  Gas  Supply,  317 

Simpson's  Process  for  the  Production  of  Tarless 
Fuel,  578 

Sims-Woodhead,  Professor,  on  the  Sterilization  of 

Water  by  Chlorine,  217 
"  Sirrah  "  Gas  Mantle,  The,  452 
Skirrow,  Dr.  F  W.,  on  Analysis  of  Ferrocyanides, 


Slough,  A  Burst  Water  Main  at,  674 
Smith,  Messrs.  J.  &  W.  B.,  776 
Smoke  Abatement — 
Claims  of  Gas  and  Electricity  in  Regard  to, 

Deputation  to  the  Local  Government  Board,  15, 


Editorial  Comments,  15 

Exhibition  in  Glasgow,  417,  539,  766,  772,  795 

London  County  Council  Bill,  53,  97 
Society's  Tests  of  Charco,  475 

tJOUHNAL  OP  OAS  LlQHTlSa.  Ac,   OCf.  IB,  IdlO. 


jke  Nuisance-* 
""d'torial  Convc"''^'^    '  '5 

London  Gaa**       -  ^'^'^       London  County 

Smokeless'y''^^'  ^^^^        Charco,  Coalexld,  Coalite, 
and  g^'-^'tish  Smokeless  Coal  Syndicate) — • 
/-i»„„~-'W  Gas  Department  and  the  Manufacture 


g^^j  Jfte  Technique  du  Gaz  en  France  [continued 
7from  Previous  Volume)  — 
^onnet,  M.  E.,  on  Steel  Gasholder  Tanks  Made 
/     with  Bulging  Sides,  37,  122,  201,  264,  577 
Boulaye,  M.  R.  de  la,  on  the  Combined  De 

Brouwer  Retort  Charger- Discharger,  40 
Bromham,  M.,  on  a  Turbine  for  the  Continuous 

Treatment  of  Sulphate,  115 
Chevalet,    M.    F.,   on    Treating  Ammoniacal 

Liquor  in  Small  Gas  Works,  117 
Cramer,  M.,  on   the   New  "Mars"  Inverted 
Burner,  251 

Dupoy,  M.,  on  the  Alteration  of  Ordinary  to 

Constant  Level  Gas  Meters,  580 
Foillard,    M.    A.,   on    the   Paris  Discharging 

Machines,  39 
Grebel,M.,on  Light  Economizing  Reflectors  for 

Street  Lamps,  117 
Largeron,  M.  A.,  on  a  New  Form  of  Pressure 

Gauge,  118 

Meker,  M.,  on  a  Gas  Heated  Bakers'  Oven,  197 

Report  of  Committee  on  Mixed  Gas  and  Electri- 
city Appliances,  igS 

Roche,  M.  Camille,  on — 

Controlling  the  Water  Supply  to  Generator 

Furnaces,  268 
The  Use  of  Aluminium  in  Gas  Works,  iig 

Vanderpol,  M.,  on  Mixing  Gas  and  Air  for  Heat- 
ing Purposes,  41 
Society  of  Chemical  Industry,  110,  119,  522,  583, 

Society  of  Public  Analysts,  583 

South  African  Lighting  Association,  65,  146 

South  Bank  and  Normanby  Gas  Company,  636 

South  Essex  Water  Company,  542 

South  Hants  Water  Company,  177,  286 

South  Luton  Gas  Company,  469 

South  Metropolitan  Gas  Company — ■ 

Accounts,  344 

Assessment,  409 

Comments,  313,  377,  447 

Consumption,  Price,  and  Capital,  5S9 

Co-Partnership  Scheme  Coming  of  Age,  59,  339 

Half  Yearly  Report,  316 

Hospital  Saturday  Fund  Contributions,  263 

Illuminating  and  Calorific  Power  of  the  Gas,  254 

Livesey's,  The  Late  Sir  George,  Portrait  Un- 
veiled, 59 

Meeting  of  Shareholders,  469 

Quality  of  the  Gas,  98,  179 

Return  of  Mr.  Tysoe,  19 

Thefts  from  Prepayment  Meters,  860 
South  Shields  Municipal  Electricity  Supply,  476 
South  Staffordshire  Water  Company,  667 
South  Suburban  Gas  Company — 

Comments,  380 

Consumption,  Price,  and  Capital,  569 

Co-Partnership  Dinner,  339 

Discharged  Worker's  Unsuccessful  Claim,  402 

Half  Yearly  Meeting,  407 

Report  and  Accounts,  344 
South  Wales  Miners  and  the  Eight  Hours  Act,  16, 

450,  538,  631,  829 
Southampton  Electricity  Supply,  422 
Southend,  Failure  of  the  Electric  Light  at,  542 
Southend  Gas  Company,  220,  673 
Southend  Water  Company,  220 
Southern  Gas  Association  (U.S.A.),  723 
Southgate  and  District  Gas  Company,  533 
Southport  and  Birkdale,  Projected  Amalgamation 
of,  346 

Southport  Corporation  Gas  Supply,  475 
Southport  Public  Lighting,  794 
Sowerby  Bridge  Gas  Supply,  216,  798 
Spencer,  Messrs.  John,  Limited,  739 
Stafford  Gas  Supply,  712 
Stafford  Water  Supply,  739 

Standardization  by  Individual  Gas  Undertakings, 
170,  177  ^ 

Standardization  of  Gas  Supply,  633 

Stand-By  Charges,  Gas  Undertakings  and,  274,  313 

Stealing  Gas,  Charge  of,  595 

Stealing  Gas  Brackets,  469 

Steel  and  Iron  Work,  Paints  for,  725 

Stepney  Borough  Council  and  Liability  for  Damage 

to  Street  Lamps,  286 
Stewarts  and  Lloyds,  Messrs.,  603 
Stirling  Gas  Company,  178,  218  (2),  317,  600,  636 
Stockport  Corporation  Gas  Supply,  136,  317,  419, 

422,  474 

Stockton-on-Tees  Corporation  and  Free  Gas  Fit- 
ting, 571 

Stoke  Newington  Public  Lighting,  870 
Stoke-upon-Trent  Gas  Department,  138 
Stonyhurst  College,  The  First  Gas  Works  at,  842 
Stoves,  Gas  (see  also  Fires) — 

Dangers  of  Unventilated,  474 

For  Ironing,  840 

Standardization  of,  by  Gas  Undertakings,  170, 

Strache's  Gas  Calorimeter,  387 
Stratford-on-Avon  Gas  Supply,  56 
Street,  The  Charge  for  Gas  by  Prepayment  Meters 
at,  872 

Street  Lighting,  The  Trade  and,  660 

Stretford  Gas  Company,  317 

Strikes  and  Lock  Outs  in  1909,  770,  836 

Strood  and  Dartford  Electric  Lighting  Order,  483 
Stuttgart,  Horizontal  Retort  Results  at,  659 
Suffocation  by  Gas  see  also  Suicides),  146,  540, 

Suicides  by  Gas,  139,  288,  403,  673 
Sulphate  of  Ammonia — 

Committee,  Council  Report  of  the,  378,  381,  412 

Davranche's  Itinerant  Plant  for,  456 

In  Germany,  508 

Production  in  Gas  Works,  21,  92 

Turbine  for  the  Continuous  Treatment  of,  115 
Sulphur,  Removal  of,  by  Reheating,  583 
Sunderland  and  South  Shields  Water  Company, 

Suplee,  Mr.  H.  H.,  on  the  Gas  Turbine,  3: 
Surbiton,  Inverted  Burners  for  Church  Lighting  at, 

Sussex,  Natural  Gas  in,  671,  734,  799 
Sutton  Water  Company,  47 
Swadlincote  Gas  Undertaking,  220,  317,  452 
Swansea  Gas  Company,  47,  97,  134 
Syracuse  (N.Y.)  Water  Supply,  187 
Tap,  a  Safety,  for  Flexible  Connections,  720 
Prices,  860 

Treatment  of  Roads  with — 

Baines,  Mr.  C.  O.,  on,  383 

Beneficial  Effect  of,  674 

Birmingham  Corporation  and,  524 

Devon  Town  Council  and,  870 

Harrison,  Mr.  P.  W.,  on,  782 

In  Illinois,  36 
Water  Gas,  for  the  Extraction  of  Naphthalene, 


Tarless  Fuel,  Production  of,  578 

Taunton  Gas  Company,  529 

Taunton  Water  Supply,  453 

Taxation  of  Gas  Mantles  in  Germany,  856 

Taxation  Ket'Jrns,  Local,  708 

Tayport  Gas  Supply,  796 

Teignmouth  Gas  Supply,  147 

Telpher,  Electric,  for  Handling  Hot  Coke,  201 

Test  Burner  Bills— 

Carr's,  Mr.  I.,  Diagram,  129,  172,  203 

Comments,  91,  169,  247,  313,  380 

Correspondence,  201 

Cost  of  Opposition  to  the,  783 

Parliamentary  Proceedings,  19,  96,  124,  176,  203, 

204,  211,  212,  213,  247,  273,  313,  338 
Public  Appeal,  380 

Textile  Institute,  709 

Textile  Mills- 
Gas  Power  and  the  Uses  of  Producer  Gas  in,  709 
High  Pressure  Gas  for,  587,  660,  731 

Textile  Society  of  the  Manchester  School  of  Tech- 
nology, 587 

Thames,  Abstraction  of  Water  from  the,  353 

Therol  Electric  Water  Heater,  706 

Thuringian  Gas  Company,  636 

Ticehurst  and  District  Water  and  Gas  Company, 
338,  469 

Tipton  Gas  Supply,  216,  218 

Tiverton  Gas  Supply,  202,  670 

Toddington  (New)  Gas  Company,  278 

Torquay  Gas  Company,  870,  871 

Torquay  Municipal  Gas  VVorks,  870 

Torquay  Water  Supply,  64 

Totnes  Water  Supply,  674 

Tottenham  and  Edmonton  Gas  Company- 
Comments,  381 

Consumption,  Price,  and  Capital,  5G9 

Dividend,  274 

Half  Yearly  Meeting,  408 

High  Pressure  Gas  Installations,  257 

Public  Lighting,  279 

Report  and  Accounts,  345 

Tottenham  Public  Lighting,  279 

Trade  Unions- 
Errors  of,  451 
General  Federation  of,  94 

Trades  Union  Congress,  570,  764,  771 

Transfers  of  Gas  Works,  Points  on,  400 

Trench,  Liability  for  an  Uncovered,  202 

Truro  Gas  Company,  664 

Truro  Water  Company,  542,  871 

Tunbridge  Wells  Gas  Company,  533 

Turbine,  The  Gas,  31 

Turbine  for  the  Continuous  Treatment  of  Sulphate, 

Turriff  Gas  Company,  669 

Tyldesley  with-Shakerley  Gas  Supply,  217 

Tynemouth  Water  Supply,  829 

United  Gas  Improvement  Company,  Lighting  the 
Exhibition  Rooms  of,  451 

United  Lighting  Maintenance  Company,  674 

Urban  District  Councils  and  Applications  for 
Loans,  480 

Uttoxeter  Water  Supply,  145 

Uxbridge  Gas  Company,  479,  534 

Vale  and  Sons,  Messrs.  T.,  571 

Vancouver  (B.C.)  Gas  Company,  221 

Vanderpol,  M.,  on  Mixing  Gas  and  Air  for  Heating 
Purposes,  41 

Ventilation,  Hidden  Lamps  and,  318 

Vertical  Gas  Retort  Syndicate,  288 

Victor  Gas  Machine  Company,  541 

Vienna  Water  Supply,  282 

Voelker  Lighting  Corporation,  480,  541 

Waddell's,  Mr.  A.,  Presidential  Address  to  the  North 
British  Association,  327 

Wages  and  Hours  of  Labour  in  1909,  14,  575 

Wakefield  Gas  Company,  534 

Wales  and  Monmouthshire  Institution  of  Gas  En- 
gineers, 382 

Walker,  Messrs.  C.  &  W.,  410 

Wallasey  Water  Supply,  674 
Walsall  Gas  Supply,  475,  480 

Waltham  Abbey  and  Cheshunt  Gas  Company,  670 
Walton,  Mr.  C,  on  High  Pressure  Gas  for  Textile 

Mills,  587,  G60,  731 
Wandsworth  and  Putney  Gas  Company,  421,  506, 

531,  5^-9 

Wandsworth  Public  Lighting,  64 
Warrington  Gas  Supply,  274,  313 
Warrington  Water  Supply,  144 
Charges  for — 
Factories,  402 
Motor  Cars,  281 
Railway  Stations,  338 
Divining  for,  673 
Pressure  Filters  for,  463 
Sterilization  of,  217,  794 

Supplies,  The  Protection  of,  54,  280,  348,  400, 
475,  508,  536 
Water  Gas,  Blue  v.  Carburetted,  511,  859 
Water  Tower  in  Reinforced  Concrete,  A,  781 
Water  Works — 

Reinforced  Concrete  for,  590,  781 
Report  of  the  German  Gas  and  Water  Associa- 
tion Committee  on,  34 
Watford,  Street  Lighting  at,  738,  836 
Watford  Gas  Company,  673 
Wath-upon-Dearne  and  Bolton  Gas  Board,  603 
Wells,  Siphonic  Action  with,  17 
Welsbach  Company  and  Freight  Rates  on  Inverted 

Mantles,  475 
Welsh  Water  iioard  Scheme,  401  '  ' 
Wem  Urban  District  Council's  Effort  to  Obtain  an 

Estimate  for  Erecting  a  Gas  Works,  173 
Wernecke  Gas  Oil  Testing  Apparatus,  457 
West  Ham  Electricity  Undertaking,  275,  380,  402, 
543,  871 

West  Ham  Town  Council  Gas  Testing  Station,  347 
West  Hartlepool  Electricity  Supply,  738 
Westhoughton  Public  Lighting,  482,  830 
Westminster  Public  Lighting  Contract,  144,  379. 

400,  450,  571,  596,  632,  665,  825 
Weymouth  GaS  Company,  665 
Whipple,  Mr.  R.  S.,  on  Modern  Pyrometers,  518 
Wholesale  Fittings  Company's  New  Lamps,  720 
Wick  Gaslight  Company,  669 
Wicklow  Gas  Company,  835 
Williams,  The  Late  Mr.  Greville,  105 
Wills,  268,  317,  383,  452,  590,  634 
Winchester  Gas  and  Water  Supply,  603 
Witney  Gas  Company,  253 
Woborn  (Mass.)  Water  Supply,  17 
Woking  Electricity  Supply,  65 
Woking  Water  and  Gas  Company,  673,  732 
Wolverhampton  Gas  Company,  671 
WooUaston,  Mr.  T.  R.,  on  Gas  Power  in  Factories, 


Woolwich  Library,  Gas  for  Lighting  the,  279 
Working  Costs  in  Small  Gas  VVorks,  The  Checking 
of,  393 

Workington  Gas  Supply,  65 

Wrexham  and  East  Denbighshire  Water  Company, 

Wrexham  Gas  Company,  422 
Wright  and  Co.,  Messrs.  J.,  576,  800 
York  United  Gas  Company,  286,  4x9 
Vorktown  and  Blackwater  Gas  Company,  582 
Young  Memorial,  The,  174 
Zuricii  Gas  Supply,  98,  661 


Aird,  K. — Gas  Fires,  728 

Astor,  J.  J. — Generating  Gas  from  Peat,  272 

Beasley,  C.  H.  &  F.  G.,  and  Bradbury,  R.  H.— Re- 
cording Gas  Calorimeter,  525 

Benninghoff,  O.,  and  Klonne,  A. — Gas  Fired  Re- 
tort Furnaces,  729,  785 

Biheller,  S. — Incandescent  Gas  Lamps,  784 

Blake,  E.  W.— 
Automatically  Turning  On  and  Off  Gas  Burners, 

199,  270 
Gas  Burner  Valves,  857 

Bland,  C.  W. — Inverted  Incandescent  Gas  Burners, 

Block  Light  Company,  Limited,  and  Webber,  J. — 
Incandescent  Gas  Burners,  335 

Bohm,  C.  R. — Incandescence  Bodies  for  Gas  Light- 
ing, 42 

Bowing,  J. — Retorts  for  the  Production  of  Gas  and 

Gas  Coke,  269 
Burstall,  F.  VV. — Separating  Tar  from  Combustible 

Gases,  121 

Cambridge,  A.  S. — Generating  or  Producing  Gas, 


Cannon  Iron  Foundries,  Limited,  and  Hawthorne, 

H.  S. — Gas  Heated  Radiators,  784 
Chandler,  S.  &  J. — Grids  for  Gas  Purifiers,  399 
Clark,  H.  N. — Controlling  the  Supply  of  Gas  from 

Main  to  Meter,  729 
Cloake,  A.  G. — Apparatus  for  Heating  Air,  120 
Conti,  A.,  and  Galli,  A. — Automatically  Operating 

Valves  for  Gas  Lamps,  466 
Darwin.  H. — Incandescent  Gas  Lamps,  467 
Davis,  G.  K. — Gas  Washers,  858 
Delage,  M.,  and  Wobg,  P. — Electrically  Lighting 

Gas  Burners,  857 

JOURNAL  OP  OAS  UOHTINa,   &c.,   OCT.   18,  1910.1 

Dempster,  Robert,  and  Sons,  and  Toogood,  H.  J. — 
Coke  Trucks,  Barrows,  or  Conveyors,  728 

Deutsche  Gasgliihlicht  Actiengesellschaft— Sus- 
pending Gas  Lamps  at  Cross  Streets,  200 

Duckham,  A.  M'D.— Discharging  and  Charging 
Gas  Retorts,  727 

Duff,  A.  B.,  and  the  Gas  Power  and  Bye  Products 
Company,  Limited — Recovery  of  Ammonia 
from  Producer  Gas,  59  ). 

Edwards,  A.  N. — Controlling  a  Gas  Conduit,  592 

Ewing,  W. — Vertical  Gas  Retorts,  199 

Fabry,  R. —  Removing  Tar  from  Coke  Oven  Gas, 
Retort  Gas,  &c. ,  271 

Fahrenheim,  II. — Constant  Emission  Gas  Calori- 
meters, c&c,  593 

Farquhar,  W.  B. — Mouthpieces  or  Ascension  Pipes 
of  Gas  Retorts,  120 

Fletcher,  E. — Compressing  Gas  or  Air  for  Lighting 
or  Heating  Purposes,  857 

Forti,  v.— Igniting  and  Extinguishing  Burners, 

Franks,  E.  A.— Joints  for  Gas  and  Water  Mains, 

785  .  ^ 

Gas  Laternen  Fernziindung  (System  Dr.  Rostm) 

G.m.b.H.— Gas  Lighting  Apparatus,  528 
Gibbons,  \V.  P.,  and  Masters,  J.  R.— Vertical  Gas 

Retorts,  468,  528 
Gibson,  T.  S.  F.,  and  Palmer,  W.  V.— Coin  Freed 

Meters,  43 
Giorgi,  A. — 
Controlling  the  Supply  of  Gas  and  Igniting 

Same,  43 

Inverted  Incandescence  Gas  Lamps,  399 
Glasgow,  A.  G. — Water  Gas  Apparatus,  592 
Glover,  T. — Testing  the  Capacity  of  Gas  Meter 

Diaphragms,  727 
Hansford,  J.,  and  Wright,  J.  F. — 

Automatically  Establishing  and  Cutting  Off  the 

Supply  of  Gas,  270 
Prepayment  Gas  Supply  Apparatus,  726 
Helps,  J.  W.,  and  Pateman,  J.  W. — Mouthpieces 

of  Gas  Retorts,  591 
Hibberd,  C.  E. — Coin  Freed  Mechanism,  199 
Hiby,  W. — Treatment  of  Gases  Produced  by  the 

Destructive  Distillation  of  Coal,  527 
Hirschhorn,  J. — Regulating   Device   for  Bunsen 

Burners,  594 
Howorth,  A. — Gas  Fittings  for  Domestic  Ranges, 


Hugendick,  W. — Continuous  Distillation  of  Tar, 

Ingham,   O.    H.  —  Breaking    Coke    and  Other 

Materials,  466 
Johnston,  A.    A.,  and   Clark,    F.   W. — Vertical 

Retorts,  783 

Kreidl,  I.,  and  Heller,  G.— Manufacturing  Incan- 
descent Gas  Mantles,  527 

Langhans,  R. — Mantles  for  Incandescent  Burners, 

Leaver,  E.  T. — Solidifying  Tar,  527 

Lessing,  R. — Decomposing  Hydrocarbons,  269 

Lymn,  A.  H. — Production  of  Gas  and  Ammonia 

from  Peat,  272 
M'Nab,  N.  S.,  and  Link,  J.  S. — Operating  Gas 

Lamp  Valves  from  a  Distance,  44 
Martin,  A. — Radiators  Heated  Directly  by  Gas,  200 
Mason,  J.,  and  Masters,  R. — Lubricating  Gas  Ex- 
hausters, 728 
Masters,  E.,  and  Hansford,  J. — Charging  and  Dis- 
charging Gas  Retorts,  Coking  Ovens,  &c.,  726 
May,  T. — Gas  Purifiers,  43 

Mehne,  J.  G. — Turning  On  and  Off  Gas  Lights  at 
Definite  Times,  466 

Meyer-Zimmerli,  E."— Bunsen  Burner  for  Illumi- 
nating Purposes,  593 

Milne,  J.,  and  Alexander,  W. — Stop  Mechanism 
for  Prepayment  Meters,  121 

Moores,  VV.  G. — Composition  for  Purifying  Air 
Gas,  337 

Morris,  H.  J.— Gas  Meters,  44 

Muller,  W. — Discharging  Machine  with  Jointed 
Ram  for  Horizontal  and  Inclined  Coke  Ovens 
or  Retorts,  729 

Nieser,  E. — Atmospheric  Gas  Burners,  857 

North,  R.  B.— 
Controlling  the  Supply  of  Gas  to  Burners,  397 
Gas  Governors,  399 

Ofenbau,  G.m.  b.  H. — Gasholder,  45 

Otto  and  Co.,  G.  m.  b.  H. — Removing  Tar  from 
Hot  Gases,  45 

Palmer,  W.  V. — Prepayment  Meters,  468 

Parker,  C.  H. — Dip  Pipes,  726 

Parkinson  and  W.  &  B.  Cowan,  and  Cheshire,  W.— 

Torch  Traps  for  Street  Lamps,  121 
Pausinger,  F.  von — Preventing  Gas  Explosions 

and  Poisoning,  593 
Peebles,  W.  C. — Coin   Prepayment  Mechanism 

Operating  from  a  Distance,  336 
Pettigrew,  G. — Sulphate  of  Amm.onia  Saturator, 


Rayburn,  E.  C. — Inverted  Incandescent  Gas  Bur- 
ners, 727 

Robillot,  L. — Automatically  Actuating  an  Alarm 
Signal  in  Cases  of  Escape  of  Gas,  468 

Robinson,  T.— Gas  Stoves,  858 

Robson,  G. — Automatically  Operating  Gas  Bur- 
ners, 397 

Simonin,  H. — Utilization  of  Materials  Employed 

for  Purifying  Illuminating  Gas,  592 
Simpson,  W.  S. — Production  of  Tarless  Fuel,  578 
Solon,  M.  F. — Regenerative  Gas  Stoves,  397 
Somerville,  J.    M. — Inverted   Incandescent  Gas 
Lamps,  399 

Sparks,  E. — Pressure  Controllers  for  Operating 
Gas  Lighting  Systems,  270 

Stromberg,  A.,  and  Willis,  G.  M.— Counting  Appa- 
ratus for  Meters,  858 
Siissmann,  H.— Incandescent  Gas  Burner,  858 
Thomas,  B. — Bye  Pass  Gas  Regulator,  730 
Tilley,  F.  C. — Atmospheric  Gas  Burners,  858 
Visseaux,  J. — Incandescent  Mantles,  337 
West,  J.— Discharging  and  Charging  Machines  for 

Gas  Retorts,  335 
Williams,  G.  A.— Automatic  Gas  Regulators,  200, 

Williams,  T.  E.,  Berger,  E.,  and  Burroughs,  J.  G. 
—  Gas  Lighting  Apparatus  for  Use  in  Connec- 
tion with  Life  Saving  Apparatus,  igg 

Wilton,  G.— Treatment  of  Gas  Obtained  in  the 
Distillation  of  Carbonaceous  Materials,  467 

Wolf,  O.,  Bambury,  N.  F.,  and  Bernardy,  E. — 
Incandescent  Gas  Lamps,  591 
Supplying  Gas  under  Pressure  for  Illuminating 
Purposes,  591 

Yates,  H.  J.— Gas  Fires,  43,  784 

AirGas,  Composition  for  Purifying— Moores,  W.G., 

Alarm  Signals  in  Case  of  Escape  of  Gas — 

Pausinger,  F.  von,  593 

Robillot,  L.,  468 
Ammonia,  Production  of,  from  Peat  — Lymn,  A.  H., 

Ammonia,  Recovery  of,  from  Producer  Gas — Duff, 
A.  B.,  and  the  Gas  Power  and  Bye  Products 
Company,  Limited,  594 
Ascension  Pipes — Farquhar,  W.  B.,  120 
Atmospheric  Gas  Burners — 
Meyer-Zimmerli,  E.,  593 
Nieser,  E.,  857 
Tilley,  F.  C,  858 
Bye  Pass  Gas  Regulator — Thomas,  B.,  730 
Calorimeter,  A  Recording — Beasley,  C.  H.  &  F.  G., 

and  Bradbury,  R.  H.,  525 
Calorimeters,  Constant  Emission   Gas — Fahren- 
heim, H.,  593 
Charging  and  Discharging  Apparatus  for  Retorts, 
Coking  Oveus,  &c. — 
Duckham,  A.  M'D.,  727 
Masters,  E.,  and  Hansford,  J.,  726 
West,  J.,  335 

Coke  Breaker,  An  Adjustable— Ingham,  O.  H.,466 

Coke  Trucks,  Barrows,  or  Conveyors— Dempster, 
Robert,  and  Sons,  and  Toogood,  H.  J.,  728 

Compressing  Gas  or  Air,  for  Lighting  and  Heat- 
ing Purposes — Fletcher,  E.,  857 

Dip  Pipes — Parker,  C.  II.,  926 

Discharging  Machine  with  Jointed  Ram  for  Hori- 
zontal and  Inclined  Coke  Ovens  or  Retorts — 
Muller,  W.,  729 

Distillation  of  Tar,  The  Continuous— Hugendick, 
W.,  784 

Exhauster  Lubricator— Mason,  J.,  and  Masters, 

R.,  728 
Gas,  Treatment  of — ■ 

Hiby,  W.,  527 

Wilton,  G.,  467 
Gas  Fires — 

Aird,  K.,  728 

Cloake,  A.  G.,  120 

Robinson,  T.,  858 

Solon,  M.  F.,  397 

Yates,  H.  J.,  43,  784 
Gas  Fittings  for  Domestic  Ranges — Howorth,  A., 

Gas  Lighting  Apparatus  for  Use  in  Connection  with 
Life   Saving    Apparatus — Williams,   T.  E., 
Berger,  E.,  and  Burroughs,  J.  G.,  199 
Gas  Washer— Davis,  G.  K.,  K58 
Gasholders — Ofenbau,  G.  m.  b.  H.,  45 
Generating  Gas  from  Peat — 
Aston,  J.  J.,  272 
Lymn,  A.  H.,  272 
Governors — North,  R.  B.,  399 

High  Pressure  Gas  Lighting  Plant — Wolf,  O.,  Bam- 
bury, N.  F.,  and  Bernardy,  E.,591 
Hydrocarbons,  Decomposing  of — Lessing,  R.,  269 
Igniting  and  Extinguishing  Devices — 

Blake,  E.  W.,  199,  270 

Conti,  A.,  and  Galli,  A.,  466 

Delage,  M.,  and  Woog,  P.,  857 

Forti,  v.,  271 

Gas  Laternen  Fernziindung  (System  Dr.  Rostin) 

G.  m.  b.  H.,  528 
Giorgi,  A.,  43 

Hansford,  J.,  and  Wright,  J.  F.,  270 
M'Nab,  N.  S.,  and  Link,  J.  S.,  44 
Mehne,  J.  G.,  466 
North,  R.  B.,  397 
Robson,  G.,  397 
Sparks,  E.,  270 
Incandescent  Gas  Lighting  {see  also  Igniting) — 
Burners — 

Block  Light  Company,  Limited,  and  Webber, 

J-.  335 
Siissmann,  IL,  858 
Inverted  Lamps  and  Burners — 
Biheller,  S.,  7S4 
Bland,  C.  W.,  44 
Giorgi,  A.,  399 
Rayburn,  E.  C,  727 
Somerville,  J.  M.,  399 

Wolf,  O.,  Bambury,  N.  F.,  and  Bernardy,  E., 


Bohm,  C.  R.,  42 
Kreidl,  I.,  and  Heller,  G.,  527 
Langhans,  R.,  467 
Visseaux,  J.,  337 

Joint  for  Gas  and  Water  MaiiisST'^'^^"''^'  ^' 
785  \  ,(3, 

Lamps  and  Lanterns — Darwin,  H.,  N>'>iant  for  

Lamps    and    Lanterns,    Lowering   x   \chalt,  2co 

Deutsche  Gasgliihlicht  ActicngeselK 
Manufacture  of  Gas —  "  \ 

Astor,  J.  J.,  272 

Lymn,  A.  IL,  272 
Meters  {see  also  Prepayment)—  V^nd 

Counting  Apparatus  for — Stromberg,  A.,  a. 
Willis,  G.  M.,  858 

Cut-Off  for— Clark,  H.  N.,  729 

Preventing  Fraud — Morris,  II.  J.,  44 

Tester  for — Glover,  T.,  727 
Peat  Gas  Production — 

Aston,  J.  J.,  272 

Lymn,  A.  H.,  272 
Prepayment  Meters — 

Gibson,  T.  S.  F.,  and  Palmer,  W.  V.,  43 

Hansford,  J.,  and  Wright,  J.  F.,  726 

Hibberd,  C.  E.,  199 

Milne,  J.,  and  Alexander,  W.,  121 

Palmer,  W.  V.,  46S 

Peebles,  W.  C,  336 
Pressure  Controller-— P.dwards,  A.  N.,  592 
Producer,  Gas — Cambridge,  A.  S.,  857 
Purifier  Grids — Chandler,  S.  &  J.,  399 
Purifiers — May,  T.,  43 
Radiators — ■ 

Cannon  Iron  Foundries,  Limited,  and  Haw- 
thorne, H.  S.,  784 

Martin,  A.,  200 

Yates,  H.  J.,  120 
Regulators — 

Hirschhorn,  J.,  59^ 

Meyer-Zimmerli,  E.,  593 

Thomas,  B.,  730 

Williams,  G.  A.,  200,  859 
Retorts — 

Charging  and  Discharging  Apparatus  for — • 

Duckham.  A.  M'D.,  727 

Masters,  E.,  and  Hansford,  J.,  726 

West,  J.,  335 
For  Production  of  Gas  and  Coke— Bowing,  J., 


Gas  Fired — Benninghoff,  O.,  and  Klonne,  A., 

729.  785 
Mouthpieces  for — 

Farquhar,  W.  B.,  120 

Helps,  J.  W.,  and  Pateman,  J.  VV.,  591 
Vertical — 

Ewing,  W.,  199 

Gibbons,  W.  P.,  and  Masters,  J.  R.,  468,  528 
Johnston,  A.  A.,  and  Clark,  F.  W.,  783 
Sulphate  of  Ammonia  Saturator — Pettigrew,  G., 

Sulphur,  The  Extraction  of,  from  Gas  Purifying 

Materials — Simonin,  H.,  592 
Suspending  Gas  Lamps  at  Cross  Streets —  Deutsche 

Gasgliihlicht  Actiengesellschaft,  200 
Tar,  The  Continuous  Distillation  of — Hugendick, 

VV.,  784 

Tar,  The  Solidifying  of — Leaver,  E.  T.,  527 
Tar  Extractors — 

Burstall,  F.  W.,  121 

Fabry,  R.,  271 

Otto  and  Co.,  G.  m.  b.  H.,  45 
Tarless  Fuel,  The  Production  of — Simpson,  W.  S., 

Torch  Trap  for  Lamps — Parkinson  and  W.  &  B. 

Cowan,  Limited,  and  Cheshire,  W  ,  121 
Valves  for  Burners — Blake,  E.  W.,  857 
Water  Gas  Stack  Valve — Glasgow,  A.  G.,  592 

Applications  for  Letters  Patent,  45,  122,  221,  287, 
354,  421,  482,  543,  603,  660,  739,  785,  872 


Bonnet,  E.— Gasholder  Tanks  with  Bulging  Sides, 


Brooks,  P.  G. — Handling  Hot  Coke  by  Electric 

Telpher,  201 
Bullen,  A.  E. — Examinations  in  Gas  Supply,  337 
Cleland,  A.  M'l. — A  Result  of  Electrolysis,  122 
Coward,  W.,   and   Co.,    Limited — Colonial  Gas 

Development,  730 
Cripps,  F.  S. — Gasholder  Tanks   with  Bulging 

Sides,  122 

Dissatisfied — Points  on  Gas  Works  Transfers,  400 

Evans,  E.,  and  Co. — The  Coalite  Company  and 
their  Patents,  123 

Farquhar,  W.  B. — High  Pressure  Street  and  Shop 
Lighting,  337 

Foster,  A.  W. — Free  Maintenance  and  Super- 
vision, 730 

Garrard,  J.  S. — Coin  Consumers'  Agreement — 
Action  as  to  a  Gas  Meter  Destroyed  by  Fire, 


Ham,  G. — Coalite  Company  and  their  Process,  46 
Hunt,  C.  H.— Vertical  Retorts  for  Small  Works, 

Jones,  H.  E. — The  Battle  of  the  Burners,  201 

"  K.  and  A.  "  Water  Gas  Company,  Limited — 

Blue  Water  Gas  v.  Carburetted  VVaterGas,  859 
Keith  and  Blackman  Co.,  Limited — High  Pressure 

Gas  Lighting,  730 

[JOURNAL  OP  OAS  LIOHTINQ  &c.,   OCT.   18,  1910. 

"^^e  Konigsberg  Chamber  Settings, 

— Profit  Sharing  with  Management 
.  798 

How  Gas  Consumers  are  Robbed — 
rructive  Illustrations,  202 



le,  Gilber 


ProvHjf,j^j — Street  Lighting,  660 
'^'^     ~ial  Gas  Manager — High  Pressure  Gas 
'Systems,  46 

1,  Geo. — Automatic  Gas  Lighters,  272 
immance,  J.  F. — The  Westminster  Corporation 
Street  Lighting  Contract,  400 
Smith,  11.  E.— Blue  Water  Gas  v.  Carburetted 

Water  Gas,  859 
Smith,  R.  H. — Free  Wiring  and  Fittings'  Sales  by 

Electrical  Undertakings,  529 
Taylor,  J. — High  Pressure  Gas  Lighting  for  Tex- 
tile Mills,  660,  731 
Williams,  M.  M.— Tar  Prices,  860 

Automatic  Gas  Lighters — Robson,  G.,  272 

Battle  of  the  Burners — Jones,  H.  E.,  201 

Blue  Water  Gas  v.  Carburetted  Water  Gas — 

"  K.  and  A.  "  Water  Gas  Company,  Limited, 


Coalite  Company  and  their  Process — 
Evans,  E.,  and  Co.,  123 
Ham,  G.,  46 

Coin  Consumers'  Agreement — Action  as  to  a  Gas 

Meter  Destroyed  by  Fire — Garrard,  J.  S.,  400 
Coke,  Handling  of  Hot,  by  Electric  Telpher — 

Brooks,  P.  G.,  201 
Colonial  Gas  Development — William  Coward  and 

Co.,  Limited,  730 
Electrolysis,  A  Result  of — Cleland.  A.  M'L,  122 
Examinations  in  Gas  Supply — BuUen,  A.  E.,  337 
Free  Maintenance  and  Supervision— Foster,  A.  W., 


Free  Wiring  and  Fittings'  Sales  by  Electrical 
Undertakings — Smith,  R.  H.,  529 

Gas  Consumers,  How  they  are  Robbed — Instruc- 
tive Illustrations — M'Nab,  P.,  202 

Gas  Works  Transfers,  Points  on — Dissatisfied,  400 

Gasholder  Tanks  with  Bulging  Sides — 
Bonnet,  E.,  201 
Cripps,  F.  S.,  122 

High  Pressure  Gas  Lighting — James  Keith  and 
Blackman  Co.,  Limited,  730 

High  Pressure  Gas  Lighting  for  Textile  Mills  — 
Taylor,  Jas.,  660,  731 

High    Pressure    Gas    Systems — Provincial  Gas 
Manager,  46 

High  Pressure  Street  and  Shop  Lighting — Far- 

quhar,  W.  B.,  337 
Konigsberg  Chamber  Settings — Klonne,  A.,  122 
Meter,  Action  as  to  a.  Destroyed  by  Fire — Garrard, 

J.  S.,  400 

Profit  Sharing  with  Management  and  Men — Little, 
G.,  798 

Standard  Burner  Bills — Jones,  H.  E.,  201 
Street  Lighting — Provincial,  660 
Tar  Prices — Williams,  M.  M.,  860 
Vertical  Retorts  for  Small  Gas  Works— C.  Holmes 
Hunt,  272 

Westminster  Corporation  Street  Lighting  Contract 
— Simmance,  J.  F.,  400 


Gas  Acts  for  igio,  835 
Notes  from  Westminster, 

ig,  96,  177 

Abertillery  and  District  Water  Board  Bill,  401 
Bradford  Corporation  Bill,  281 
Brighton  and  Hove  Gas  Bill,  20,  53 
Brownhills  and  District  Gas  Order,  123 

Cambridge  Water  Company's  Bill,  97 
Editorial  Comments,  91,  169,  172,  247,  313, 3:4,  380, 

Glasgow  Corporation  Consolidation  Bill,  20,  47,  62, 

97.  133 
Havant  Gas  Bill,  203 

Liverpool  Gas  Company  and  the  Burner  Bill,  204 
London  County  Council  (General  Powers)  Bill,  53, 

Mountain  Ash  District  Council  Bill,  177 
Pontypridd  and  Rhondda  Joint  Water  Board  Bill, 

Rowley  Regis  and  Blackheath  Gas  Order,  46 

South  Hants  Water  Company's  Bill,  177,  286 

Standard  Burner  Bills — 

No.  I,  19,  96,  124,  143,  176,  203,  224,  213,  273,  338 
No.  2,  19,96,  143,  176,  211,  213,  273,338 
No.  3,  19,  96,  143.  176,  212,  213,  273,  338 

Sutton  District  Water  Order,  47 

Swansea  Gas  Order,  47,  97,  134 

Warrington  Corporation  Bill,  274 

Water  Supplies  Protection  Bill,  5.^,  2S0,  400,  476, 

Progress  of  Bills,  46,  123,  203,  272,  337,  400 


County  of  London  Sessions— Stealing  Gas,  469 
Court  of  Session — 
Bill  Chamber- 
Gas    Power    and   Bye   Products  Company, 
Limited,  v.  Beardmore  and  Co.,  Limited,  595 
First  Division — 

Ewing  V.  Corporation  of  Greenock,  62,  134 
Croydon  County  Court — Croydon  Gas  Company  t;. 

Harvey,  J.,  338 
Derby  Borough  Police  Court — Prepayment  Meter 
Thefts,  860 

Devonshire  Quarter  Sessions — A  Lighting  Rate 
Quashed,  56 

Dundee  Valuation  Appeal  Court — Assessments  of 
the  Dundee  Gas  and  Electricity  Works,  796 

Glasgow  Sheriff  Court — Ross,  J.  M.,  Liquidator  for 
Hutson  and  Son,  Limited,  v.  Glasgow  Corpora- 
tion, 62 

Glasgow  Valuation   Appeal  Court  —  Charge  for 

Lighting  the  Common  Stairs,  795 
Greenwich  County  Court — Sharp  i;.  South  Suburban 

Gas  Company,  402 
High  Court  of  Justice — 
Chancery  Division — 

Attorney  General  v.  the  West  Ham  Corpora- 
tion, 275,  402 
Baker  and  Co.  v.  Ticehurst  and  District  Water 

and  Gas  Company,  338 
Cross    and   Sons,    W.,   v.    Sydenham  and 

M'Oustra,  Limited,  275 
Eveleigh  v.  Bucks  and  Oxon  District  Gas  and 

Coke  Company,  Limited,  275 
Fitter  v.  Cobham  Gas  Company,  275 
Jordan  and  Lamington  v.  Eaton,  E.  (Amman 

Valley  Gas  Company),  134 
Lomax  v.  North  Sussex  Gas  and  Water  Com- 
pany, 275 

Mid  Oxfordshire  Gas  Company,  Winding  Up  of 
the,  56 

National  Air  Gas  Company,  Appointment  of 
Receiver  and  Manager,  202,  275 
Companies'  Winding-Up  Division — 

England,  R.,  and  Co.,  Limited,  The  Liquida- 
tion of,  403 

Liverpool  Police  Court— Theft  of  Gas  Brackets, 

London  Bankruptcy  Court— Mid  Oxfordshire  Gas 
Company,  56,  861 

Old  Street  Police  Court— 

A  Bogus  Gas  Collector  Committed  for  Trial,  860 
Prepayment  Meter  Theft,  602 
Rawtenstall  Police  Court — Rossendale  Union  Gas 

Company  v.  Trickett,  595 
Supreme  Court  of  Judicature — Court  of  Appeal 
—  Metropolitan    Water    Board    v.  London, 
Brighton,  and  South  Coast  Railway  Company, 

Wandsworth  County  Court — Property  Owners  and 

Water  Consumers'  Liability,  202 
Warwickshire  Quarter  Sessions — Embezzlement 

by  a  Gas  Olficial,  56 
Westminster  County  Court — 
Claim  for  Damages  for  Gas  Poisoning,  134 
Metropolitan  Water  Board  v.  CoUeys  Patents, 
Limited,  402 

Amman  Valley  Gas  Company,  Action  by  Solicitors 

to  Recover  Costs  of  Promoting  Gas  Bill,  134 
Assessment  Appeals — 
In  Dundee,  796 
In  Glasgow,  795 
Attorney-General  v.  West  Ham  Corporation,  275, 

Beaufort  Gas  Company,  Appointment  of  Receiver 

and  Manager,  469 
Bucks  and  Oxon  District  Gas  Company,  Limited, 

Appointment  of  Receiver  and  Manager,  56, 

275.  529 

Cobham  Gas  Company,  Fitter  v.,  275 
Embezzlement  by  a  Gas  Official,  56 
England,  R.,  and  Co.,  Limited,  The  Liquidation 
of,  403 

Ewing  V.  Corporation  of  Greenock,  62,  134 

Gas  Collector,  A  Bogus,  Committed  for  Trial,  860 

Gas  Fittings,  Theft  of,  469 

Gas  Poisoning  through  Alleged  Defective  Fittings, 

Claim  for  Damages,  134 
Gas  Works  Clauses  Act,  1847,  An  Alleged  Breach 

of,  595 

Gaslight  and  Coke  Company,  Clark  v.,  134 

Glasgow,  Assessment  Appeals  in,  795 

Greenock  Corporation,  Claim  against,  by  the  late 

Gas  Manager,  62,  134 
Hutson  and  Son,  Limited,  in  Liquidation — Claim 

against,  by  the  Glasgow  Corporation,  62 
Infringement  of  Design,  An  Alleged,  275 
Metropolitan  Water  Board — 
Bond  v.,  202 

V.  CoUeys  Patents,  Limited,  402 

V.  London,  Brighton,  and  South  Coast  Railway 

Company,  338 
Mid  Oxfordshire  Gas  Company,  Winding  Up  of 

the,  56,  861 
Morthoe  Lighting  Rate  Quashed,  5C 
National  Air  Gas  Company,  Limited,  Appointment 

of  Receiver  and  Manager,  202,  275 
North  Oxfordshire  Water  Company,  Appointment 

of  Receiver  and  Manager,  469 
North  Sussex  Gas  and  Water  Company,  Appoint- 
ment of  Receiver,  275 
Power  Gas  Patents,    Litigation  as  to  Granting 

Licenses  to  Manufacture,  595 
Prepayment  Meter  Thefts,  469,  543,  602,  860 
St.  David's  Water  and  Gas  Company,  Application 

for  Appointment  of  Receiver  and  Manager, 

529,  601 

South  Suburban  Gas  Company,  An  Unsuccessful 
Claim  against,  402 

Ticehurst  and  District  Water  and  Gas  Company, 
Petition  for  Winding  Up  the,  338 

Wandsworth  Borough  Council,  Bond  v.,  202 

Property  Owners'  and  Water  Consumers'  Lia- 
bility, 202 
Supply  of — 
To  Factories,  402 
To  Railway  Stations,  338 

West  Ham  Corporation  B'inances,  275,  402 

Workmen's  Compensation  Terminated,  338 





Editor  &  Publisher:  WALTER  KING.  Office:  11,  Bolt  Court,  Fleet  St.,  London. 

VOL.  CXI.,  No.  -7460.— TUESDAY,  JULY  5,  1910. 


[  The  Commercial  Situation. 

I  It  does  not  matter  to  what  quarter  we  look — whether  it  be 

t  at  home,  or  Germany,  France,  or  other  Continental  coun- 
tries, or  further  afield  in  Australia,  at  the  Cape,  or  in  North 

,  or  South  America — we  see  the  same  vigorous  consideration 
being  paid  to  the  commercial  interests  of  the  gas  industry. 
This  indicates,  without  further  explanation,  that  the  gas 
industry  everywhere  has  been  thrown  completely  open  to 

i  more  strenuous  competition,  and  increasingly  so,  in  both  its 
primary  and  secondary  products.  The  industry,  however,  is 
fortunate  in  that  the  magnitude  and  diversity  of  its  business 
place  in  its  hands  a  power  that  its  competitors  do  not,  and 
cannot  from  the  very  nature  of  their  productions,  possess. 
The  magnitude  and  diversity  of  business  must  be  maintained 
and  extended  by  every  possible  means  ;  and  one  of  the  means 
is  by  the  production  of  cheap  gas  of  suitable  and  fairly  uni- 
form calorific  power.  On  this  point  of  uniformity  of  calorific 
power,  we  see  Professor  J.  T.  Morris,  of  the  East  London 
College,  is  still  hammering  away  at  the  question  of  the  (so 
he  supposes)  variable  calorific  power  of  gas  in  different  parts 
of  London — a  matter  to  which  reference  was  made  in  our 
"  Electric  Supply  Memoranda"  for  June  14  last,  in  relation 
to  some  lamp  tests  made  by  Professor  Morris  two  years 
ago.  We  think  the  I^rofessor  must  have  made  his  calorific 
tests  during  some  temporary  defection,  because,  in  view  of 
his  statements,  we  have  examined,  over  a  long  period, 
the  official  calorific  returns  signed  by  Dr.  Frank  Clowes,  the 
Superintending  Gas  Examiner  of  the  County  Council ;  and 
between  one  part  of  London  and  another,  there  is  not,  in  the 
results  of  this  daily  systematic  testing,  at  twenty-two  points 
of  the  Metropolitan  gas-distribution  system,  any  very  marked 
variation  between  the  gas  in  one  district  and  another.  But 
Professor  Morris's  statements  in  igo8,  and  his  reiteration  of 
them  now  in  the  face  of  fairly  uniform  official  results,  is 
doing  the  gas  industry  no  good  in  its  commercial  work.  The 
manufacturers  of  electric  lamps  are  making  use  of  his  name 
and  statements  in  their  advertising  literature ;  and  when 
once  a  statement  of  the  kind  that  is  false  in  its  general 
applicability  obtains  circulation,  the  ill  effects  cannot  pos- 
sibly be  entirely  wiped  out,  no  matter  the  amount  of  trouble 
and  expenditure  to  which  the  industry  and  individual  gas 
undertakings  go  in  the  attempt. 

This  by  the  way.  Another  means  by  which  the  magni- 
tude and  diversity  of  the  business  of  the  industry  must  be 
sustained  and  extended  is  by  technical  advances  in  the 
methods  of  using  gas.  We  are  not  dissatisfied  with  the  pro- 
gress that  is  being  made  in  this  direction.  It  is  good  ;  and  by 
the  help  that  is  being  extended  to  the  industry  through  scien- 
tific research,  the  future  promises  that  the  advances  made  in 
the  methods  of  utilization  will  in  themselves  create  a  much 
larger  use.  The  interests  of  gas  suppliers  and  manufacturers 
are  mutual  in  this  respect.  In  the  production  of  cheaper 
gas  and  in  making  technical  advances  in  gas  appliances, 
work  is  proceeding  apace  ;  but  there  is  another  thing  we 
do  urgently  want  in  the  gas  industry — it  is  a  development 
that  has  been  much  talked  of  of  late — and  that  is  a  central 
agency  in  connection  with  the  Institution  to  deal  with  pub- 
licity and  with  the  subtleties,  extravagancies,  and  public  be- 
guilements  in  competitors'  propaganda.  We  know  what  is 
being  done  in  aid  of  commercial  gas  work  in  America ;  and 
we  are  learning  more  about  the  Central  Organization  for  the 
Promulgation  of  the  Sales  of  Gas  in  Germany  that  was 
established  in  Berlin  last  March,  and  concerning  which 
Herr  Lempelius  gave  information  at  the  annual  meeting  of 
the  G  erman  Association,  as  noticed  last  week  in  our  Review 
of  the  Proceedings.  Herr  Lempelius  (formerly  Manager 
of  the  Barmen  Gas- Works,  and  who  resigned  the  position  to 
take  up  the  management  of  the  Central  Organization)  has 
been  making  a  survey  of  all  the  promising  fields  for  gas 

exploitation ;  and  he  has  come  to  the  conclusion  that  there 
is  ample  scope  for  development.  For  the  work  done  by  the 
Central  Organization  he  also  asks  for  funds  ;  and  his  appeal 
(judging  from  the  way  gas  research  has  been  financed  in 
Germany)  will  not,  we  think,  fall  on  deaf  ears.  It  is  to  be 
hoped  that  it  will  not  be  long  before  the  British  gas  industry 
as  a  whole  wakes  up  to  the  necessity  of  doing  something, 
and  something  of  a  worthy  and  effective  character,  in  this 
direction  ;  for  it  is  seen  that  every  day  produces  fresh  work 
that  it  is  fatal  to  set  aside  to  be  dealt  with  at  (that  common 
refuge  of  procrastinators)  a  more  convenient  season. 

We  may  echo  the  claim  of  Herr  Prenger,  of  Cologne,  the 
President  of  the  German  Association,  that  the  gas  industry 
should  now  be  allowed  free  scope  to  work  their  undertakings 
as  commercial  enterprises.  Gas  enterprise  has  now  to 
shoulder  all  the  responsibilities  of  the  ordinary  tradesman, 
and  more  ;  but  it  has  not  the  same  freedom.  We  also  en- 
dorse his  view  that,  in  the  interests  of  both  undertakings 
and  communities,  all  gas  undertakings  should  be  relieved  of 
the  incubus  which  the  demand  for  heavy  and  constant  con* 
tributions  to  the  municipal  chest  lays  upon  them.  But 
there  will  have  to  be  a  fearful  wrench  on  the  part  of  muni- 
cipal bodies  before  they  will  part  with  this  handy  source 
of  revenue,  however  desirable  the  act  may  be.  The  chief 
point,  however,  is  that  the  recording-finger  of  our  technical 
and  other  organizations  the  world  over  directs  to  the  uni- 
versality of  the  commercial  tensity ;  and  we  in  this  country 
must  not  be  behind  other  countries  in  meeting  the  situation. 
One  of  the  ways  of  doing  this  is  by  active  co-operation. 

Tlie  Economic  Aspects  of  Calorific  Power. 

No  one  can  read  the  reports  published  in  the  "Journal" 
last  week  of  the  meetings  of  the  German  Association  and 
the  French  Society  (especially  the  former)  without  being 
struck  with  the  important  place  that  calorific  power  is 
destined  to  play  in  the  future  in  the  economics  of  the  gas 
industry,  both  in  regard  to  manufacture  and  utilization. 
The  papers  which  are  chiefly  in  mind,  it  must  be  said,  are 
more  directive  and  constructive  than  conclusive,  though 
they  are  conclusive  in  so  far  as  the  lessons  derivable  from 
them  are  concerned.  In  the  first  place,  it  is  clear,  from  the 
technical  investigation  and  experience  that  are  presented 
from  these  meetings,  that,  if  we  can  put  an  end  to  the 
British  gas  industry's  detention  by  the  illuminating  power 
standard,  and  have  a  reasonable  calorific  power  standard 
(conformable  with  local  conditions)  applied,  there  will  be 
ability  to  draw  coal  supplies  from  more  extensive  sources ; 
and,  in  the  second  place,  the  new  methods  of  carbonization 
will,  at  the  same  time,  assist  in  producing  compensations, 
in  connection  with  residual  products,  for  any  depreciating 
effect  that,  under  the  old  circumstances  of  gas-works  car- 
bonization, might  arise  from  the  employment  of  the  lower 
grade  varieties  of  coal.  We  anticipated — the  anticipation 
is  being  realized — that  from  the  Instructional  and  Experi- 
mental Gas- Works  at  Carlsruhe,  under  the  superintendence 
of  Dr.  Karl  Bunte,  there  would  issue  much  that  will  be  valu- 
able in  the  technical  and  commercial  progress  of  the  gas 
industry.  There  will  be  no  disappointment  in  this  regard ; 
and  the  German  Association  deserve  the  thanks  of  the  uni- 
versal gas  industry  for  what  they  have  done,  and  what  they 
are  doing. 

Already  we  are  being  shown  that  the  calorific  value  of 
British  gas  coals  (which  are  largely  used  in  Germany)  does 
not  vary  to  such  an  extent  as  we  know  the  illuminating 
power  of  the  gas  varies  that  is  obtained  from  the  different 
varieties ;  and  the  work  at  Carlsruhe  is  assisting  in  placing 
more  and  more  in  view  the  conditions  that  are  desirable  in 
recovering  greater  proportions  of  the  calorific  power  of  the 
coals  used  in  the  form  of  gas,  and  generally  in  broadening 
the  operating  ground  and  resources  of  the  industry.  Take 
the  raw  material  itself,  much  systematic  research  has  taken 
place  there  into  different  varieties  of  gas  coal ;  and  Dr.  Karl 



[July  5.  i9i<3. 

Bunte's  "  Information  about  Gas  Coal "  (p.  957)  should  be 
read  in  conjunction  with  the  report  from  Carlsruhe  on  the 
"  Chemical  Composition  and  Calorific  Power  of  Gas  Coals." 
Dr.  Bunte  lays  down  a  principle  that  will  be  acceptable  to 
all  gas  makers,  that  a  coal  is  the  more  valuable  the  greater 
the  proportion  of  its  calorific  value  that  can  be  recovered  in 
the  form  of  gas.  The  property  of  calorific  yield  is  what  will 
have  to  be  tested  in  future  in  the  purchasing  of  coal  when 
the  British  gas  industry  is  no  longer  tied  to  the  effete  standard 
of  illuminating  power.  But  at  the  same  time  we  must  not, 
in  seeking  to  recover  in  the  form  of  gas  a  larger  proportion 
of  the  calorific  value  of  the  coal,  neglect  altogether  con- 
sideration for  the  coke,  though  seeing  that  this  residual, 
speaking  broadly,  retains  two-thirds  of  the  original  calorific 
power  of  the  coal,  there  can  well  be  without  substantial 
injury  a  transference  of  a  part  of  the  calorific  power  to  the 
prime  commodity  of  the  industry.  Admittedly,  the  coal  that 
will  yield  the  greatest  proportion  of  its  calorific  power  in 
the  form  of  gas  is  the  best  for  the  gas  maker ;  but  there  are 
operations  in  the  process  of  recovery  that  will  contribute 
to  the  enhancement  or  degradation  of  the  calorific  result. 
As  a  rule,  coals  will  yield  more  of  their  calorific  power  in 
the  form  of  gas  the  more  recent  in  origin  they  are  at  the 
time  of  carbonization  ;  and  experience  of  recent  times  has 
also  taught  us  that  the  method  of  carbonization  does  make 
a  difference  in  the  calorific  value  of  the  gas  produced. 
Though  the  illuminating  power  of  gas  may  be  appreciably 
diminished  by  one  system  of  carbonization  compared  with 
another,  it  is  quite  possible  for  there  to  be  an  increase  in  the 
calorific  power.   But  more  on  this  point  presently. 

The  authorities  at  the  Instructional  and  Experimental 
Works  of  the  German  Association  are  to  be  thanked  for  the 
publication  (with  the  names  of  the  coals)  of  the  results  of 
investigations  into  the  chemical  composition  and  calorific 
power  of  certain  well-known  varieties  of  English  gas  coals. 
Confession  must  be  made  that  published  data  obtained  from 
uniform  and  systematic  research  as  to  the  character  of  a 
representative  number  of  our  home  gas  coals  do  not  possess 
that  character  for  modernity  that  is  advisable,  now  that,  in 
so  many  districts,  some  of  the  more  qualitatively  lucrative 
seams  are  giving  out.  The  tables  that  we  published  on 
p.  962  last  week  are  therefore  peculiarly  interesting  under 
present  circumstances.  In  the  column  giving  the  results 
of  calorific  power  in  B.Th.U.  per  pound  of  coal,  the  figures 
show  remarkable  uniformity  in  the  calorific  values  of  the 
many  Durham  coals  tested,  while  thos3  for  Yorkshire  coals 
run  but  little  lower,  and  the  only  Scotch  coal  tested  comes 
last  but  one  in  the  whole  of  the  varieties  that  were  tested 
from  any  source.  The  tables  do  not  go  the  length  of  telling 
us  which  of  the  coals  will  yield  the  greatest  proportion  of 
their  calorific  value  in  the  form  of  gas  ;  and  probably,  even 
at  the  Carlsruhe  experimental  works,  they  are  hardly  in  a 
position  to  tell  us  this  (through  lack  of  the  necessary  plant) 
under  the  various  new  methods  of  carbonization.  We  know 
what  excellent  calorific  power  results  (with  low  illuminating 
power)  are  obtained  in  Berlin  practice  with  the  vertical  retort 
system  ;  and  much  was  heard  last  week  about  the  regularity 
of  the  hourly  production  of  gas  and  of  its  calorific  power 
from  the  chamber  settings  at  Konigsberg.  In  the  paper  by 
M.  Paul  Parsy  before  the  Societe  Technique,  he  was  talking 
of  productions,  with  the  Klonne  chambers  at  Rotterdam,  of 
12,316  cubic  feet  of  gas  per  ton  of  616  B.Th.U.  gross;  and 
high  yields  are  noticed  elsewhere — at  Padua  and  at  Frank- 
ental.  In  the  table  (p.  950)  in  M.  Parsy's  paper,  he  shows 
that  invariably  a  very  much  greater  number  of  calories 
is  obtained  per  ton  of  various  coals  carbonized  in  chamber 
settings  compared  with  ordinary  retort-settings,  though  we 
should  like  to  know  something  more  about  the  type  of  the 
latter,  and  whether  heavy  or  light  charges  were  used.  There 
is  nothing  much  said  in  the  paper  about  illuminating  power; 
but  we  see  in  one  of  the  diagrams  referring  to  the  Rotterdam 
mstallation  that,  in  twelve-hour  charges,  it  varies  from  (in 
one  instance)  6  to  22-9  Hefner  units,  with  an  average  of 
I5'55>  and  in  another  from  i^-j  to  23-5  Hefner  units,  with 
an  average  of  18.  However,  illuminating  power  is  not  the 
subject  of  this  article.  In  these  days  in  the  gas  industry, 
we  are  looking  forward. 

If  we  turn  from  the  question  of  the  production  of  gas  of 
high  calorific  power  to  its  use,  some  interesting  information 
is  to  be  obtained  from  the  paper  by  Dr.  Max  Mayer,  treat- 
ing of  the  valuation  of  coal  gas  according  to  its  calorific 
power.  From  this  it  will  be  seen  that  his  researches  have 
led  him  to  the  conclusion  that,  within  certain  calorific  power 
limits,  M.  St.-Claire  Deville's  contention  is  justified — that 

the  illuminating  power  of  a  gas  mantle  is  proportional  to  the 
calorific  power  of  the  gas  used.  But  the  reverse  is  also 
proved  when  it  is  seen  that,  with  lower  calorific  power  gases, 
higher  illuminating  efficiency  is  secured ;  this  being  due 
to  the  chemical  composition  of  the  gas.  "  The  rich  gases, 
"  containing  more  heavy  hydrocarbons,  show  a  lower  duty, 
"  probably  because  of  the  smaller  intensity  of  the  combustion 
"  of  these  hydrocarbons." 

We  have  said  enough  here  to  show  that  there  is  in  these 
Continental  meetings — especially  that  of  the  German  Asso- 
ciation— a  large  amount  of  material  of  educational  value, 
bearing  upon  the  economics  and  future  of  the  gas  industry ; 
and  the  information  is  of  a  character  that  might  with  advan- 
tage be  absorbed  by  those  who  are  obsessed  by  feelings  of 
righteousness  and  sentimental  affection  for  gas  consumers 
(while  the  consumers  do  not  care  a  single  straw  about  the 
matter,  being  free  agents  in  respect  of  their  patronage)  in 
connection  with  the  change  over  from  the  old  test-burners 
to  the  new  one.  There  is  evidence  and  to  spare,  too,  that 
the  transition  from  an  illuminating  power  standard  to  one 
of  calorific  power  will  redound  to  the  economic  benefit  of  the 
gas  industry. 

The  Excellently  Paid  Gas  Worker. 

The  gas  worker  has  nothing  to  complain  of  concerning 
wages  and  hours  of  labour,  and  regularity  of  his  employ. 
Taking  the  whole  number  of  gas  workers  of  all  classes, 
there  is  no  doubt  the  altered  conditions  of  gas  utilization 
have  been  the  means  of  greatly  levelling-up  the  continuity 
line  of  employment.  And  regarding  wages  and  hours,  an 
interesting  report  has  just  been  issued  by  the  Board  of  Trade 
on  the  results  of  an  inquiry  instituted  in  1906  into  the  earn- 
ings and  hours  of  labour  of  the  working  classes  throughout 
the  United  Kingdom.  It  is  true  that  the  figures,  applying 
to  1906,  have  a  somewhat  remote  appearance;  but,  in  the 
past  four  years,  there  have  not  been  any  particular  changes 
in  the  rates  of  pay  of  the  classes  of  labour  to  which  the 
statistics  refer,  so  that  their  illustrative  value  remains.  We 
have  always  claimed,  seeing  that  it  was  subject  to  easy 
proof,  that  the  gas  industry  has  ever  been  a  good  employer ; 
and  the  figures  before  us,  bearing  official  seal,  give  the  con- 
firmation, though  referring  only  to  employment  under  local 
authorities.  These  bodies  in  these  democratic  days,  when 
labour  has  large  representation  in  local  government,  are 
often  charged  with  paying  higher  wages,  and  getting  less 
work  from  the  men  in  the  various  branches  of  their  service, 
than  do  private  employers,'  simply  through  the  power  of  the 
labour  vote  and  representation.  But  in  connection  with  gas 
supply,  the  charge  has  less  application  than  in  certain  other 
branches  of  municipal  service ;  for  in  districts  comparisons 
between  one  works  and  the  neighbouring  ones  of  rates  of  pay 
and  hours  of  labour,  usually  afford  a  sort  of  governing  basis 
that  brings  about  an  approximation  of  actual  figures  where 
conditions  are  somewhat  alike. 

The  classes  of  employ  treated  upon  in  the  returns  refer  to 
road  and  sanitary  work,  gas  supply,  electricity  supply,  water 
supply,  and  tramway  and  omnibus  work.  Alluding  only  to 
the  last  four  branches  of  municipal  work,  inasmuch  as  they 
are  the  four  in  which  there  is  best  payment,  the  men  (exclud- 
ing all  lads  and  boys)  who  worked  full  time  in  gas  supply 
obtained  an  average  pay  per  week  of  32s.  6d. ;  in  electricity 
supply,  3 IS.  7d. ;  in  water  supply,  28s.  8d. ;  in  tramway  and 
omnibus  work,  30s.  6d.  The  total  number  of  gas  workers 
to  whom  the  returns  relate  is  68,234 ;  of  electricity  supply 
men,  13,347;  cif  water-supply  men,  14,093;  of  tramway 
and  omnibus  men,  46,702.  Now  there  are  two  points  about 
these  statistics  of  which  the  part  of  the  workers  of  the  country 
who  are  so  ardently  in  favour  of  municipalization,  and  those 
representatives  of  labour  who  so  consistently  advocate  every- 
thing possible  being  done  that  is  in  favour  of  electricity 
supply,  and  everything  possible  that  is  unfavourable  to  gas 
supply,  should  take  special  notice.  The  first  is  that,  in  the 
average  rate  of  pay,  gas  supply  stands  at  the  head ;  and  the 
second  is  that,  though  urban  electricity  supply  is  in  greater 
part  municipally  controlled,  gas  supply  gives  the  means  of 
a  considerably  greater  employment  than  electricity  supply. 
For  this  reason  alone,  it  has  always  been  a  mystery  to  us 
why  representatives  of  labour  on  local  bodies  should  seek  to 
injure  the  better  employment  market,  to  benefit  that  which 
affords  but  comparatively  small  scope  for  employment. 

Pursuing  the  statistics,  it  is  observed  that  the  average 
earnings  for  full  time  of  men  employed  in  connection  with 
gas  supply  were  34s.  3d.  in  the  large  towns  and  29s.  4d.  in 

Julys,  i9io]  Journal  of  gas  Ughting.  water  supplV,  1517 

the  smaller  ones.  In  the  large  towns,  of  the  men  who 
worked  full  time,  34-2  per  cent,  earned  less  than  30s  ,  and 
24-2  per  cent.  40s.  and  above  ;  compared  with,  in  the  sijialler 
towns,  53-4  per  cent,  earning  less  than  30s.,  and  only  9-5  per 
cent.  40s.  and  above.  Then,  looking  back,  it  is  found  that 
the  rate  of  pay  in  gas  supply  has  made  substantial  progress. 
In  1886,  similar  investigation  was  undertaken  ;  but,  unfor- 
tunately, there  are  no  corresponding  figures  for  electricity 
and  tramway  and  omnibus  services.  In  respect  of  gas 
supply,  however,  the  average  full  time  earnings  in  1886 
were  26s.  lod.,  compared  with  31s.  yd.  in  1906 — showing  an 
increase  of  17-7  per  cent.  In  water  supply,  the  correspond- 
ing figures  are  24s.  6d.  and  28s.  3d. — a  percentage  increase 
of  I5-3.  The  gas-supply  industry  should  indeed,  in  the  eyes 
of  labour,  be  the  very  paragon  of  virtue  in  regard  to  the 
treatment  of  its  workers.  The  wages,  the  increase  shown  in 
payment,  and  the  scope  for  employment,  give  to  the  industry 
the  capital  place  in  connection  with  the  municipal  services. 
As  to  the  average  hours  of  labour  per  week,  there  is  little 
difference  between  gas  and  electricity  supply — the  respective 
figures  being  52-6  hours  and  5i"9.  Those  engaged  in  the 
water-supply  service,  put  in  an  average  week  of  55"  i  hours. 
From  our  point  of  view,  the  return  is  a  most  satisfactory  one 
as  an  indication  of  the  excellent  position  occupied  by  the 
gas  worker. 

Mr.  John  Burns  Favours  Cheap  Gaseous  Fuel. 

Municipalities  owning  gas  undertakings  and  using  them 
as  the  channel  for  lifting  money  from  the  pockets  of  the 
consumers  of  gas  for  relieving  the  rates,  must  mind  their 
P's  and  Q's.  Not  only  is  Parliament  on  their  track,  but  the 
smoke  nuisance  abolitionists  have  turned  the  eyes  of  the 
Local  Government  Board  and  of  the  public  upon  them,  and 
are  resolved  to  do  what  they  can  to  put  an  end  to  the  rob- 
bery of  the  gas  consumers,  in  order  that  the  municipal  gas 
undertakings  may  be  placed  in  a  better  position  to  serve  the  ob- 
ject of  theirownactively  prosecuted  crusade.  In  this  crusade, 
they  have  not,  through  their  own  particular  lines  of  action  and 
limitations,  scored  much  success.  We  fear  that,  excepting 
perhaps  through  one  suggestion  made'  last  week  by  a  depu- 
tation to  the  President  of  the  Local  Government  Board,  their 
general  proposals  regarding  legislation  will  not  prove  very 
effective  ;  but,  with  Mr.  John  Burns,  we  do  think  that  much 
more  will  be  done  by  technical  progress  to  gain  the  object 
in  view.  The  economies  of  technical  progress  serve  as  very 
cogent  arguments ;  and  if  the  manufacturer  can  be  shown 
how  he  can  save  money  and  obtain  additional  convenience 
by  the  adoption  of  gas  heating  and  gas-engines  and  electric 
motors,  and  the  householder  how  he  can  have  greater  con- 
venience and  economy  than  now,  there  will  come  about  gradu- 
ally, by  such  means,  that  purification  of  the  atmosphere  that 
the  adherents  to  the  smoke  abatement  movement  are  ever  so 
desirous  of  seeing.  This  is  one  of  those  improvements  in 
human  conditions,  with  acknowledged  sanitary  and  physical 
advantages,  that  cannot  be  effected  by  any  revolutionary 
methods.  It  would  be  impracticable  to  apply  to  it  a  too 
drastic  exercise  of  the  arm  of  the  law ;  and,  while  heartily 
sympathizing,  Mr.  Burns  is  of  that  way  of  thinking. 

The  members  of  the  deputation  whom  he  so  courteously 
received,  and  on  whose  side  he  ranked  himself,  though  not 
decisively  in  respect  of  ways  and  means  of  arriving  at  the 
long-sought  goal,  have  done  much  to  bring  the  matter  of  air 
pollution  and  purification  to  the  notice  of  the  Government  and 
of  the  public  ;  and  in  this  they  have  done  well.  They  urged 
general  legislation  on  the  lines  of  that  proposed  in  the 
London  County  Council  Bill  (which  has  just  been  under  the 
consideration  of  a  Commons  Committee,  and  which  has 
been  unsuccessful  in  the  matter  of  eliminating  the  qualify- 
ing word  "  black  "  that  appears  before  "  smoke  "  in  present 
legislation),  high  and  cumulative  fines  for  default,  inspection 
by  competent  men,  and  other  things.  But  the  suggestion 
of  more-  immediate  interest  to  us  is  the  one  in  their  memorial 
which  reads :  "  Believing  that  cheap  gas  will  be  a  large 
"  factor  in  the  ultimate  solution  of  the  smoke  question, 
"  we  trust  that  the  Board,  in  dealing  with  the  borrowing 
"  powers  asked  for  by  gas  undertakings,  will  absolutely 
"  prohibit  the  pernicious  practice  of  selling  gas  dear  to 
"  relieve  the  rates.  This  leads  to  wasteful  expenditure,  is 
"  unfair  to  large  users  of  gas,  and  prevents  the  development 
"  of  this  clean  and  civilized  way  of  obtaining  heat  and 
"  power."  Parliament  has  been  working  to  that  end  (as 
witness  the  Salford  Bill,  the  Oldham  Act,  and  the  Glasgow 
Bill)  in  this  and  last  session ;  and  the  pointed  reference  to 

the  subject  by  the  deputation,  will  give  strong  support  to  the 
new  parliamentary  policy.  Mr.  Burns  said  frankly  that  he 
fully  sympathized  with  this  particular  view  of  those  who  had 
sought  his  assistance  ;  and  his  words  show — if  it  was  not 
plain  to  all  before — which  way  the  legislative  wind  has  set 
in  the  matter  of  the  curtailment  of  abused  liberty.  If  local 
facts  were  within  the  knowledge  of  Mr.  Burns,  it  must  have 
been  interesting  to  him  to  hear  Mr.  Councillor  Smith,  of 
Glasgow,  denouncing  the  taking  of  gas  profits  for  the  relief 
of  the  rates,  and  then  to  have  before  him  Mr.  Alderman 
Fildes,  of  Manchester,  in  which  city  not  only  are  gas  profits 
taken,  but  reserves  have  to  be  broken  into,  to  satiate  the 
municipal  mania  for  rate  relief.  The  Alderman  spoke  of  the 
staff  of  inspectors  that  is  maintained  in  smoke  begrimed 
and  enveloped  Manchester ;  but  he  did  not  say  why  it  is  that 
Manchester  does  not  render  it  largely  uneconomical  to  use 
smoke-producing  fuels  by  making  it  more  economical  to 
employ  gaseous  and  therefore  smokeless  fuels. 

With  practical  foresight,  Mr.  Burns  had  been  to  the 
trouble  of  informing  himself  what  part  the  Gaslight  and 
Coke  and  South  Metropolitan  Gas  Companies  had  taken 
in  relieving  the  atmosphere  of  London  of  its  miasmatic  con- 
ditions ;  and  he  had  learned  that  of  gas-fires,  gas-cookers, 
ring-burners,  and  hot-water  heaters — not  counting  privately 
purchased  ones — the  two  Companies  (omitting  the  Commer- 
cial Company)  had  fixed  no  less  than  1,300,000.  Such  a 
considerable  displacement  of  solid  fuel  as  this  represents 
has  assuredly  worked  substantial  good  for  London  ;  for  the 
myriads  of  domestic  chimneys  must  be  as  harmful  as,  if  not 
more  so  than,  the  lesser  number  of  factory  chimneys,  though 
individually  the  latter  may  be  equal  to  several  active  members 
of  the  less  (individually)  prominent  order.  This  inquiry  on 
the  part  of  the  President  no  doubt  gave  strength  to  his  view 
that  more  good  in  regard  to  smoke  suppression  may  be  anti- 
cipated from  the  progress  of  facilities  for  using  gaseous  fuel 
than  from  any  general  legislation.  This  being  so.  Parliament 
will  be  conferring  public  advantage  by  relieving  the  gas 
industry  of  repressive  legislation,  and  by  discountenancing, 
in  the  case  of  gas  companies,  the  demands  of  electricity- 
competing  local  authorities  that  aim  at,  and  can  only  have 
the  effect  of,  deterring  that  progress  which  is  admitted  by 
thinking  men  to  be  to  the  benefit  of  the  public. 

Some  More  Municipal  Gas-Works  Results. 

Since  reference  was  last  made  in  these  columns,  some  few 
weeks  ago,  to  the  results  which  have  attended  the  past  financial 
year's  working  of  gas  undertakings  owned  by  local  authorities, 
there  has  been  a  large  call  on  the  space  in  our  news  section  for 
the  setting  forth  of  further  statistics.  The  features  which  first 
claim  attention  vary  according  to  the  circumstances  of  different 
cases,  But  reports  are,  collectively  and  individually,  of  a  satis- 
factory character ;  and  it  looks  as  though  it  will  be  long  ere  gas 
yields  up  the  excellent  position  which  it  has  so  long  held  among 
the  records  of  municipal  trading  departments.  There  is  a  balance 
at  Bolton  to  carry  to  the  profit  and  loss  account  of  ;^'49,788,  com- 
pared with  £50, ^gS  the  previous  year;  and  out  of  a  net  balance 
of  ^24,243,  the  Committee  have  voted  ;^20,ooo  in  aid  of  the  dis- 
trict rate.  The  gas  made  was  986  million  cubic  feet,  against 
gyoi  millions  in  1939.  A  net  profit  of  ^18,191  is  reported  from 
Coventry,  compared  with  £22^6;  and  the  Engineer  (Mr.  Fletcher 
W.  Stevenson)  has  been  given  a  considerable  increase  in  bis 
salary.  Of  the  profits,  £4000  is  to  be  paid  over  to  the  general 
district  fund  in  aid  of  rates,  13,000  set  aside  towards  meeting 
the  loss  of  capital  occasioned  by  the  abandonment  of  the  old 
works,  and  £4^0  applied  to  the  payment  of  a  bonus  to  workpeople 
in  the  department.  The  price  of  gas  is  also  to  be  reduced  id.  per 
1000  cubic  feet  to  ordinary  consumers,  and  2d.  to  prepayment 
meter  users.  Devonport  has  had  one  of  its  most  profitable  years 
as  a  municipal  gas  undertaking,  with  an  increase  of  42  per  cent,  in 
the  sales  of  gas,  and  a  net  profit  of  £i474-  Since  1903,  the  first 
year  in  which  the  Corporation  had  control  of  the  undertaking,  the 
unaccounted-for  gas  has  decreased  from  yi  to  2-1  per  cent.  The 
accounts  of  the  Edinburgh  and  Leith  Commissioners  show  a  net 
balance  of  £io,j7-i,  and  an  increase  in  the  quantity  of  gas  sold  of 
80  million  cubic  feet.  Consequent,  however,  on  a  reduction  in 
price,  the  revenue  from  gas  is  less  by  ^^2894  than  the  preceding 
year— a  falling  off  which  was  about  balanced  by  a  greater  return 
from  residual  products.  The  report  and  balance-sheet  at  Hebden 
Bridge  are  stated  to  be  "  very  favourable  indeed."  There  is  a 
bigger  gross  profit,  partly  owing  to  the  lower  cost  of  coal,  and 


[July  5,  1910. 

partly  to  an  increased  make  per  ton,  against  which,  however,  had 
to  be  set  a  reduction  in  the  price  of  gas.  The  gross  profit  at 
Leeds  is  £c)8,22i,  against  £()i,58j  a  year  ago.  The  rates  will 
benefit  to  the  extent  of  ^6000.  There  is  a  falling  off  in  the  sale  of 
gas  of  3i  per  cent. — attributable  to  depression  in  trade,  larger 
use  of  incandescent  burners,  and  also  the  extraordinarily  bright 
winter.  Naturally,  the  report  is  considered  satisfactory  by  the 
Committee,  seeing  that  there  is  a  substantially  larger  gross  profit, 
in  spite  of  a  falling  off  of  99  million  cubic  feet  in  the  quantity 
of  gas  sold.  At  Lincoln,  there  is  a  gross  profit  of  ;£^i4,235,  com- 
pared with  £i2,r)g6  for  the  preceding  year.  Of  the  net  profit  of 
;^6300,  a  sum  of  ^3000  is  to  go  to  the  rates.  The  gas  supplied 
was  8^  million  feet  more  than  in  the  previous  year,  following 
an  increase  of  13^  millions  reported  twelve  months  ago.  This, 
again,  is  regarded  as  very  satisfactory,  considering  the  competition 
of  the  Electricity  Committee. 

The  new  Committee  of  the  Council  of  the  County  Borough 
of  Stoke-on-Trent  also  regard  the  accounts  of  the  Longton  Gas- 
Works  for  the  past  financial  year  as  being  "  very  satisfactory." 
Certainly,  there  are  two  or  three  salient  features  about  the  results 
which  cannot  be  looked  upon  as  anything  else  than  eminently 
satisfactory.  lu  the  first  place,  the  make  of  gas  per  ton  of  coal— 
12,900  cubic  feet,  of  an  average  illuminating  power  of  15-8  candles, 
tested  with  the  No.  2  burner — constitutes  a  record;  as  also  does 
the  sale  of  12,100  feet  per  ton.  Then  the  figure  for  leakage  (for 
a  mining  district)  is  small,  at  4-59  per  cent.  The  price  of  gas 
during  the  whole  year  was  2s.  6d.  per  1000  cubic  feet  for  lighting, 
and  from  2s.  3d.  to  is.  9d.,  according  to  quantity,  for  power.  By 
the  new  Act  federating  the  Pottery  Towns  into  the  united  County 
Borough  of  Stoke-on-Trent,  gas  has  to  be  sold  at  cost  price;  and 
the  price  at  Longton  has  therefore  been  reduced  to  2s.  id.  per  1000 
cubic  feet.  Under  the  old  conditions,  cottages  have  been  supplied 
with  slot  meter  and  fittings  at  the  rate  of  about  300  per  annum  ; 
and  in  this  way,  2200  consumers  have  been  added,  and  the  in- 
stallations paid  for  out  of  revenue.  A  remarkable  fact  about 
the  Longton  gas  undertaking  is  that  there  are  about  5800  slot 
consumers  and  only  1637  ordinary  meter  users.  The  gas  sold 
last  year  was  1-9  per  cent,  more  than  in  the  preceding  twelve 
months.  A  sum  of  ;^'5ooo  has  been  paid  over  to  the  borough 
fund  in  relief  of  the  rates,  compared  with  ^^"3000  for  the  pre- 
vious year.  The  gross  profit  at  Market  Harborough  remains 
about  the  same  at  ^2700;  a  reduction  made  in  the  price  of  gas 
a  year  ago  having  adversely  affected  the  revenue.  Coal  cost  less, 
though  the  production  of  gas  increased  by  nearly  2  million  cubic 
feet;  the  make  being  11,800  cubic  feet  per  ton,  against  11,567 
feet  the  twelve  months  before. 

Better  trade  has  led  to  an  increased  consumption  at  Ossett ; 
but  the  growth  has  been  checked  by  the  more  general  use  of  incan- 
descent burners.  A  good  feature  of  the  accounts  is  the  fact  that, 
though  the  sale  of  gas  last  year  was  a  record  one,  the  make  was 
not ;  there  having  been  a  great  saving  in  unaccounted-for  gas. 
There  is  a  good  showing,  too,  at  Smethwick,  where  the  consump- 
tion through  prepayment  meters  has  gone  up  9'28  per  cent. ;  small 
ordinary  consumers  have  taken  2'28  per  cent,  more ;  and  there  is 
an  increase  of  2  per  cent,  in  the  quantity  supplied  for  public  light- 
ing. On  the  other  hand,  a  slight  reduction  is  shown  in  the  large 
consumers  for  lighting ;  but  the  quantity  sold  for  power  and 
manufacturing  purposes  is  recovering.  The  total  quantity  sold 
shows  an  increase  of  2  per  cent.  Public  lighting  supplied  free 
of  charge  is  valued  at  £4367 ;  and  1000  was  contributed  to  the 
cost  of  the  new  Council  House.  At  Stafford,  the  unaccounted-for 
gas  has  reached  the  lowest  figure  in  the  history  of  the  concern — 
1-07  per  cent.  The  gross  profit  was  ;f  15,281,  as  compared  with 
£h^754^  preceding  year.  Under  the  profit-sharing  arrangement, 
the  clerks  and  workmen  get  a  bonus  of  9-25  per  cent,  on  their 
wages ;  reductions  are  made  in  the  charges  for  gas  ;  and  a  sum  of 
£3500  goes  in  relief  of  the  rates.  Stourbridge  gives  ;^;"i88o  to  the 
rates  ;  and  a  feature  of  the  accounts  is  the  reduction  of  leakage. 
Sales  of  gas  show  an  increase  of  yi  million  cubic  feet ;  while  the 
make  has  increased  by  less  than  4  millions.  This  means  a  reduc- 
tion in  the  unaccounted-for  gas  of  almost  2  per  cent,  on  the 
amount  made.  In  seven  years,  at  Teignmouth,  there  has  been  an 
increase  of  75  per  cent,  in  the  output  of  gas;  and  reductions  in 
price  are  the  order  of  the  day.  The  make  of  gas  at  Wolstanton 
was  12,255  cubic  feet  per  ton.  There  is  a  sum  of  ^"4747  to  go  to 
the  profit  and  loss  account. 

The  Report  of  the  Chief  Inspector  of  Alkali  Works. 

The  annual  report  of  the  Chief  Inspector  under  the  Alkali 
Works.  Regulation  Act,  1906,  was  issued  yesterday,  and  some 
extracts  from  it  will  be  found  elsewhere.  It  is  the  forty-sixth  of 
the  series,  and  deals  with  the  proceedings  during  the  past  year 
of  the  Chief  Inspector  and  his  various  colleagues  who  have  the 
supervision  of  districts.  It  is  satisfactory  to  find  it  recorded  that, 
though  1857  works  were  under  inspection,  involving  5600  visits 
and  the  making  of  6252  tests,  no  action  had  to  be  taken  against 
the  owners  of  registered  works  for  infraction  of  any  of  the  penal 
clauses  of  the  Act ;  and  testimony  is  borne  to  the  readiness  with 
which  manufacturers  meet  the  requirements  of  the  Legislature. 
The  report  contains,  as  usual,  statistics,  furnished  to  the  Chief 
Inspector,  in  regard  to  the  production  of  ammonia  from  all 
sources  in  the  United  Kingdom  last  year.  They  show  an  increase 
in  all  cases  but  gas-works,  the  supply  from  which  fell  off  to  the 
extent  of  about  1000  tons.  Coke-oven  works,  on  the  other  hand, 
furnished  upwards  of  18,000  tons  more.  A  large  portion  of  the 
report  is  occupied  with  a  continuation  of  the  important  series  of 
studies  in  coal  carbonizing,  which  have  of  late  years  occupied  the 
Chief  Inspector  and  his  Assistant  (Mr.  S.  E,  Linder,  B.Sc.) ;  the 
interaction  of  methane  and  ammonia  in  the  presence  of  carbon 
being  investigated.  Although  the  report  bears  the  signature  of 
Mr.  R.  Forbes  Carpenter,  he  was  unfortunately  unable,  owing  to 
continued  ill-health,  to  do  more  than  supervise  its  preparation 
by  Mr.  Linder.  He  has  now,  as  readers  are  aware,  relinquished 
the  position  of  Chief  Inspector,  which  he  had  held  since  the  re- 
tirement of  Mr.  A.  E.  Fletcher  in  1895.  These  annual  reports 
have  always  had  a  certain  amount  of  interest  for  our  readers ; 
but  it  has  increased  immensely  of  late  years,  owing  to  the  investi- 
gations bearing  upon  matters  affecting  the  gas  industry  initiated 
by  Mr.  Carpenter,  a  fitting  recognition  of  which  was  recently 
made  by  the  Institution  of  Gas  Engineers  by  his  election  as  an 
honorary  member.  It  may  be  hoped  the  new  Chief  Inspector, 
Mr.  William  S.  Curphey,  will  have  opportunities  of  continuing 
the  work  of  his  predecessor  in  the  direction  indicated. 

The  Eight  Hour  Act  Again. 

Once  more,  it  seems.  South  Wales  coal  miners  are  between 
the — coal  owners  and  the  Miners'  Federation  of  Great  Britain. 
The  new  wages  agreement  recently  signed  for  that  field,  by  one 
of  its  clauses,  provided  for  overlapping  shifts  being  worked  when 
required  by  the  owners — the  first  shift  starting  at  6  a.m.,  and 
finishing  at  2  p.m. ;  and  the  second  starting  at  9  a.m.,  and  finish- 
ing at  5  p.m.,  which  gave  eleven  hours  continuous  winding,  and 
also  time  for  repairs  to  machinery,  &c.  So  far  so  good ;  but  the 
second  shift  men  raised  a  problem  by  refusing  to  work  later  than 
2  p.m.  on  Saturdays,  thus  making  their  shift  one  of  five  hours, 
which  the  owners  declined  to  regard  as  a  day's  work.  Hence 
the  clause  referred  to  was  made  to  provide  that  on  Saturdays 
the  second  shift  should  start  and  finish  at  the  same  time  as  the 
first  shift.  But  inasmuch  as  an  earlier  start  would  be  impossible 
under  the  present  Act  for  the  men  who  finished  at  5  p.m.  the 
preceding  day — in  view  of  the  section  which  prohibits  any  miner 
from  entering  the  pit  for  a  second  shift  of  eight  hours  within  one 
period  of  twenty-four  hours — it  was  understood  that  the  miners 
and  owners  would  co-operate  in  supporting  an  amending  Bill,  in 
order  to  get  rid  of  the  obstacle.  The  Board  of  Trade  were  ap- 
proached ;  and  the  President  undertook,  conditionally  on  the 
miners  agreeing  to  the  settlement,  to  introduce  a  measure  to 
legaHze  the  beginning  of  the  working  shift  on  Saturday  within  the 
twenty-four  hours  from  the  starting  of  work  on  Friday  morning. 
In  these  circumstances,  a  conference  of  the  Miners'  Federation 
of  Great  Britain  was  held  last  week  to  consider  the  position  and 
determine  whether  the  Federation  should  oppose  any  amending 
Bill,  assist  in  getting  it  passed,  or  remain  inactive.  The  decision 
come  to  was  absolutely  against  the  introduction  of  any  amending 
Bill ;  for  the  conference  agreed  that  any  such  measure  should 
be  opposed.  Seemingly,  their  attitude  is  that  the  double-shift 
system  has  worked  well  elsewhere,  and  so  should  do  for  the  South 
Wales  miners — instead  of  any  overlapping  shifts.  But  the  South 
Wales  workers  have  entered  into  an  agreement  which  they  are 
now  unable  to  keep — for  it  would  be  futile  to  introduce  the 
amending  Bill  under  existing  circumstances.  What  are  they  to 
do  ?  Will  the  men  agree  to  work  till  5  p.m.  on  Saturdays ;  if 
not,  will  the  employers  reopen  the  whole  question  of  the  settle- 
ment, on  the  ground  that  this  enforced  breaking  of  the  terms 

July  5,  1910.] 



of  the  agreement  by  the  men  justifies  fresh  consideration  of  the 
entire  matter  ?  Probably  this  trouble  will  be  surmounted  as 
previous  ones  have  been  in  connection  with  the  Eight  Hour  Act ; 
but  in  the  meantime  it  affords  still  one  more  object-lesson  on  the 
shortsightedness  of  the  Government  in  passing  such  a  measure. 
The  continuous  friction  which  has  been  in  evidence  since  the  Act 
came  into  being,  is,  however,  nothing  more  than  might  reasonably 
have  been  expected  as  the  result  of  State  interference  with  sucli 
a  highly  organized  industry  as  that  of  coal  mining. 

The  Nitrate  of  Soda  Market. 

The  first  six  months  of  the  present  year  have  proved  an  active 
period  for  the  nitrate  of  soda  market ;  the  world's  consumption 
having  amounted  to  1,577,000  tons,  compared  with  1,273,000 
tons  in  the  corresponding  period  of  igog — or  an  increase  of  24  per 
cent.  Belgium  took  20  per  cent,  more,  France  16  per  cent.,  and 
Germany  13  per  cent.  In  the  case  of  America,  the  increase  is 
no  less  than  61  per  cent.,  and  Holland  51  per  cent.  The  United 
Kingdom  absorbed  10  per  cent,  more  than  in  the  corresponding 
period.  In  their  half-yearly  report,  with  a  copy  of  which  we  have 
been  favoured,  Messrs.  W.  Montgomery  and  Co.  give  statistics 
of  the  growth  of  the  nitrate  industry  through  the  past  thirty-five 
years.  In  1S76,  in  the  United  Kingdom  and  the  Continent  of 
Europe,  the  consumption  was  270,000  tons.  During  the  ten  years 
to  1886,  the  increase  was  33  per  cent.;  while  in  the  following  ten 
years,  the  growth  was  no  less  than  166  per  cent.  From  i8g6  to 
igo6,  the  consumption  went  up  28  per  cent. ;  and  since  the  last- 
named  year,  an  increase  of  34  per  cent,  has  been  registered.  In 
1831,  the  world's  consumption  of  nitrate — all  of  which  was  ab- 
sorbed in  the  United  Kingdom — was  100  tons.  Up  to  1876, 
Europe  was  practically  the  only  consumer ;  but  after  this  time, 
nitrate  rapidly  took  a  more  prominent  position  in  other  places. 
For  instance,  in  the  United  States,  from  1882  to  i8g2  the  increase 
in  consumption  was  66  per  cent. ;  from  i8g2  to  igo2,  go  per  cent. ; 
and  from  igo2  to  date,  171  per  cent.  In  "other  countries,"  the 
increase  in  the  period  extending  from  iSg6  to  igo6  was  400  per 
cent. ;  and  since  the  last-named  year,  an  addition  of  g5  per  cent, 
has  been  registered.  Combination  among  producers  has  during 
the  past  six  months  received  the  usual  amount  of  attention  ;  but 
always  with  the  same  negative  results.  The  consequence  has 
been  a  period  of  low  prices  and,  as  already  shown,  large  con- 
sumption. Prices  during  the  half  year  have  varied  to  the  extent 
of  about  lod.  per  cwt.  for  prompt  nitrate  in  Chili,  and  is.  id. 
per  cwt.  for  arrived  cargoes.  Early  in  January  the  quotation  for 
arrived  cargoes  was  7s.  iid.  to  Ss.  per  cwt.,  cost  and  freight; 
while  the  coming  of  June  found  the  price  of  cargoes  steady  in  the 
vicinity  of  8s.  i|d.  to  8s.  3^d.  per  cwt.,  cost  and  freight. 

The  Financial  Aspect  of  Municipal  Trading. 

Reference  was  made  last  week  to  the  Inaugural  Address  of 
the  President  of  the  Institute  of  Municipal  Treasurers  and  Ac- 
countants, some  of  whose  conclusions  on  the  subject  of  municipal 
trading  were  briefly  noted.  This  is  a  question  which  concerns 
officials  of  local  governing  bodies;  and  therefore  it  is  not  sur- 
prising to  find  that  there  was  also  a  paper  read  by  one  of  the 
members  at  the  meeting,  on  "  Municipal  Trading  from  the 
Financial  Standpoint."  The  author  was  Mr.  S.  S.  Dawson,  the 
Chairman  of  the  Finance  Committee  of  the  Wallasey  District 
Council,  and  Professor  of  Accounting  at  the  Birmingham  Uni- 
versity; and,  assuming  the  advisability  of  municipal  trading,  be 
submitted  that  the  requirements  of  sound  finance  in  this  connec- 
tion could  be  summarized  somewhat  as  follows  :  (i)  The  capital 
invested  in  a  municipal  trading  undertaking  being  raised  by  loans, 
the  redemption  of  such  debt,  the  provision  for  depreciation  of 
assets,  and  the  raising  of  reserve  funds  to  provide  for  possible 
contingencies,  should  be  arranged  so  as  to  adjust  the  position 
fairly  as  between  present-day  ratepayers  and  their  successors. 
(2)  The  control  of  a  municipal  trading  undertaking  being  in  the 
hands  of  the  representatives  of  the  ratepayers,  and  ratepayers 
not  being  quite  synonymous  with  consumers  or  users,  the  prices 
charged  for  the  commodity,  supply,  or  benefit  (as  the  case  may 
be),  and  the  quality  or  extent  thereof,  should  be  such  as  will 
adjust  the  position  fairly  as  between  ratepayers  and  consumers 
or  users  in  their  respective  capacities.  They  might,  he  thought, 
take  it  that,  on  the  average  at  any  rate,  the  period  fixed  for  the 
redemption  of  a  loan  on  a  wasting  asset  was  fairly  commensurate 
jyith  the  life  of  the  asset ;  and  that  in  the  case  of  lasting  assets, 

the  period  of  loan  redemption  was  necessarily  less  than  the  life 
Under  these  circumstances,  as  between  present  and  future  rate- 
payers, they  were  not  called  upon  to  do  anything  further  out  of 
revenue  than  keep  the  undertaking  in  good  repair  and  working 
order,  keep  down  the  annual  interest  on  the  loan,  and  provide 
the  periodical  instalments  necessary  to  redeem  the  debt  within 
the  stipulated  period — "  such  instalments  being  equivalent  to  de- 
preciation in  every  sense  of  the  term."  A  sum  for  contingencies, 
it  was  admitted,  was  obviously  necessary  ;  but  the  amount  of  this 
must  depend  upon,  and  vary  with,  the  circumstances  of  each 
particular  case. 

Depreciation  and  Reserve. 

Mr.  Dawson  went  on  to  argue  that,  under  existing  regulations 
affecting  municipal  finance,  either  adequate  depreciation  fund 
contributions  or  the  statutory  sinking  fund  contributions,  which- 
ever be  the  greater,  should  be  charged  against  revenue,  in  order 
to  ascertain  the  true  profit.  There  should,  he  contended,  be  a 
more  careful  consideration  of  circumstances  affecting  proposed 
loans  than  was  afforded  at  present  by  either  Parliament  or  the 
Government  Departments.  Local  authorities  should  be  given 
such  a  period  within  which  the  loans  should  be  redeemed  that  it 
would  involve  such  contributions  to  the  sinking  funds  as  might 
certainly  be  regarded  as  fully  sufficient  to  protect  the  succeeding 
generation,  "  thus  dismissing  the  discretionary  question  of  depre- 
ciation from  the  province  of  each  local  authority,  and  bringing 
the  voluntary  provision  of  reserve  funds  within  a  comparatively 
small  compass."  Referring  to  the  report  of  the  Joint  Select  Com- 
mittee on  Municipal  Trading  issued  some  years  back,  Mr.  Dawson 
pointed  out  that  one  of  the  recommendations  was  that  the  pro- 
fessional auditors  whose  appointment  was  contemplated  should 
be  required  to  express  an  opinion  upon  the  necessity  of  reserve 
funds,  the  sums  set  aside  to  meet  depreciation  and  obsolescence 
of  plant,  in  addition  to  the  contributions  to  the  statutory  sinking 
funds,  and  the  adequacy  of  such  amounts.  While  hoping  that 
some  day  the  recommendations  of  the  Select  Committee  with 
regard  to  audit  would  be  carried  into  effect,  he  also  expressed 
the  wish  that  at  the  same  time  some  statutory  guidance  would  be 
aff'orded  to  auditors  on  this  important  point.  It  would,  he  con- 
cluded, be  of  little  use  instituting  "  a  uniform  system  of  audit  "  if 
one  of  the  dominant  factors  of  the  financial  position  was  to  be 
left  dependent  upon  the  personal  opinion  of  a  single  individual 
however  able,  who  had  neither  statutory  precepts  nor  a  united 
profession  to  assist  him. 

Thermal  Conductivity  of  Fire-Clay. — The  thermal  conductivity 
of  fire-clay  has  been  investigated  by  Messrs.  J.  K.  Clement  and 
W.  L.  Egy  at  the  Engineering  Experiment  Station  of  the  Univer- 
sity of  Illinois,  to  obtain  information  concerning  the  loss  of  heat 
through  the  walls  of  boiler  furnaces.  A  resistance  coil  was  in- 
serted in  a  fire-clay  cylinder  about  16  inches  long  and  4'8  inches 
diameter,  provided  with  a  hole  about  i'4  inches  diameter  for  the 
coil.  Four  small  longitudinal  holes  were  made  for  the  insertion 
of  thermocouples  for  measuring  the  temperature.  The  test  cylin- 
der was  then  inserted  in  a  larger  fire  clay  cylinder,  in  order  to 
maintain  higher  temperatures  in  the  former,  and  obtain  a  more 
uniform  radiation  from  it.  The  ends  were  covered  to  prevent 
any  loss  of  heat  there.  The  electrical  apparatus  was  arranged  so 
that  a  current  could  be  kept  constant  within  a  variation  of  o'l 
ampere  for  several  hours.  Twelve  cylinders  were  tested,  em- 
bracing three  varieties  of  fire-clay.  The  conductivity  ranged 
from  0'0022i  to  o'00352,  averaging  0-00267. 

Siphonic  Action  with  Wells. — Siphonic  action  is  the  means  by 
which  water  from  50  Zw  inch  driven  wells  of  the  Woburn  (Mass.) 
supply  is  conveyed  to  the  pit  from  which  it  is  pumped  into  the 
the  distribution  system.  The  wells  are  connected  to  the  pump 
pit  by  a  i4-inch  cast-iron  pipe,  which  extends  downwards  almost 
to  the  bottom.  The  high  point  in  the  line  where  air  may  collect 
is  tapped  by  two  25  inch  pipes,  which  are  connected  to  a  closed 
tank  at  the  pumping-station.  Air  is  exhausted  from  this  tank  and 
the  pipe-line  by  a  small  vacuum  pump  operated  by  a  water-wheel 
using  ordinary  town  pressure,  and  siphonic  action  occurs,  filling 
the  pipe  and  tank  with  water.  The  air-pump  is  put  out  of  action 
by  a  float  regulator  in  the  tank  as  the  water  rises  in  it.  Air  which 
accumulates  during  the  operation  of  the  siphon  enters  the  tank, 
and  consequently  lowers  the  water  level  in  it.  The  float  there- 
fore descends,  and  the  air-pump  is  started  automatically,  exhaust- 
ing the  accumulated  air.  With  this  device  practically  no  atten- 
dance is  necessary.  The  cost  of  conveying  the  water  by  this 
method  is  about  12c.  per  day,  according  to  the  last  annual  report 
of  Mr.  W.  H.  Conway,  the  Commissioner  of  Water  and  Water 
Supply.  It  is  said  that  the  vacuum  pump  requires  about  10,000 
gallons  of  water  daily,  and  that  this  is  sufficient  to  draw  from  i  to 

million  gallons  from  the  wells,  if  the  ground  water  stands  suffi- 
ciently above  the  level  in  the  pump  well. 



[July  5,  1910. 


(For  Stock  and  Share  List,  see  p.  65.) 
The  Stock  Exchange  has  not  had  an  entirely  happy  week.  First, 
there  was  discontent  at  the  persistent  and  intolerable  stagna- 
tion of  business ;  and  next,  the  collapse  of  the  American  Rail- 
way Market  under  the  Government  thunderbolt  launched  against 
traffic  rates.  This  engine  assumed  a  less  menacing  aspect  before 
the  close ;  but  it  had  already  upset  things  a  good  deal.  The 
opening  day  was  dull  and  languid,  and  movements  were  mostly 
for  the  worse.  Gilt-edged  securities  were  weaker,  and  Consols 
fell  5 ;  but  Home  Rails  were  fairly  firm.  The  tendency  on 
Tuesday  was  quite  as  bad.  Consols  were  unchanged,  but  Rails 
were  weaker;  the  Foreign  Market  was  heavy,  and  Americans 
shaky.  Wednesday  was  not  so  gloomy,  and  one  or  two  spots 
brightened  up.  Consols  advanced  ^,  Railways  hardened,  and 
even  Americans  were  not  quite  so  bad.  Thursday  was  the  worst 
of  the  week.  The  rout  of  American  Rails  caused  much  agita- 
tion; and  its  evil  influence  imparted  great  uneasiness  elsewhere. 
Consols  fell  \,  and  Home  Rails  gave  way,  while  most  of  the  rest 
were  worse.  But  on  Friday  calmer  views  prevailed,  and  a  feel- 
ing of  relief  was  promoted  bv  some  recovery  in  Americans ;  so 
that  prices  looked  up  a  bit.  The  improved  feeling  lasted  through 
Saturday  ;  but  Consols  were  put  down  on  the  announcement  of  a 
;£"4,ooo,ooo  Irish  loan  at  what  looked  a  cheap  price.  In  the  Money 
Market,  there  was  a  strong  demand  for  the  Stock  Exchange 
settlement  and  for  the  half-year's  end  that  kept  rates  up  ;  but 
discount  terms  were  easier.  Business  in  the  Gas  Market  was  on 
a  fair  average  scale ;  and  the  general  tendency  was  good.  There 
were  not  many  changes  in  quotations  excepting  those  caused  by 
ex  div.  adjustments.  In  Gaslight  and  Coke  issues,  the  ordinary 
was  only  moderately  busy,  but  firm  as  a  rock — all  transactions 
being  within  the  limits  of  1045  and  104I.  In  the  secured  issues, 
the  maximum  realized  go,  the  preference  104^^  and  105^,  and  the 
debenture  82  cum  div.  and  8o|  and  81^  ex  div.  South  Metro- 
politan was  very  quiet  and  firm,  marking  from  121  to  122.  In 
Commercials,  there  were  dealings  in  the  4  per  cent,  at  from  107I 
to  109,  and  one  in  the  3I  per  cent,  at  103^.  The  debenture 
fetched  80  and  8i\  ex  div.  Among  Suburban  and  Provincial, 
Alliance  and  Dublin  changed  hands  at  81  ^  (a  fall  of  i),  Brent- 
ford old  at  253f,  ditto  new  at  189^,  British  at  44I-  and  44J, 
and  South  Suburban  at  122.  On  the  local  Exchange,  Chester 
was  done  at  109^,  and  Liverpool  "  A  "  at  220.  In  the  Continen- 
tal companies.  Imperial  was  steady  at  from  178}  to  179.',  ditto 
debenture  realized  94^^  and  955,  and  Tuscan  g^;^  and  9?.  Among 
the  undertakings  of  the  remoter  world,  Bombay  was  dealt  in  at 
6^f,  Cape  Town  mortgage  at  49^,  Hong  Kong  at  171V  and  17;', 
Primitiva  at  from  jy,;  to  yj,  ditto  preference  at  from  5;  to  5,',, 
ditto  debenture  at  from  97!  to  98^,  and  San  Paulo  at  15^  and  isf. 


The  Indirect  Financial  Disadvantages — Poor  Commercial  Abilities  of 
Municipal  Electrical  Engineers— Municipal  Combination  for 
Securing  Electrical  Powers— As  Others  See  Us,  and  We  Them. 

In  several  towns  in  which  the  electric  supply  is  run  by  munici- 
palities, the  ratepayers  have  learned  to  their  cost  that  such  pos- 
session and  management  have  their  disadvantages.  Rates  in  aid 
and  heavier  bills  for  public  lighting  have  largely  accompanied 
this  form  of  municipal  speculation.  But  there  are  other  ways  in 
which  the  ratepayers  have  suffered  injury,  which  perhaps  are  not 
so  obvious,  but  are  nevertheless  existent.  It  is  one  of  the  illogical 
claims  of  municipal  adventurers  that,  although  municipal  owner- 
ship of  the  electric  supply  has  caused  direct  burdens  to  fall  upon 
the  ratepayers,  there  have  to  be  set  against  this  the  reductions  in 
the  price  of  gas  that  competition  has  forced.  Such  claims  sliding- 
scale  gas  companies  can  afford  to  treat  good-humouredly,  knowing 
full  well  that,  without  any  electrical  competition,  the  incentive  to 
reduce  prices  is  quite  sufficient ;  seeing  that,  only  by  reduction  of 
price,  can  increased  dividends  be  paid  to  the  shareholders.  And 
it  is  a  well-recognized  fact  that  the  lower  the  price  of  gas,  the  greater, 
under  normal  conditions,  is  the  tendency  to  increased  consump- 
tion ;  and  the  greater  the  output,  the  lower  the  productive  and  dis- 
tributing costs,  per  unit  of  gas  sold,  under  circumstances  ruling 
at  the  time.  Moreover,  the  whole  development  of  the  process  of 
gas  manufacture  has  been  to  bring  about  productive  economy, 
resulting  in  lower  charges  to  consumers.  That  there  are  companies 
who  are  in  a  position  now  to  sell,  because  they  produce,  from 
1000  to  2000  cubic  feet  of  gas  more  per  ton  of  coal  carbonized 
than  they  did  formerly,  is  not  by  any  means  due  to  electrical 
competition.  But  this  increased  production  means  an  ability  to 
sell  at  a  lower  cost  than  would  be  the  case  if  the  development  in 
manufacturing  economy  had  not  taken  place.  If  there  had  not 
been  rate-aided  competition,  and  withdrawal  of  the  public  lighting 
from  the  gas  company  (causing  a  smaller  demand  for  gas  than 
would  otherwise  have  been  the  case),  and  if  there  had  not  been 
heavier  payments  through  the  rates  in  support  of  the  municipal 
electricity  concern,  gas  could  have  been,  and  would  have  been 
by  sliding-scale  gas  companies,  supplied  at  a  still  lower  price  than 
the  present.  That  would  have  been  a  decided  gain  to  the  com- 
munity. Both  it  and  the  costs  inflicted  upon  the  ratepayers  by 
the  electricity  concern  are,  however,  losses  to  the  community. 

Besides,  seeing  that  gas  making  and  distribution  employ  more 
labour  proportionately  than  electricity,  the  extent  to  which  elec- 
tricity has  prevented  the  development  of  gas  supply  has  been 
derogatory  to  the  wage-earning  power  of  the  working  classes. 
These  considerations  clearly  show  that  municipal  speculation  in 
electricity  supply  has  had  its  indirect,  as  well  as  its  direct,  finan- 
cial disadvantages. 

The  contributor  of  Electrical  Notes  in  "  The  Times  Engineering 
Supplement "  does  not  think  much  of  the  commercial  abilities  of 
the  part  of  the  electrical  profession  in  municipal  service  ;  and  his 
remarks  on  the  subject  draw  from  the  background  of  our  memory 
criticism  that  has  been  passed  here  on  the  financial  failure  of 
their  work  and  endeavours.  But  if  the  charge  is  true  as  to  the 
mediocre  character  of  the  commercial  abilities  of  these  profes- 
sionals, it  is  not  from  want  of  much  talking  and  writing ;  and 
some  of  it  has  been  rather  bizarre  in  character,  as  has  often  been 
disclosed  in  the  "  Memoranda."  Only  last  week  we  were  point- 
ing to  some  examples  of  grotesque  thought  on  commercial  sub- 
jects, extracted  from  certain  papers  read  iDefore  the  Incorporated 
Municipal  Electrical  Association  at  Glasgow.  And  it  seems  that 
the  same  papers  have  provoked  "  The  Times  "  writer  to  speak  his 
mind.  He  alludes  especially  to  the  paper  by  Mr.  A.  C.  Cramb, 
of  Croydon,  on  "  Commercial  Advancement  of  Electric  Supply ;  " 
and  he  hits  hard  when  he  says  that  there  is  a  good  deal  of  vague 
generality  about  Mr.  Cramb's  remarks  on  the  subject,  and  that, 
as  usual,  it  is  easier  to  discuss  the  diagnosis  than  the  treatment. 
It  may  seem  daring  to  indict  a  whole  electrical  profession  ;  but 
the  writer  in  our  contemporary  asks.  What  use  is  there  in  dis- 
guising the  fact  that  the  members  of  the  Municipal  Electrical 
Association,  in  conference  assembled,  represent  a  body  of 
men  who  have  not  succeeded  in  the  vigorous  commercial  ex- 
ploitation of  electric  supply,  and  have  not  succeeded  for  the 
best  of  all  reasons — viz.,  that  they  do  not  possess  the  right 
qualifications  ?  As  station  engineers,  they  have  acquitted  them- 
selves ably ;  but,  says  their  critic,  they  are  not  tradesmen,  nor 
are  they  really  fitted  even  to  discuss  among  themselves  the  arts 
of  the  pushing  tradesmen,  as  they  may  or  may  not  be  applied  to 
electric  supply. 

The  easy  contempt  of  this  engineering  writer  for  the  commer- 
cial abilities  of  municipal  station  engineers,  makes  his  criticism, 
however  true  it  may  be,  read  a  little  caustic,  though  he  goes 
on  to  show  that  the  blame  cannot  be  entirely  put  upon  the  backs 
of  these  much  harassed  officials.  He  tells  his  readers  that  the 
strength  of  gas  competition  mainly  arises  from  the  money  power 
of  the  gas  industry ;  we  claim  also  that  it  arises  from  practical 
commercial  ability.  He  fails  also  to  perceive  how  at  the  moment 
electric  supply  can  get  on  level  terms  with  the  gas  industry  in 
regard,  for  example,  to  the  cheap  hiring  of  apparatus.  The  fact 
of  the  matter  is  that  the  electricity  industry  is  handicapped  in 
not  having  as  cheap  and  efficient  apparatus  as  the  gas  industry ; 
and  the  very  nature  of  all  that  is  required  to  produce  useful 
effects  from  electric  energy  debars  equality  in  simplicity  and  in 
low  cost.  And  as  to  efficiency — well,  that  is  a  subject  which  we 
can  afford  to  let  pass.  The  criticism  of  the  contributor  to  "  The 
Times"  stands  in  strange  contrast  to  the  fantastic  statements 
(noticed  last  week)  of  the  Electrical  Engineer  of  Newport  (Mon.), 
as  to  the  gas  industry  being  effete  and  moribund.  Mr.  Collings 
Bishop,  the  gentleman  in  question,  is  probably  at  home  again 
sitting  in  his  office  armchair,  simply  watching,  now  that  gas  com- 
petition is  practically  dead,  the  wave  of  business  rolling  into  his 
department.  Why  worry  about  commercial  ability  on  the  part 
of  the  station  engineer,  or  about  the  employment  of  sales  and 
advertising  managers  ?  Commercial  ability,  and  sales  and  ad- 
vertising managers,  are  not  required  for  merely  opening  ledger 
accounts  with  consumers  all  too  willing  to  light,  heat,  and  cook 
by  means  electrical.  There  is  clearly  something  for  our  electrical 
friends  to  do  in  adjusting  the  statements  of  Mr.  Bishop  and  the 
Engineering  Correspondent  of  "The  Times." 

According  to  municipal  dictum,  it  is  decidedly  wrong  of  certain 
gas  companies  to  enter  into  any  combination  to  secure  the  "  Met- 
ropolitan "  No.  2  burner  as  a  standard  for  testing  purposes.  Com- 
bination of  the  kind,  municipally  regarded,  is  against  parliamentary 
usage,  and  is  a  means  of  procuring  legislative  powers  that  are 
inimical  to  the  interests  of  the  public  collectively  and  individually. 
It  is,  in  short,  an  evil  creation  of  ingenious  gas  companies  that 
deserves  to  be  trodden  under  foot,  and  be  put  an  end  to  once  and 
for  all.  The  authorities  who  rule  parliamentary  procedure  do  not 
share  these  views.  They  are  not  convinced  that  it  is  any  part  of 
the  duty  of  the  Legislature  to  place  any  obstacle  in  the  way  of 
legislative  economy.  But  municipal  belief  in  its  own  great  virtues, 
and  disbelief  in  the  commonsense  views  on  this  subject  of  the 
Legislature,  led  to  the  matter  being  put  to  the  test  the  other  day 
with  ill-success,  on  the  second  reading  of  the  Standard  Burner 
Bills.  Before  this  took  place,  the  members  of  the  Municipal  Elec- 
trical Association,  in  conference  in  Glasgow,  were  considering 
whether  some  special  concerted  effort  should  not  be  made  to 
extend,  to  all  municipal  undertakings  identified  with  the  Asso- 
ciation, the  power  of  supplying  wiring,  fittings,  &c.  After  some 
discussion,  a  resolution  was  passed  to  the  effect  that  subscriptions 
be  invited  from  all  municipalities,  whether  members  of  the  Asso- 
ciation or  not,  towards  a  fund  in  support  of  a  Bill  which  would 
extend  wiring  powers  to  all  municipalities.  There  are  a  good 
many  people  (electrical  contractors  among  the  number)  who  are 
opposed  to  any  extension  of  municipal  trading  powers,  and  to  any 
municipal  competition  with  private  local  traders.  Such  a  jointly 
promoted  Bill  for  wiring  and  fittings  powers  would  be  opposed  to 

July  5,  1910.] 



certain  public  and  individual  interests.  And  therefore,  it  would 
be  interesting  to  hear  from  Liverpool  and  the  other  municipal 
authorities  who  were  agitating  over  the  combination  of  gas  com- 
panies in  connection  with  the  Standard  Burner  Bills  what  they 
think  of  this  municipal  proposition  for  promoting  legislation. 

In  the  "  Memoranda  "  for  June  21,  there  appeared  a  few  com- 
ments on  an  article,  with  a  particularly  historic  flavour  about  it, 
on  "  Street  Lighting  :  IClectricity  v.  Gas,"  published  by  the 
"  Electrical  Review."  We  showed  how  completely,  in  this  ques- 
tion of  competition,  our  contemporary — whether  deliberately  or 
unwittingly — was  living  in  the  past.  Either  way,  there  is  no  ex- 
cuse for  not  being  up-to-date  in  the  advances  of  gas  lighting. 
However,  our  contemporary  has  not,  up  to  the  present,  seen  fit  to 
reply  to  any  of  the  points  raised  in  the  comments.  Subsequent 
to  the  penning  of  these,  another  article  on  the  subject  appeared, 
which  need  not  be  noticed  save  one  paragraph.  In  this  we  are 
told  :  "  The  gas  interests  are  fighting  hard  in  their  last  ditch  ;  and 
the  instances  we  refer  to  in  the  present  article  show  how  neces- 
sary it  is  for  all  engaged  in  the  electricity  supply  industry  to  adopt 
the  most  active  publicity  methods  in  order  to  counteract  their 
wiles."  The  "  Electrical  Review  "  is,  it  is  patent,  suffering  from 
the  same  form  of  hyperbolism  as  Mr.  CoUings  Bishop.  "  The  gas 
interests  are  fighting  hard  in  their  last  ditch  ; "  and  yet  the  elec- 
tricity supply  industry  must  "  adopt  the  most  active  publicity 
methods  in  order  to  counteract  their  wiles."  What  a  blood- 
thirsty old  "Electrical  Review"  this  is  that  advises  such  active 
measures  against  men  striiggling  for  existence  in  the  last  ditch. 
But  talking  of  "  wiles,"  those  of  the  gas  interests  are  nothing 
compared  with  those  of  the  electrical  interests  in  trying  to  make 
the  public  believe  that  certain  things  are  different  from  what 
they  actually  are ;  and  it  behoves  the  gas  interests  to  see  that  this 
sort  of  thing  is  met  by  "  most  active  publicity  methods." 

For  example,  looking  through  "  The  Times,"  "  Daily  Telegraph," 
and  other  papers  on  Wednesday,  we  see  a  column  advertisement 
article  headed  "  The  Lighting  Problem — Gas  v.  Electricity — A 
Comparison  of  Cost — Important  Tests."  There  is  not,  however, 
a  single  comparison  of  cost  between  gas  and  electricity  in  the 
article.  Is  it  honest,  or  is  it  gross  deception,  to  adopt  a  heading 
such  as  that  quoted  under  the  circumstances  ?  The  only  state- 
ment—the only  dogmatic  assertion  we  can  find  referring  to  gas  in 
the  article  is  that,  "  with  the  advent  of  metallic  lamps,  it  is  now 
cheaper  to  '  burn'  electricity  than  gas."  But  the  article  goes  on 
to  allude  to  comparisons  between  electric  carbon  filament  and 
metallic  filament  lamps — not  between  gas  and  metallic  filaments. 
And  if  the  authors  of  the  article,  who  appear  to  be  the  makers 
of  the  "  British  Metalite  "  lamp,  are  speaking  truthfully,  there  has 
been  a  good  deal  of  hoodwinking  of  the  public  going  on  over  the 
metallic  filament  lamp  business ;  for  of  the  metallic  filament  lamps 
tested,  there  was  only  one — and  that  the  "  Metalite  " — that  did  not 
grow  quickly  dimmer  with  use,  with  concurrently  an  increase  in 
electricity  consumption.  Now  this  does  not  speak  well  for  the 
claims  and  statements  freely  advertised  by  the  electrical  people. 
But  we  notice  that  these  particular  advertisers,  so  as  to  make 
the  hours  of  use  look  long  on  an  expenditure  of  id.  for  electricity, 
merely  take  a  lo-candle  power  lamp,  and  electricity  at  the  rare 
low  price  of  3d.  per  unit.  Some  of  the  lamps  only  ran  for  sixteen 
hours  for  id. ;  others  for  twenty-six ;  but  one — oh  !  the  glory  of 
it ! — ran  for  thirty-two  hours.  Needless  to  say,  that  was  the 
"  Metalite  "  lamp.  This  only  represents  i  watt  per  candle  power  ! 
Well  now  with  gas  at  2s.  6d.,  33  cubic  feet  can  be  purchased  for 
id. ;  and  this  will  run  an  inverted  lamp,  giving  20-25  candles,  for 
33  hours.  So  that  on  the  lo-candle  basis,  the  pennyworth  of 
gas  would  represent  at  least  66  hours'  similar  illumination  for  id. 
"  The  most  active  publicity  methods  "  are  required  to  counteract 
such  "  wiles." 

Next  day  another  column  advertisement  article  appeared,  in 
which  were  a  few  very  strange  and  somewhat  contradictory  state- 
ments. Consider  this :  "  The  cost  of  '  burning  '  electricity  has 
been  so  much  reduced  through  metallic  lamps  that  a  great  many 
people  find  that  it  is  now  cheaper  to  use  it  for  lighting  than  gas." 
And  this :  "  With  a  great  many  people,  the  question  of  economy 
has  to  he  primarily  considered,  and, /or  that  reason  alone,  they  have 
continued  to  use  gas."  What  we  gather  from  this  is  that  modern 
incandescent  gas  lighting  is  more  economical  than  electric  light- 
ing, even  with  the  "  Metalite  "  lamp  ;  and  that  economy  is  what 
most  people  have  to  primarily  consider.  Yet  there  are  certain 
people  who,  for  some  inscrutable  reason,  or  reasons,  find  it  is 
cheaper  to  use  electric  lighting.  We  would  venture  to  suggest 
as  possible  reasons  antiquated  burners,  and  a  barbarous  waste 
of  gas.  Then  we  get  a  whole  page  advertisement  in  the  "  Daily 
Mail"  booming  "  the  wonderful  Watkin  switch,"  whereby  electric 
lamps  can  be  varied  between  "  full  on,"  "  dim,"  and  "off."  Some 
of  them  are  dim  enough  without  the  Watkin  switch.  But  that  is 
not  the  point.  It  is  that  by  the  use  of  the  invention  and  by  those 
who  can  afford  from  17s.  6d.  to  35s.  per  switch,  "  the  full  benefit  of 
metallic  filament  lamps  can  be  had,  and  the  cost  further  reduced  ; 
thereby  rendering  gas  an  antiquated  and  expensive  means  of 
lighting,  heating,  &c."  "  The  most  active  publicity  methods  "  are 
needed,  "  in  order  to  counteract  the  wiles "  of  these  electrical 
people.    The  "  Electrical  Review  "  is  thanked  for  the  hint. 

The  Accession  of  the  King,  who  as  Prince  of  Wales  presided 
over  the  Royal  Society  of  Arts  after  King  Edward  came  to  the 
Throne,  and  subsequently  became  a  patron  of  the  Society,  caused 
a  vacancy  in  the  presidency,  which  has  been  filled  by  the  election 
of  Lord  Alverstone,  the  Lord  Chief  Justice  of  England. 


Mr.  R.  Hesketh  Jones  has  resigned  the  chairmanship  of  the 
Oriental  Gas  Company,  Limited,  and  Mr.  H.  D.  Eli, is,  the 
Deputy-Chairman,  succeeds  him  in  the  position.  Mr.  Hesketh 
Jones  was  elected  Chairman  in  November,  1900,  on  the  death  of 
Mr.  John  Blacket  Gill,  who  was  also  Chairman  of  the  European 
and  Commercial  Gas  Companies. 

At  the  last  meeting  of  the  Co- Partnership  Committee  of  the 
South  Metropolitan  Gas  Company,  Mr.  Charles  Carpenter,  the 
Chairman  of  the  Company,  who  presided,  offered,  on  behalf  of 
the  Committee,  a  cordial  welcome  back  to  Mr.  Joseph  Tvsoe, 
the  Engineer-in-Charge  of  the  East  Greenwich  Station,  from  his 
sojourn  abroad,  and  said  all  were  glad  to  learn  that  his  enforced 
absence  of  some  months  had  resulted  in  his  regaining  good  health 
once  more.  Mr.  Tysoe,  it  may  be  remembered,  acting  under 
medical  advice,  left  England  for  Egypt  early  in  February  last 
to  shake  off  some  troublesome  symptoms  which  had  presented 

A  pleasing  ceremony  took  place  last  Wednesday  morning,  when 
Mr.  John  Fazakerley  was  made  the  recipient  of  a  fumed  oak 
secretaire,  suitably  inscribed,  as  a  token  of  esteem  from  the  officials 
and  workmen  of  the  Whitwood  Chemical  Company,  Limited,  of 
Normanton,  on  severing  his  official  connection  with  the  Company 
after  twenty  years'  service.  The  meeting  was  presided  over  by 
Mr.  W.  Ackroyd  Bower,  the  Engineer  and  General  Manager,  who 
expressed  his  regret  at  losing  the  services  of  Mr.  Fazakerley,  but 
at  the  same  time  congratulated  him  upon  his  new  appointment 
as  Gas  and  Water  Engineer  and  Manager  to  the  Goole  Urban 
District  Council,  and  wished  him  every  success.  He  then  called 
upon  the  Secretary  (Mr.  W.  Bourne),  as  being  the  oldest  official 
of  the  Company,  to  make  the  presentation.  In  doing  so,  Mr. 
Bourne  fully  endorsed  the  remarks  made  by  the  Chairman.  Mr. 
Fazakerley,  in  accepting  the  present,  spoke  of  the  uniform  kindness 
he  had  received  during  the  whole  of  the  time  he  had  been  con- 
nected with  the  Company.  Mrs.  Fazakerley  was  presented  with 
a  silver  flower-vase. 

Mr.  A.  Morton  Fyffe,  who  is  leaving  Dundee  in  the  course 
of  the  next  few  days,  to  become  Gas  Engineer  and  Manager  at 
Nelson,  was  the  guest  at  a  complimentary  dinner  in  the  Royal 
Hotel  last  Tuesday.  The  company,  which  was  very  represen- 
tative, numbered  about  fifty,  and  was  presided  over  by  Mr. 
Alexander  Yuill,  the  Engineer  of  the  Dundee  Gas-Works.  The 
toast  of  "  Our  Guest  "  was  submitted  by  the  Chairman.  Mr. 
Fyffe,  he  said,  was  a  true  Dundonian.  He  served  his  apprentice- 
ship as  an  engineer  in  the  Burgh  Engineer's  office,  and  for  seven 
years  had  been  connected  with  the  Gas  Department.  He  had 
done  splendid  work  at  the  gas-works  in  connection  with  the  re- 
construction scheme  ;  and  he  (Mr.  Yuill)  had  a  high  appreciation 
of  his  ability,  not  only  as  an  engineer,  but  for  the  inventive  genius 
he  brought  to  bear  on  all  problems  or  work  that  required  con- 
centration of  thought  and  professional  ability.  The  Chairman, 
in  closing,  said  they  all  hoped  he  would  have  much  health  and 
happiness  in  his  new  sphere  in  Lancashire.  Mr.  Fyffe,  in  his 
reply,  said  he  was  proud  of  the  fact  that  he  was  a  native  of 
Dundee  ;  and  it  was  a  great  joy  to  him,  on  leaving  it,  that  he  took 
with  him  the  good  wishes  and  kindly  thoughts  of  many  of  his 
friends.  Returning  thanks  to  Mr.  Yuill  for  all  he  had  done  for 
him,  he  said  that  gentleman  had  taught  him  engineering  and 
humanity ;  and  he  confessed  that  it  was  on  the  shoulders  of  Mr. 
Yuill's  success  that  he  had  attained  to  the  position  he  now  occu- 
pied. He  would  look  back  upon  the  night  as  a  beacon,  lighted 
to  have  him  remember  that  the  eyes  of  his  friends  were  on  him, 
that  they  expected  well  of  him,  that  he  would  do  his  level-best, 
and  that  he  would  go  "  dead-straight."  He  meant  to  try.  Mr. 
Fyffe  has  been  made  the  recipient  of  several  parting  gifts  from 
the  employees  at  the  gas-works  and  friends ;  these  including  a 
silver-fitted  dressing-case,  and  a  leather  suit-case. 


The  Standard  Burner  Bills. 

The  Standard  Burner  Bills  entered  upon  their  final  stage  yester- 
day ;  so  that  we  shall  soon  know  their  fate.  They  have  been 
included  in  Group  F,  and  were  first  down  to  come  before  the 
Committee  on  Thursday  of  last  week.  But  some  Local  Govern- 
ment Board  Provisional  Orders  Bills  had  precedence,  and  so  the 
date  was  altered  to  yesterday.  It  is  noticed  that  the  Wolver- 
hampton Corporation  have  withdrawn  their  petition  against  the 
No.  3  Bill  ;  but  nevertheless  the  representatives  of  the  Gas  Com- 
pany were  present  yesterday. 

Over  the  Committee  who  are  considering  the  Bills,  Sir  Henry 
Kimber  is  presiding ;  but  yesterday  morning  one  conscientious 
member — Mr.  H.  C.  Mallaby-Deeley,  the  Member  for  Harrow — 
retired,  owing  to  the  fact  that  he  is  a  shareholder  in  the  Gas  Com- 
pany operating  in  his  constituency,  and  that  Company  is  interested 
in  the  present  Bills.  The  promoters  and  the  opponents  have  the 
same  representation — legal  and  expert — as  when  the  Bills  were 



[July  5,  igio. 

before  the  Upper  House;  but  in  regard  to  the  Bills  themselves 
it  has  been  decided  to  leave  the  Liverpool  Gas  Company  out 
of  No.  I  Bill,  and  give  them  the  honour  of  a  separate  Bill,  seeing 
that  high-candle  power  gas  invests  their  case  with  a  special 
condition,  which  is  thought  by  the  opponents  to  require  special 
discussion.  But  the  principle  of  an  unconditional  change  of  test- 
burner  (which  has  been  settled  by  numerous  precedents)  is  being 
fought  all  over  again  on  the  three  Bills.  It  is  a  wearisome  busi- 
ness this  repeated  tramping  over  the  same  ground.  Mr.  Fitz- 
gerald, K.C.,  opened  for  the  Bill  yesterday  morning ;  and  the 
first  witness  was  Mr.  Charles  Carpenter.  His  cross-examina- 
tion by  Mr.  Ram,  K.C.,  was  the  feature  of  the  afternoon ; 
and  Mr.  I\am  found  that  he  had  rather  a  tough  nut  to  crack. 
On  all  his  main  points  there  was  an  answer.  With  the  merry 
assurance  of  a  lawyer  who  thinks  he  has  cornered  his  witness, 
the  learned  Counsel  got  Mr.  Carpenter  on  to  the  question  of  the 
availability  to  gas  consumers  of  the  "  Metropolitan  "  No.  2  burner 
from  the  cost  point  of  view ;  and  Mr.  Carpenter  produced  a 
letter  from  a  Birmingham  firm,  offering  to  make  10,000  burners 
at  102s.  per  gross  net,  or  about  tjd.  each,  to  which  would  have  to 
be  added  2d.  or  3d.  apiece,  in  the  first  instance,  for  the  dies,  and 
something  for  the  retailers'  profit.  If  there  were  a  demand  for 
the  burner  (which  there  would  not  be  in  view  of  the  incandescent 
burner),  and  100,000  were  ordered,  the  price  would  be  still  lower. 
Then  Mr.  Ram  essayed  to  draw  from  Mr.  Carpenter  that  the 
South  Metropolitan  Gas  Company  made  a  concession  in  price  on 
having  the  "  Metropolitan  "  No.  2  burner  applied  to  them.  That 
is  a  common  mistake.  And  again  learned  Counsel  learned — no 
doubt  much  to  his  disgust — that  the  concession  applied  to  the 
reduction  of  the  illuminating  standard  from  16  to  14  candles,  and 
that  the  change  from  the  No.  i  to  the  No.  2  burner  did  not  take 
place  until  some  four  years  later.  Only  in  the  case  of  the  Brigh- 
ton Bill,  has  there  been  any  direct  reduction  of  standard  price 
owing  to  the  change  of  standard  burner,  and  then  the  Committee 
said  the  reduction  was  "mainly"  due  to  that  change,  so  that 
other  considerations  applied.  Any  other  reduction  of  standard 
price  in  consequence  of  the  adoption  of  the  new  burner  has  been 
by  arrangement  between  the  parties.  Professor  Vivian  B.  Lewes 
goes  into  the  chair  this  morning. 

Capital  Redemption  Not  satisfied  with  what  they  obtained  in 
and  Other  Matters.  °^  Commons,  the  Brighton  and 

Hove  Corporations  have  appeared  in  op- 
position to  the  Brighton  and  Hove  Gas  Bill  before  the  Duke  of 
Bedford's  Committee,  wasting  (as  was  expected)  time  and  money, 
and  getting  nothing.  The  result  sizes  up  very  fittingly  the 
character  of  their  action — more  especially  that  of  the  Brighton 
Corporation.  It  will  be  remembered  that,  among  other  things, 
the  Company  sought  a  capital  redemption  fund ;  and,  as  the 
measure  left  the  Commons,  and  as  it  stands  now,  there  is  provi- 
sion for  a  fund  totalling  to  £^y,ooo,  whereby,  by  appropriations 
not  exceeding  /"1800  each  halt  year  from  revenue,  capital  to  that 
amount  is  to  be  wiped  out.  Then  the  power  ceases.  The  un- 
productive capital  represents  the  abandoned  Black  Rock  and 
Hove  gas  and  residuals  manufacturing  plant.  The  Corporations 
were  in  a  sort  of  quandary  over  the  matter.  They  could  not 
deny  that  the  wiping  out  of  unproductive  capital  is  a  finan- 
cially sound  and  economic  procedure;  but  the  Brighton  Cor- 
poration had  the  boldness  to  contend  that  such  liquidation  of 
dead-capital  would  be  of  no  advantage  to  the  consumers.  It 
is  distinctly  to  their  disadvantage  to  perpetually  pay  dividends 
on  unproductive  capital.  But  what  the  Brighton  Corporation 
seemed  desirous  of  doing  was  to  shift  the  responsibility  of 
clearing  off  this  capital  to  the  successors  of  the  present  generation 
of  consumers,  and  to  let  the  present  generation  enjoy  the  reduc- 
tions in  price  that  would  come  to  them  from  the  money  that  would 
otherwise  be  employed  to  discharge  the  unfertile  capital.  But 
to  the  present  consumers,  as  time  advances,  redemption  of  that 
capital  must  be  more  advantageous  than  continuing  its  existence. 
The  Brighton  Corporation  seemed  to  have  some  floating  notion 
that  the  proprietors  would  benefit  more  from  the  carrying  out  of 
the  proposition  than  the  consumers;  but  in  what  way  their  ideas 
were  the  most  hazy.  No  doubt  the  Corporation  had  an  eye  to 
the  Company  being  assisted,  through  the  operation  of  the  fund, 
to  even  a  somewhat  better  competitive  position  than  now ;  and  this 
naturally,  as  electricity  suppliers,  they  do  not  want.  The  Hove 
Corporation,  in  their  wisdom,  agreed  it  was  prudent  that  dead- 
capital  should  be  redeemed  ;  but — and  there's  the  rub — in  their 
judgment  the  shareholders  should  provide  the  money  for  the  pur- 
pose. Mr.  Charles  Carpenter  put  the  position  tersely  from  the 
shareholders'  standpoint,  when  he  said  it  would  be  unfair  to  com- 
pel them  to  provide  the  capital  twice  over;  and  the  Committee 
thought  so  to,  for  they  declined  to  touch  the  redemption  clause. 

Road  Openings  and  Council  succeeded  in  getting 

Public  Lamp  modified  the  general  law  regarding  the 
Consumption  ^^^^^  ^^y^'  notice  of  the  breaking-up  of 
streets  for  pipe  and  other  work.  They 
unreasonably  asked  for  a  month's  notice;  and  the  Committee 
gave  them  a  fortnight.  But  this  only  applies  to  5  miles  of  roads, 
out  of  a  total  of  192  miles  in  the  Brighton  Company's  area.  At 
the  same  time,  the  fortnight  is  too  long  for  general  practical  appli- 
cation. Another  point  of  interest  is  that  the  agreement  between 
the  Brighton  Corporation  and  the  Gas  Company  provides  for  the 
supply  of  4  cubic  feet  of  gas  per  hour  to  each  street  lamp.  The 
Corporation  wanted  to  get  parliamentary  authorization  for  the 
revision  of  the  terms,  and  the  use  of  only  3  cubic  feet  per  hour, 

But  the  street-lamp  burners  are  all  arranged  for  a  consumption  of 
4  cubic  feet ;  and  the  Company  strongly  olajected  to  any  reduction 
of  consumption  that  would  produce  a  flame  that  would  not  properly 
fill  the  mantles,  and  so  bring  the  public  gas  lighting  into  unfavour- 
able contrast  with  the  Corporation  electricity  supply.  The  Com- 
mittee were  against  the  Corporation  in  the  matter;  and  so,  as  we 
last  week  predicted  was  likely  to  be  the  case,  this  second  appear- 
ance in  Parliament  on  their  part  has  been  fruitless  and  wasteful. 
The  witnesses  called  in  support  of  the  Bill  were  Mr.  A.  M.  Paddon 
(Chairman  of  the  Company),  Mr.  E.  L.  Burton  (the  Secretary), 
Mr.  Joseph  Cash  (Engineer),  Mr.  E.  Herbert  Stevenson,  and  Mr. 
Charles  Carpenter. 
Glasgow  Gas  Charges  '^^^  Glasgow  Corporation  deserve  their 
n:....„..„*„  Gas  Consolidation  Bill;  for  they  have 
and  Discounts.  ,   ,  ^■  c 

accepted  unreservedly  the  policy  of  no 

rate  aid  from  profits,  and  in  respect  of  other  matters  have  thrown 
themselves  largely  upon  the  judgment  of  Parliament.  The  past 
week  has  seen  a  rare  fight  over  the  Bill  before  the  Duke  of  Bed- 
ford's Committee.  It  lasted  the  whole  parliamentary  week;  and 
throughout  the  Corporation  of  Glasgow  were  largely  in  the  posi- 
tion of  interested  spectators  watching  the  struggles  for  advantage 
of  one  kind  or  another  among  those  who  were  arrayed  only  nomi- 
nally as  opponents  of  the  measure — moving  merely  to  act  upon 
the  defensive  when  the  interests  of  the  city  proper  and  of  the  gas 
undertaking  and  the  consumers  were  in  any  way  menaced,  and 
carrying  the  fight  a  little  further  on  one  or  two  points. 
Big  and  litttle  interests  were  assembled  there  seeking  the  benevo- 
lent consideration  of  their  Lordships  from  their  special  point  of 
view ;  and,  consequently,  there  was  one  of  the  largest  shows  of 
Parliamentary  Counsel  that  has  been  seen  in  one  room  at  one 
time  for  many  a  day.  On  the  main  questions,  the  Corporation 
were  content  with  the  Bill  as  amended  in  the  Commons,  and  as 
it  came  before  their  Lordships,  with,  if  agreeable  to  the  latter, 
a  few  minor  modifications.  But  at  the  same  time  they  were  not 
averse,  if  the  opponents  succeeded  in  proving  to  the  Committee 
the  wisdom  of  so  doing,  to  having  re  established  some  of  the  pro- 
visions contained  in  the  original  Bill,  before  the  Commons  Com- 
mittee defaced  it — in  certain  respects  for  the  better.  There  were 
opponents  who  wanted  changes;  and  there  were  "opponents" 
who  wanted  the  Bill  to  pass  just  as  it  came  before  their  Lordships. 
This  was  an  extremely  interesting  state  of  things,  and  not  one 
that  is  often  found  in  the  Committee  rooms.  The  preamble  of 
the  Bill  was  not  opposed ;  and  virtually  the  Committee  were 
merely,  on  several  points,  arbitrators  between  those  who  were 
seeking  concessions.  The  main  issue  of  the  wordy  warfare  of 
the  week  is  that  the  Committee  have  expressly  confirmed  the  de- 
cision of  the  Lower  House  that  no  profits  are  to  be  taken  in  aid 
of  the  rates.  But  in  certain  other  respects,  the  Gas  Department 
have  obtained  a  little  relaxation  in  the  terms  that  were  put  upon 
it  in  the  Lower  House. 

In  addition  to  the  prohibition  as  to  profits  being  transferred  in 
aid  of  rates,  the  Commons  Committee  provided  for  equality  of 
price,  or  flat-rates,  throughout  the  area  of  supply  (other  than  in  a 
district  known  as  the  supplementary  supply  district),  for  various 
purposes ;  and  in  the  supplementary  area,  they  allowed  a  higher 
price  by  a  maximum  of  50  per  cent,  than  is  charged  for  the  various 
purposes  in  the  city  area.  A  level  discount  of  only  5  per  cent,  was 
granted  for  prompt  payment  for  any  class  of  business.  Trading 
in  water-tight  compartments  of  this  kind  is  not  good  for  the 
traders.  The  Corporation  and  the  Gas  Department  realized 
this;  and  therefore  there  was  a  friendly  feeling  towards  those 
opposing  manufacturers  and  traders  who  come  along  asking 
that  there  should  be  discounts  allowed  according  to  the  class  and 
volume  of  business.  Over  this  matter,  and  over  the  attempt 
of  the  authorities  in  the  supplementary  district  to  get  reduced 
the  50  per  cent,  maximum  difference,  the  bulk  of  the  evidence 
roamed.  The  supplementary  district  did  not  succeed  in  securing 
the  favourable  consideration  of  the  Committee;  and  the  50  per 
cent,  remains.  All  the  well-worn  and  commonsense  arguments 
favourable  to  a  free  hand,  under  like  circumstances,  in  dealing 
with  large  consumers  of  gas — liberty  wanted  never  so  much 
as  to-day — were  placed  before  their  Lordships,  who  showed  a 
commercial  appreciation  of  the  matter  by  opening  the  door  to 
differential  prices  in  this  manner:  The  price  to  be  charged  by 
meter  is  to  be  at  all  times  charged  equally,  under  like  circum- 
stances, to  all  consumers  within  the  city  supply  district ;  the  Cor- 
poration may  supply  gas  for  heating,  cooking,  motive  power, 
warming,  ventilating,  for  the  various  requirements  of  trade, 
&c.,  provided  that  the  rate  charged  for  the  gas  supplied  is  the 
same  under  like  circumstances  to  all  persons.  The  10  and  15  per 
cent,  discounts  clause  respectively  for  prompt  payment  and  large 
consumption  is  inserted.  The  Committee  have  also  allowed  the 
creation  of  a  reserve  fund  by  accumulations  of  annual  sums  not 
exceeding  \  per  cent,  on  the  amount  of  the  outstanding  borrowed 
money  until  the  fund  is  equal  to  10  per  cent,  of  the  money  outstand- 
ing, when  any  subsequent  excess  will  be  carried  to  revenue.  In 
addition  to  the  Convener  of  the  Glasgow  Corporation  Gas  Commit- 
tee (Mr.  M.  W.  Montgomery),  the  witnesses  included  Mr.  Alex. 
Wilson,  Mr.  Corbet  Woodall,  Mr.W.  Doig  Gibb,  Mr.W.  R.  Herring, 
Mr.  H.  E.  Jones,  and  Mr.  E.  H.  Stevenson.  And  all  these  were 
favourable  to  the  Gas  Department  being  given  more  business  lati- 
tude than  was  possessed  as  the  Bill  left  the  House  of  Commons. 
With  their  Lordships'  decision,  Mr.  Wilson  mentioned  to  our 
representative  yesterday,  the  Glasgow  Corporation  are  thoroughly 
well  pleased.  They  did  not  care  so  much  about  the  surplu? 
profits  as  about  the  freedom  in  price, 

July  5,  1910.] 




A  Further  List  of  Successful  Students. 

In  response  to  the  invitation  extended  in  our  editorial  columns 
last  week  to  successful  candidates  in  the  last  Gas  Engineering  and 
Supply  Examinations  to  send  in  their  names,  we  have  received  the 
following,  in  addition  to  those  given  on  pp.  776  and  934. 


Honouis  Grade,  First  Class. 
Atley,  W.  Walker  ....    Whitwood  Chemical  Works. 

Bulien,  A.  E  Plymouth, 

Carmichael,  Thomas  .    .    ,  Barrhead. 
Coombs.  Harold  A.     .    .    .  Cheltenham. 

Jones,  Harold  Stourbridge. 

Myeis,  Ernest  Chesterfield. 

Rudge,  C.  A  Whitwood  Chemical  Works. 

Williams,  Samuel  J.  D.  .    .  Stourbridge. 

Honours  Grade,  Second  Class. 

Bartlett,  Oliver  J  Bromley-by-Bow. 

Millen,  R  Whitwood  Chemical  Works. 

Ordinary  Grade,  First  Class. 

Priest,  F  South  Metropolitan  Gas  Company. 

Ordinary  Grade,  Second  Class. 
Henn,  Karl  Dudley. 

Honours  Grade,  First  Class, 

Briggs,  F.  C  Bromley-by-Bow. 

Twist,  George  Doncaster. 

Honours  Grade,  Second  Class, 
Bullen,  A.  E  Plymouth. 

Chandler,  SB  South  Metropolitan  Gas  Company. 

Helden,  R.  E  South  Metropolitan  Gas  Company. 

Highmore,  J.  G  South  Metropolitan  Gas  Company, 

NooD,  E,  H  South  Metropolitan  Gas  Company. 

Williams,  Samuel  J.  D.  .    .  Stourbridge. 

Ordinary  Grade,  First  Class, 

Bridgeland,  A.  H  South  Metropolitan  Gas  Company. 

Forbes,  E  Glasgow. 

Kay,  Archibald  Glasgow. 

Reed,  W.  B  South  Metropolitan  Gas  Company. 

Sinclair,  Robert  E.     ...  Glasgow. 

Ordinary  Grade,  Second  Class. 
Aitken,  Moses  N  Glasgow. 

Bradford, —  S  juth  Metropolitan  Gas  Company. 

Coggin,  H  Sjuth  Metropolitan  Gas  Company. 

Cooper,  John  A.  R.    .    .    .  Fraserburgh. 

Dolan,  William  Glasgow. 

Henn,  Karl  Dudley. 

Seyssert,  —  South  Metropolitan  Gas  Company. 

Steele,  William  Glasgow, 

Strathearn,  James  ....  Glasgow. 

White,  James  Glasgow. 

Wilson,  Thomas  J.     .    .    .  Glasgow. 

Next  Year's  City  and  Guilds  Examinations. 

We  have  received  from  the  Superintendent  of  the  Department 
of  Technology  of  the  City  and  Guilds  of  London  Institute  (Sir 
Phihp  Magnus,  M.P.)  the  programme  for  the  ensuing  session, 
containmg  the  regulations  for  the  examination  of  candidates  in 
technological  subjects.  As  usual,  examinations  will  be  held  in 
the  two  subjects  of  "  Gas  Engineering"  and  "  Gas  Supply  ;  "  and 
intendmg  candidates  will  find  on  pp.  49-54  an  indication  of  the 
nature  of  the  questions  which  will  be  set  by  the  Examiners 
(Mr.  Thomas  Glover  and  Mr.  J.  H.  Brearley)  in  the  Honours  and 
Ordinary  Grades,  and  a  list  of  the  books  they  are  recommended 
to  consult.  The  examinations  will  be  held  on  the  agth  of  April 
and  the  6th  of  May  next.  The  first  prize  in  the  Honours  Grade 
given  by  the  Goldsmiths'  Company,  and  the  Institute's 
silver  medal ;  the  first  and  second  prizes  in  the  Ordinary  Grade 
being  £2.  and  £1  los.,  given  by  the  Company  (in  each  case 
accompanied  by  the  Institute's  bronze  medal) ;  and  the  third  a 
bronze  medal.  The  examinations  in  "  Coal-Tar  Distillation  and 
Coal-Tar  Products  "  will  be  held  on  the  4th  of  May  ;  the  Examiner 
being  Dr.  J.  C.  Cain.  The  new  syllabus  is  under  revision,  and 
will  be  issued  separately.  It  will  be  divided  into  two  distinct 
sections,  dealing  respectively  with  tar  distillation  and  immediate 
products,  and  coal-tar  colouring  matters.  The  programme,  pub- 
lished by  Mr,  John  Murray,  Albemarle  Street,  costs  gd.  net. 

Some  changes  in  the  staff  of  the  Chemical  and  Gas-Testing 
Department  of  the  London  County  Council,  consequent  on  the 
retirement  of  Mr.  W.  J.  Livingston,  a  chemical  assistant  who  also 
acted  as  chief  clerk  in  the  department,  have  now  been  sanctioned. 
It  was  decided,  on  the  recommendation  of  the  Establishment 
Committee,  to  promote  Mr.  E.  R.  Andrews,  a  chemical  assistant 
of  the  first  class,  to  be  senior  assistant ;  to  appoint  Mr.  W.  E.  F. 
Powney,  a  second-class  assistant,  to  fill  the  vacancy  thus  created  ; 
and  to  bring  up  into  the  second  class  one  of  the  assistants  of  the 
minor  establishment,  as  from  the  ist  inst.  These  changes  will 
effect  a  saving  of  £271  in  the  current  financial  year,  and  an  ulti- 
mate annual  saving  of  ;^i46. 


The  Forty-Sixth  Annual  Report  of  the  Chief  Inspector  under  the 
Alkali  Works  Regulation  Act,  1906,  was  issued  yesterday.  It  is 
signed  by  Mr.  R.  Forbes  Carpenter,  who,  at  the  end,  expresses 
regret  that  continued  ill-health  precluded  his  doing  more  than 
generally  supervise  its  preparation,  the  work  in  connection  with 
which  was  carried  out  by  his  Assistant,  Mr.  S.  E.  Linder,  B.Sc. 
It  contains,  as  usual,  various  matters  of  special  interest  to  our 
readers;  but  to-day  we  can  only  give  an  indication  of  the  con- 
tents of  the  report,  leaving  for  subsequent  issues  a  fuller  notice  of 
it,  as  well  as  of  the  reports  of  the  District  Inspectors.  As  our 
readers  are  aware,  Mr.  Carpenter  has  now  retired,  and  Mr.  W.  S. 
Curphey,  who  for  some  years  had  entire  charge  of  the  work  in 
Scotland,  has  been  appointed  Chief  Inspector. 

The  report  opens  with  the  statement  that  the  number  of  works 
registered  on  Dec.  31,  igog,  was  1263.  Of  these,  71  only  were 
works  decomposing  salt  with  evolution  of  muriatic  acid,  and  so 
scheduled  as  alkali  works;  while  the  remainder — iigz — carried 
on  processes  which  were  scheduled  or  subject  to  registration 
under  the  Act  of  igo6.  These  numbers  show  a  decrease  of  one 
alkali  works,  and  an  increase  of  three  scheduled  and  registered 
works,  compared  with  igo8  ;  the  net  increase  being  two.  There 
are  also  169  works  registered  in  Scotland ;  bringing  up  to  1432 
the  total  number  of  works  registered  in  the  United  Kingdom. 
The  number  of  separate  scheduled  and  registered  processes  under 
inspection  last  year  was  1857,  compared  with  1839  and  182 1  in  the 
two  preceding  years.  There  is  again  a  noticeable  increase  in 
the  number  of  works  manufacturing  sulphate  and  muriate  of 
ammonia;  these,  with  gas-liquor  works,  accounting  for  | more 
than  31  per  cent,  of  the  processes  under  inspection.  The  In- 
spectors paid  5600  visits  to  works,  and  carried  out  6252  tests,  com- 
pared with  4860  visits  and  5170  tests  in  igo8.  It  is  satisfactory 
to  find  that  no  proceedings  had  to  be  taken  against  the  owners  of 
registered  works  for  infraction  of  any  of  the  penal  clauses  of  the 
Act.  But  in  the  case  of  three  works,  serious  warnings  had  to  be 
given  ;  and  proceedings  were  only  withheld  on  the  owners  under- 
taking to  remedy  the  structural  defects  which  led  to  the  escape  of 
noxious  and  offensive  gases. 

Sulphate  of  Ammonia  and  Gas-Liquor  Works, 

Mr.  Carpenter  reports  that  the  total  number  of  processes  of 
this  class  now  under  inspection  is  591 — an  increase  of  13  on  the 
year  1908.  In  the  report  for  his  district.  Dr.  Fryer  records  a 
serious  occurrence — happily  unattended  with  fatal  results — that 
took  place  with  the  sulphate  of  ammonia  plant  at  one  works.  It 
appears  that  two  men  were  gassed  while  engaged  in  cleaning  a 
seal  in  the  foul-gas  main  in  the  lime-settling  tank,  which  is  placed 
under  the  cold-water  condenser,  and  receives  condensed  liquor 
from  a  syphon  placed  on  the  foul-gas  main  just  before  it  enters 
the  purifiers.  Samples  of  the  liquors  from  the  seal-pot  and  the 
syphon,  taken  at  a  later  date,  were  examined  in  the  Chief  Inspec- 
tor's laboratory,  and  found  to  contain  sulphuretted  hydrogen, 
carbon  dioxide,  and  hydrocyanic  acid  ;  the  syphon  liquor  contain- 
ing cyanide  equivalent  to  0"4i5  gramme  of  hydrocyanic  acid  per 
100  c.c.  Mr.  Carpenter  says  it  is  important  that  manufacturers 
should  not  overlook  the  presence  of  this  extremely  poisonous 
constituent  of  the  foul  gases  evolved  on  distillation  of  gas  liquor  ; 
and  attention  has  been  directed  to  the  point  in  previous  reports. 
It  is  desirable,  also,  to  emphasize  the  fact  that  the  specific  gravity 
of  such  gases  when  cold  much  exceeds  that  of  air,  and  that  when 
a  seal  is  broken  at  a  low  level,  the  gaseous  content  of  the  system 
will  tend  to  empty  itself  downwards — air  entering  at  any  opening 
in  the  upper  part  of  the  system  to  take  the  place  of  the  foul  gases 
so  displaced. 

During  the  latter  part  of  the  year,  plant  was  erected  and  put 
into  operation  at  a  gas-works  for  the  elimination  of  sulphuretted 
hydrogen  from  crude  coal  gas  and  the  recovery  of  the  sulphur 
as  a  bye-product  according  to  the  patent  specification  of  Herr 
Walther  Feld.  Mr.  Carpenter  gives  an  outline  of  the  process, 
which,  he  says,  is  still  somewhat  in  the  experimental  stage ;  and 
therefore  it  is  too  early  to  pronounce  any  opinion  as  to  the  effi- 
ciency of  the  plant  for  the  purpose  named,  or  the  extent  to  which 
such  plant  would  be  applicable  for  the  removal  of  sulphuretted 
hydrogen  in  other  gaseous  mixtures  than  that  named  above, 
Herr  Feld  has  since  developed  a  method  for  the  simultaneous 
extraction  of  ammonia  and  sulphuretted  hydrogen  based  upon 
principles  similar  to  those  applied  in  the  method  for  the  elimina- 
tion of  sulphuretted  hydrogen  alone ;  the  active  reagents  being 
ferrous  sulphate,  thiosulphate,  and  thionates,  Mr,  Carpenter 
says  the  development  of  Herr  Feld's  processes  will  be  awaited 
with  interest.  These  remarks  are  followed  by  a  further  memo- 
randum by  Mr.  Linder  on  the  results  of  his  analysis  of  ammonia- 
cal  liquors. 

Recovery  and  Production  of  Ammonia. 

Mr.  Carpenter  gives  his  customary  statistics  (for  which  he 
acknowledges  his  indebtedness  to  manufacturers)  in  regard  to  the 
production  of  sulphate  of  ammonia  in  the  United  Kingdom. 
The  figures  are  on  the  next  page. 

These  figures  show  an  increase  from  all  sources  of  supply  with 
the  exception  of  that  from  gas-works ;  the  increase  in  the  produce 



[July  5,  19I0. 














Coke-oven  works  .... 




Producer-gas  and  carbonizing 

works  (bone  and  coal)  . 




Total  .... 




from  coke-ovens  being  very  marked — viz.,  more  than  18,000  tons. 
Operations  on  the  large  scale  in  Ireland  for  the  recovery  of 
ammonia  from  peat  are  still  in  the  experimental  stage. 

Difficulties  continue  to  be  experienced  with  river  authorities 
having  jurisdiction  in  the  districts  where  coke-oven  recovery 
plants  are  situated  ;  the  presence  of  sulphocyanides  and  phenoloid 
bodies  in  the  effluent  from  such  works  causing  much  apprehension 
in  the  minds  of  those  responsible  for  safeguarding  the  condition 
of  the  river  courses  receiving  the  drainage  therefrom.  The  sub- 
ject received  extended  notice  in  the  report  for  1907,  where  atten- 
tion was  drawn  to  the  experiments  of  Professor  Percy  F.  Frank- 
land  and  Mr.  H.  Silvester  on  the  bacterial  treatment  of  spent 
ammoniacal  liquors,  and  of  Dr.  Gilbert  Fowler's  work  on  the 
same  subject  at  the  Bradford  Road  residual  works  of  the  Man- 
chester Corporation.  Some  designers  of  plant  are  now  directing 
their  attention  to  the  recovery  of  the  ammonia  produced  at  coke- 
oven  recovery  works  by  direct  methods  designed  to  obviate  the 
need  of  discharging  effluent  liquors  of  the  character  now  com- 
plained of ;  and  it  is  possible  a  solution  of  the  difficulty  may  be 
found  on  these  lines. 

Further  Studies  in  Coal  Carbonizing. 

At  the  conclusion  of  the  experimental  work  described  in  the 
report  for  1908,  it  was  seen  that  continuance  of  the  work  on  the 
lines  laid  down  in  that  research  would  be  impossible,  accom- 
panied, as  each  experiment  had  to  be,  by  gas  analysis  of  a  very 
laborious  character.  During  the  past  year,  however,  it  was  felt 
that  some  effort  should  be  made  to  continue  the  research,  when 
opportunity  offered,  on  a  less  ambitious  scale,  with  the  view,  if 
possible,  of  clearing  up  some  of  the  many  problems  left  unsolved 
at  the  conclusion  of  the  work  in  1908,  more  especially  those  re- 
lating to  the  yield  of  hydrocyanic  acid  at  different  temperatures 
and  varying  rates  of  flow.  It  seemed  desirable  to  confine  atten- 
tion entirely  to  the  reactions  taking  place  in  presence  of  wood 
charcoal  and  graphitic  carbon,  and  to  exclude  porcelain  altogether 
from  consideration,  as  the  results  obtained  in  1908  clearly  proved 
that,  at  temperatures  exceeding  800°  C,  porcelain  has  a  strong 
oxidizing  effect  on  hydrocarbons,  ammonia,  and  hydrocyanic  acid. 
But,  on  endeavouring  to  repeat  some  of  the  results  obtained  in 
1908  with  wood  charcoal,  it  was  found  that  the  material  could  not 
always  be  relied  upon  to  yield  the  same  results  under  the  same 
conditions  of  temperature,  rate  of  flow,  and  volume  and  com- 
position of  reacting  mixture ;  in  fact,  that  the  efficiency  of  the 
contact-material  itself  was  subject  to  variation.  The  cause  of  this 
variation  is  obscure ;  but  Mt.  Carpenter  says  there  is  reason  to 
connect  it  with  the  fact  that  hydrocarbons  and  hydrocyanic  acid 
are  more  or  less  unstable  in  contact  with  carbon  at  high  tempe- 
ratures. Under  such  conditions,  carbon  of  possibly  graphitic 
character  is  deposited  on  the  surface  and  within  the  pores  of  the 
contact-material,  and  very  considerably  modifies  its  character.  It 
was  further  found  that  after  continued  treatment  with  coal  gas 
(freed  from  illuminants)  and  ammonia,  the  wood  charcoal  became 
uniformly  coated  throughout  its  substance,  and  that  the  catalytic 
power  attained  a  value  sufficiently  constant  to  justify  the  use  of 
the  material  for  the  purpose  of  determining  the  comparative 
effect  of  varying  temperature  and  other  factors  under  c6ntrolled 

The  wood  charcoal  was  prepared  for  use  in  the  comparative 
experiments  by  continuing  the  treatment  with  ammonia  and  coal 
gas  under  the  same  conditions  until  approximately  constant  re- 
sults were  obtained.  The  temperature  or  rate  of  flow  was  then 
altered,  and  a  series  of  results  obtained.  Conditions  were  finally 
restored,  and  the  original  experiment  repeated.  Agreement  be- 
tween the  first  and  last  experiments  was  considered  to  be  proof 
that  the  contact  material  remained  unchanged  throughout  the 
series.  Full  particulars  are  given  of  these  experiments,  and  the 
more  important  conclusions  arrived  at  are  summarized  as  follows : 

(1)  That  the  efficiency  of  wood  charcoal  in  effecting  the  conver- 
sion of  ammonia  into  hydrocyanic  acid  decreases  with  use.  Such 
decrease  is  attributed  to  the  deposition  on  the  surface  of  the 
charcoal  of  graphitic  or  other  form  of  carbon  derived  from  hydro- 
carbons or  hydrocyanic  acid  as  a  result  of  thermal  decomposition. 

(2)  That  the  hydrocyanic  acid  so  obtained  is  the  product  of  a  re- 
versible reaction  controlled  by  temperature,  and  accompanied 
by  secondary  reactions  yielding  carbon,  nitrogen,  and  hydrogen, 
by  thermal  decomposition  of  NH3  and  HCy.  Thus— 

NHa  +  C        ,   HCN  +  H2 
2HCN  =  Ha  +  2C  -f  N2 

(3)  That,  in  the  presence  of  wood  charcoal  coated  with  graphitic 
carbon,  hydrocyanic  acid  possesses  a  high  degree  of  stability  up  to 
a  temperature  of  1000"  C;  and  at  iioo''  C.  thermal  decomposi- 
tion begins  to  be  rapid.  (4)  That  the  presence  of  hydrocarbons, 
methane,  and  especially  ethylene,  is  favourable,  but  not  essential, 

to  a  high  yield  of  hydrocyanic  acid  ;  ammonia  acting  directly  on 
carbon  to  form  hydrocyanic  acid  in  presence  of  hydrogen  alone 
as  diluent. 

As  the  work  was  approaching  completion,  attention  was  directed 
to  the  researches  of  Dr.  G.  A.  Voerkelius  on  the  formation  of 
hydrocyanic  acid  from  ammonia  and  wood  charcoal,  published  in 
the  "  Chemiker  Zeitung."  Dr.  Voerkelius,  by  independent  research, 
and  employing  other  apparatus  and  procedure,  has  arrived  at 
conclusions  similar  to  those  stated  above ;  and  Mr.  Carpenter  says 
the  two  researches  afford  mutual  support  and  confirmation. 

Towards  the  close  of  the  report,  reference  is  made  to  the 
Glover-West  system  of  vertical  retorts  at  St.  Helens,  and  to  the 
results  of  Dr.  Colman's  tests  made  on  different  dates  and  with 
various  coals.  These  have  already  been  published  in  full  in  the 
"  Journal."  Mr.  Carpenter  remarks  that  Dr.  Colman  does  not 
give  any  temperature  data,  and  that  it  is  not  possible  from  his 
figures  to  determine  the  time  spent  by  the  coal  gas  in  the  retort. 
Mr.  Thomas  Holgate  has  estimated  that  for  a  horizontal  retort 
(partially  filled)  the  time  of  the  gas  in  the  retort  (calculated  for 
gas  at  60°  Fahr.  and  30  inches  atmospheric  pressure)  would  be 
27  minutes  (=  162  seconds)  at  the  start  to  5"6  (336  seconds)  at  the 
end  of  the  distillation ;  but  such  limits  would  not  be  applicable 
to  a  fully-charged  vertical  retort  continuously  generating  gas.  In 
the  laboratory  experiments  on  "Graphitic  Scurf"  recorded  in  the 
report  for  igo8,  the  time  of  gas  in  the  tube  (calculated  for  60°  Fahr. 
and  30  inches  of  the  barometer)  would  be  about  77  seconds. 
He  adds  that  "  further  data  are  required  before  any  conclusion 
can  be  safely  drawn  as  to  the  connection  existing  between  car- 
bonization temperature  and  the  relation  of  hydrocyanic  acid  to 
ammonia  in  the  crude  coal  gas  as  it  leaves  the  retort.  In  the 
works,  further  knowledge  is  needed  of  the  distribution  of  tempera- 
ture in  the  retort  and  of  the  relation  of  hydrocyanic  acid  to  am- 
monia in  the  crude  coal  gas  as  it  leaves  the  retort,  and  before  con- 
densation has  taken  place.  In  the  laboratory,  the  work  has  to  be 
extended  to  include  experiments  on  ammoniacal  mixtures  down 
to  I  per  cent. ;  and,  further,  to  study  the  effect  of  the  varying 
nature  and  amount  of  ash  in  the  graphitic  contact  used.  It  may 
well  be  found  that  a  high  percentage  of  ash,  and  especially  of  ash 
containing  iron  compounds,  is  very  detrimental  to  the  survival  of 
ammonia  and  hydrocyanic  acid  in  the  reacting  gases." 


The  death  is  announced  of  Mr.  Joseph  Bickerton,  one  of  the 
first  Directors  of  the  "  National "  Gas-Engine  Company,  of  Ashton- 
under-Lyne.    Deceased  was  in  his  71st  year. 

The  "Journal  fiir  Gasbeleuchtung "  reports  that  the  death 
occurred  on  the  23rd  ult.  of  Herr  Arnold  Schreyer,  the  Manager 
of  the  Corporation  Gas  and  Water  Works  at  Halle  in  Saxony. 
Deceased  was  in  his  6ist  year. 

The  death  occurred  last  Tuesday,  at  the  age  of  75,  of  Mr.  John 
Smith,  the  Consulting  Gas  Engineer  of  the  Bangor  (North  Wales) 
Corporation.  He  had  been  connected  with  the  gas  undertaking 
for  36  years,  and  was  formerly  Gas  Manager — a  position  he  relin- 
quished two  years  ago.  Deceased  was  an  able  and  conscientious 
servant  of  the  Corporation. 

We  regret  to  record  the  death  last  Sunday,  at  his  residence, 
Woodthorpe  Hall,  Sheffield,  in  his  66th  year,  of  Alderman 
Thomas  Robert  Gainsford,  J. P.,  whose  name  will  be  remem- 
bered by  many  of  our  readers  in  connection  with  the  water  under- 
taking of  the  Sheffield  Corporation.  Though  there  had  been 
signs  for  some  little  time  of  the  breaking-up  of  his  health,  he  was 
able  to  attend  to  his  public  duties  almost  till  the  last,  having  been 
engaged  in  them  up  to  Thursday,  the  30th  ult.  He  was  closely 
identified  with  the  acquisition  of  the  water-works  by  the  Corpora- 
tion in  1888,  and  was  Chairman  of  the  Water  Committee  till  his 
retirement  at  the  end  of  1907,  when  the  Council  placed  on  record, 
in  an  address,  their  appreciation  of  his  unremitting  and  devoted 
services  to  his  native  city  in  connection  with  its  water  supply. 
The  address  was  illuminated,  and  presented  to  him  the  follow- 
ing June.  Alderman  Gainsford  was  also  Chairman  of  the  Der- 
went  Valley  Joint  Water  Board.  He  leaves  a  widow,  two  daughters, 
and  three  sons. 

The  Board  of  Agriculture  and  Fisheries  announce  that  they 
have  recently  published  a  memoir  of  the  Geological  Survey  on 
the  water  supply  of  Hampshire,  including  the  Isle  of  Wight.  It 
is  the  eighth  of  a  series  dealing  with  the  water  supply  derived 
from  underground  sources.  The  introduction  contains  particu- 
lars of  the  geological  formations  of  the  county,  with  special  refer- 
ence to  the  water-bearing  strata.  Wells,  borings,  and  springs, 
with  supplies  therefrom,  intermittent  streams,  contamination  of 
water,  and  analyses  of  various  waters  are  also  dealt  with  in  the 
succeeding  chapters.  In  addition,  the  memoir  is  accompanied  by 
a  rainfall  map  of  the  county,  with  explanatory  report  and  statis- 
iics,-  and  also  a  map  of  the  valleys  of  the  Test  and  Itchen,  show- 
ing the  position  of  wells  and  the  contour  lines  in  the  surface  of 
the  underground  water.  A  bibliography  of  works  relating  to  the 
water  supply  of  the  county  is  included.  Copies  may  be  obtained 
from  any  agents  for  the  sale  of  Ordnance  Survey  maps,  or  directly, 
or  through  any  bookseller,  from  the  Ordnance  Survey  Office, 
Southampton,  at  the  price  of  5s. 

July  5,  1910  ]  JOURNAL  OF  GAS  LIGHTING,  WATER  SUPPLY,  &c.  23 


In  the  account  which  appeared  in  the  "  Journal  "  last  week  of 
the  gathering  of  gas  engineers  in  Brussels,  it  was  mentioned  that 
a  visit  was  paid  to  the  Forest  works  of  the  Imperial  Continental 
Gas  Association.  In  connection  therewith,  an  interestmg  pam- 
phlet had  been  prepared  by  Mr.  H.  Salomons,  the  Engineer;  and 
from  it  some  particulars  were  reproduced  of  the  vertical  retorts 
in  use.  We  are  now  able  to  give,  from  the  same  source,  a  de- 
scription of  other  portions  of  the  works. 

The  Compagnie  Continentale  du  Gaz  hold  concessions  for  the 
supply  of  gas  in  Brussels  and  its  numerous  environs.    Of  their 

Entrance  to  the  Works. 

two  works,  those  at  Forest  are  the  more 
important,  and  have  grown  rapidly  of 
Idte  years,  as  shown  by  the  area  at 
present  covered  (6  hectares  41  ares) 
compared  with  that  (2  hectares  58  are?) 
when  the  works  were  established  in 
1866.  In  1867,  they  comprised  a  retort- 
house  of  16  grate  furnaces,  producing 
24,000  cubic  metres  of  gas  per  24  hours. 
The  first  condensation  of  the  tar  and 
ammoniacal  liquor  was  done  in  15  inch 
cast-iron  mains,  which  led  direct  from 
the  retorts  round  the  whole  of  the 
retort-house  and  coal-stores.  The  gas 
then  passed  into  the  washers,  separa- 
tors, and  lime  purifiers,  thence  through 
a  meter  of  1133  cubic  metres  capacity 
to  a  gasholder  of  5825  cubic  metres 
capacity,  of  the  two-lift  type,  in  a  con- 
crete tank.  The  system  of  mains  was  of 
small  extent  relatively  to  the  present 
one — 176  kilometres  compared  with 
475  kilometres  on  May  i.  As  regards 
the  output  of  gas  in  1867  and  igog,  the 
latter,  even  without  Brussels  and  St. 
Gilles,  is  three  times  that  of  the  former. 
The  consumption  has  progressed  to  an 
unanticipated  extent ;  and  in  view  of 
the  increasing  area  of  supply,  the  make 
must  reach  a  still  higher  figure. 

Comparing  the  condition  of  the 
works  with  that  in  i8g2,  a  few  changes 
are  to  be  noted.  The  retort-house  has 
been  doubled ;  and  it  now  contains  32 

furnaces  similar  to  those  constructed  in  1866— the  Morton  system 
of  sealing  without  lute  having  been  adopted.  Condensation  is 
done  by  the  passing  of  the  gas  along  a  slightly  inclined  main  on 
the  furnaces  and  in  the  condensers,  erected  in  1876  and  iSSi,  of 
riveted  wrought-iron  pipes,  600  mm.  diameter.  Tne  total  cooling 
surface  is  1288  square  metres,  or  3-28  square  metres  per  100 
cubic  metres  of  daily  make.  In  1882,  two  Beale  exhausters  were 
installed,  worked  by  steam-engines  directly  connected  thereto, 
and  supplied  with  steam  from  a  flat-bottomed  horizontal  boiler 
and  a  tubular  boiler,  each  of  21  square  metres  heating  surface. 
Ihe  gas  was  washed  by  washers  and  scrubbers  on  the  Walker 
system— coke-towers,  erected  in  1882. 
The  purifiers  put  down  about  the  same  time  were  arranged  in 

two  series,  each  of  four  boxes,  4'5  by  4'5  by  i'3  metres,  connected 
to  a  central  distributor.  These  purifiers  were  worked  with  oxide 
of  iron  spread  on  four  horizontal  shelves.  There  were  two  station 
meters;  the  latter  erected  in  1882,  and  each  supplying  1133  cubic 
metres  of  gas  per  hour.  Each  meter  was  placed  in  a  cast-iron 
case,  and  each  is  in  use  at  the  present  time. 

There  were  three  gasholders.  The  first,  as  already  stated,  was 
erected  in  1866.  A  second,  similar  to  it,  was  constructed  in  1868. 
Both  are  of  the  two-lift  type.  The  third,  first  constructed  in  1882, 
was  originally  of  the  two-lift  type  also,  but  a  third  lift  was  added 
in  i8g2,  giving  the  holder  a  capacity  of  13,600  metres  ;  thus  afford- 
ing a  total  storage  of  25,250  cubic  metres  for  a  maximum  make  of 
3g,733  per  twenty-four  hours.  Four  Cowan  regulators  were  used 
for  the  supply  of  the  gas,  permitting  a  maximum  pressure  during 
the  night. ofjso'mm. 

From  1892  to  iSgg  the  works  under- 
went little  further  change.  The  maxi- 
mum make  in  i8gg  was  48,140  cubic 
metres;  but  during  this  year  a  gas- 
holder of  35,000  cubic  metres  was  con- 
structed, of  three  lifts,  with  a  sheet- 
iron  tank.  The  area  of  the  works  was 
considerably  extended  by  the  purchase 
of  a  site  towards  the  north  ;  but  it  was 
not  until  the  period  igoo  to  igio  that 
the  most  important  extensions  were 
carried  out.  At  the  present  time,  the 
productive  capacity  of  the  works  is 
135,000  cubic  metres  per  24  hours.  It 
may  also  be  said  that,  as  regards  the 
perfection  of  its  plant,  the  works  are 
not  excelled  by  the  most  important 
establishments  on  the  Continent. 

The  Handling  of  Coal. 

Although  provision  has  not  yet  been 
made  for  the  handling  of  the  coal 
by  machinery,  the  lack  of  this  facility 
has  not  been  felt.  The  coal  is  stored 
for  the  most  part  in  the  open  air  in 
the  north-east  part  of  the  works,  though 
a  covered  store  is  provided  between 
the  house  containing  the  vertical  retorts 
and  that  for  those  to  be  put  up.  The 
unloading  and  stacking  of  the  coal  are 
.  done  by  manual  labour.  The  space  is 
enough  for  a  stock  of  16,000  metric  tons, 
representing  a  consumption  of  about 

Settings  of  Inclined  Retorts— Charging  Stage. 

80  days  in  winter,  and  assuming  that  the  coal  is  stacked  to  a  height 
of  2'5  metres,  leaving  a  clear  space  for  the  railway  lines.  On 
delivery  at  the  works,  the  coal  can  be  conveyed  direct  to  the 
crushers  and  elevators  for  the  vertical  or  inclined  retorts.  What 
cannot  be  stored  in  the  supply  hoppers  above  the  retorts — and 
very  often  this  is  an  appreciable  quantity — is  put  into  stock.  On 
the  other  hand,  when  the  supplies  which  come  in  are  insufficient 
for  the  current  make  of  gas,  small  trucks,  filled  with  the  shovel, 
are  used  in  taking  coal  from  stock.  The  quantities  thus  taken 
are  weighed  and  registered  by  an  automatic  Avery  weighing 
machine,  which  is  operated  by  a  ^-H.P.  electric  motor,  and  can 
deal  with  charges  up  to  600  kilos.,  and  30  tons  per  hour.  The 
coal  for  the  vertical  retorts  is  placed  at  the  top  level  of  the  coal 



[July  5,  1910. 

elevator.  It  is  actuated  by  gravity,  and 
is  able  to  deal  with  the  same  quantity 
as  that  for  the  inclined  retorts. 

The  coal  employed  is  capable  of  rigid 
supervision  (allowing  of  labour  being 
on  a  piecework  basis),  which  is  an 
advantage  in  several  respects,  as  coal 
from  a  variety  of  sources  is  distilled 
as  mixtures  of  different  compositions, 
which  require  to  be  somewhat  carefully 
adjusted.  The  daily  supply  of  coal 
does  not  allow  of  these  mixtures  being 
prepared,  and  therefore  it  is  necessary 
almost  every  day  to  draw  from  stock. 

Inclined  Retorts. 

Sixteen  settings  of  inclined  retorts  are 
used,  divided  into  two  benches.  The 
first  was  constructed  in  iqo6  ;  the 
second,  which  is  exactly  similar  to  the 
first,  and  forms  a  continuation  of  it,  was 
putupinigoy.  Both  are  placed  in  the 
same  house.  The  charging  floor,  which 
is  reached  by  a  staircase,  runs  the 
length  of  the  furnaces,  and  is  consider- 
ably higher  than  the  lower  arris  of  the 
retorts  below.  This  has  the  advan- 
tage that  the  retorts  of  all  the  three 
floors  can  be  readily  examined,  and 
charging  is  more  easily  done,  as  is  also 
the  removal  of  the  carbon.  More- 

Settings  of  Inclined  Retorts— Discliarging  Stage. 

The  Compressing  Plant. 

The  floor  on  which  clinker  is  removed 
is  on  the  ground  level  of  the  works — 
an  advantage  as  regards  getting  rid  of 
slag,  &c.  This  latter  operation  pre- 
sents no  difficulties  ;  the  furnace  being 
of  stepped  construction.  During  the 
process,  the  mass  of  incandescent  coke 
is  retained  by  a  false  grating,  the  bars 
of  which  are  kept  cool  by  circulation  of 
water.  The  furnaces  are  worked  with 
a  very  moderate  amount  of  labour. 

As  has  been  stated,  the  coal  after 
delivery  and  weighing  is  carried  by  a 
chain  conveyor  to  the  crusher,  whence 
it  is  raised  by  a  chain  of  buckets.  The 
latter  carry  it  to  the  upper  part  of  the 
retort-house,  after  which  it  is  handled 
by  a  horizontal  conveyor  which  takes 
it  to  the  storage  bunker,  of  a  capacity 
of  250  metric  tons,  running  the  length 
of  the  house,  and  erected  on  staging 
of  the  building.  A  gangway  runs  along 
the  length  of  this  bunker,  and  permits 
of  the  distributors,  which  are  placed 
at  equally  distant  points,  being  regu- 
lated. Charging  is  done  by  means  of 
Drory  apparatus.  The  charging  hop- 
pers for  the  retorts  are  filled  from  the 
hoppers  arranged  on  the  lower  part  of 
the  coal  bunker — two  hoppers  per  fur- 
nace. The  charging  hoppers  run  upon 
rails  fixed  on  the  staging  in  front  of  the 

over,  the  floor  is  kept  clean,  as  it  does 
not  receive  the  coal  which  is  bound  to 
fall  from  the  conveying  vessels  during 
charging.  It  falls  on  a  gangway  under 
the  mouths  of  the  lower  retorts,  and 
can  be  easily  removed  with  the  shovel. 
The  length  of  the  floor  is  well  venti- 
lated by  openings.  There  is  never  the 
least  steam  or  smoke.  A  staircase 
connects  the  charging  floor  with  the 
discharging  floor,  access  to  which  is 
obtained  at  any  pomt,  without  disturb- 
ing the  workmen,  by  a  gangway  on  the 
outside,  which  is  at  the  same  level 
throughout  the  whole  length  of  the 
building.  A  number  of  doors  afford 
communication  with  the  interior. 

There  are  in  each  setting,  g  retorts 
each  5'5  metres  in  length,  of  the  nor- 
mal section  and  600  by  400  mm.  dimen- 
sions (maximum  and  minimum).  The 
normal  charge  of  each  retort  is  400 
kilos.  The  average  time  of  distillation 
is  7  hours  12  minutes,  depending,  how- 
ever, on  the  quantity  of  coal  and  its 
nature.  The  mouth  of  the  generator 
furnace  (provided  with  a  Morton  seal) 
is  above  this  level,  so  that  the  furnace 
can  be  fed  directly  with  the  coke  com- 
ing in  an  incandescent  state  from  the 

The  Coke^Sorting  Plant,  with  the  Inclined  Retort°House  on  the  Right, 

July  5,  1910.] 



retorts ;  and  they  can  thus  be  readily  moved  from  one  end  of  the 
house  to  the  other.  Their  capacity  can  be  regulated  ;  but  it  does 
not  exceed  that  of  one  retort.  If  the  conveyor  breaks  down,  a 
steam-elevator  can  be  used  for  raising  the  coal. 

All  the  apparatus  above  described  is  operated  by  belts  from  a 
single  steam-engine.  A  second  engine  is  kept  in  reserve.  Never- 
theless, the  horizontal  conveyor  placed  above  the  coal  bunker 
can  be  actuated  directly  by  a  steam-motor  placed  at  the  other 
end  of  the  retort-house. 

The  coke  produced  falls  into  a  conveyor  of  the  De  Brouvver 
type,  which  is  on  the  level  of  the  discharging  stage.  This  con- 
veyor is  divided  into  two  parts,  each  of  which  serves  eight 
benches,  and  is  fitted  with  its  own  motor — a  steam-engine  of 
3-H.P.  The  two  motors  can  thus  work  independently  of  each 
other.  The  conveyor  carries  its  coke  into  another  of  the  Merz 
type,  which  takes  the  charge  to  the  plant  for  crushing  and  sorting 
the  coke  [described  laterj .  It  has  been  thought  necessary  to 
employ  the  Merz  conveyor  in  consequence  of  the  very  consider- 
able difference  of  level  along  the  distance  through  which  the  coke 
is  conveyed.  The  Merz  apparatus  is  worked  by  a  similar  vertical 
steam-engine  of  3  H.P.  The  whole  of  thi:;  steam  plant  employed 
for  the  inclined  retorts  is  being  replaced  by  electric  motors. 

The  installation  of  inclined  retorts  has  been  completed  by  a 
mechanical  sorting  plant  for  the  coke.  This  is  composed  of  a 
separating  cylinder  which  is  provided  with  a  bucket  conveyor  and 
formed  by  bars  i"5  cm.  apart,  which  riddle  out  the  coarse  from 
the  fine.  The  former  is  carried  on  a  band  (40  cm.  in  width)  to 
be  sorted.  After  passing  through  a  small  crusher,  the  coke  is 
carried  bv  a  small  bucket  conveyor,  and  stacked  up.  Coke  of 
good  quality  is  produced.  It  sells  well,  and  serves  as  a  perfect 
fuel  for  the  boilers. 

Compressing  Plant, 

The  area  over  which  the  gas  is  supplied  being  a  very  exten- 
sive one,  the  ordinary  pressure  is  not  sufficient,  and  therefore 
during  the  winter  of  igoS-g  exhausters  worked  by  locomotive 
engines  were  temporarily  put  down  ;  and,  in  spite  of  the  essential 
difficulties  of  such  an  installation,  they  have  been  used  without 
trouble.  A  permanent  installation  was,  however,  established  in 
igog  ;  and  it  commenced  work  in  October  of  that  year.  The  gas 
is  forced  directly,  at  an  increased  pressure,  into  the  distributing 
mains;  the  pressure  being  adjusted  by  one  of  the  ordinary 
governors.  The  plant  consists  of  two  similar  groups  of  turbo- 
compressors  capable  of  supplying  24,000  cubic  metres  per  hour 
when  working  at  a  speed  of  3000  revolutions  per  minute.  The 
pressure  of  gas  (of  density  o'5)  is  a  metre  above  the  normal.  The 
compressor  is  a  one-cell  centrifugal  pump  as  designed  by  Pro- 
fessor Rateau  ;  the  turbine  motor  being  of  the  "  Electra  "  type  of 

160-H.P.,  with  an  adjustable  regulator.  Each  turbine  is  supplied 
with  a  Westinghotise-Leblanc  condenser  actuated  by  an  electro- 
motor, or  else  by  a  20-H.P.  Laval  turbine  if  electric  current  is  not 
available.  The  consumption  of  power  is  thus  very  small.  At  full 
charge,  the  consumption  of  steam  reaches  about  o-g  kilo,  per 
effective  horse  power.  The  installation  calls  for  very  little  manual 
labour.  One  man  can  attend  to  the  whole  plant  with  ease.  He 
first  starts  the  turbine  and  its  condenser  with  ail  the  gas-valves 
closed.  Then,  when  the  working  speed  is  attained  (which  is  seen 
from  the  tachymeter  on  the  turbine),  the  supply  of  gas  is  regulated 
by  opening  the  requisite  valves.  The  arrangement  of  the  valves 
and  of  the  gas-mains  allows  of  the  following  adjustments:  (i) 
Separate  compression  on  one  or  more  parts  of  the  system ; 
(2)  separate  compression  from  one  gasholder  into  another;  (3) 
operations  Nos.  i  and  2  f fleeted  simultaneously  without  risk; 
(4)  working  of  the  two  groups  of  compressors  in  parallel. 

Bye- Products. 

As  has  been  remarked,  on  its  removal  from  the  retorts  the  coke 
is  taken  to  the  crushing  and  sorting  plant ;  but  it  may  also  be 
conveyed  into  bunkers  fiolding  about  150  metric  tons,  of  which 
there  are  two — one  for  the  inclined  and  the  other  for  the  vertical 
retorts.  These  bunkers  are  kept  for  several  purposes,  the  chief 
of  which  are  :  (i)  Complete  separation  of  the  two  cokes.  This  is 
of  importance,  as  the  coke  from  the  vertical  retorts  has  special 
qualities.  (2)  Relief  of  the  crushing  and  separating  plant  by 
provision  of  storage  for  the  coke  made  during  the  night  or  any 
which  exceeds  the  capacity  of  the  plant.  (3)  Facilities  for  charg- 
ing being  done  direct  from  the  large  coke-waggons,  owmg  to  the 
discharging  table  which  is  placed  under  the  hopper  of  the  bunker. 
Everything  reaching  the  discharging  stage  passes  into  an  excava- 
tion, from  which  it  is  carried  by  a  vertical  elevator  to  the  crushing 
plant.  This  latter,  which  can  be  dispensed  with  if  there  is  no 
pressing  need  of  sorted  coke,  scatters  the  coke  on  a  large  table 
provided  with  perforated  wrought-iron  plates. 

The  coke  then  falls  into  one  or  other  of  the  following  categories : 
(i)  Dust;  (2)  breeze;  (3)  No.  "o";  (4)  No.  "i";  (5)  No.  "2"; 
(6)  coarse.  The  sorted  coke  goes  into  separate  bunkers  of  a 
capacity  of  from  1500  to  3000  hectolitres,  provided  on  the  sides 
and  at  the  lower  part  with  discharge  hoppers  by  which  carts  can 
be  loaded  or  even  bags  containing  one  hectolitre  of  coke  delivered 
for  retail  sale.  In  the  latter  case,  the  coke  is  measured  by  means 
.of  a  vessel  gauged  to  contain  a  hectolitre.  These  bunkers  are 
also  provided  with  special  openings,  from  which  can  be  supplied 
small  trucks  traversing  the  gangways  and  conveying  any  coke  in 
excess  to  the  stock  to  which  it  properly  belongs,  or  the  trucks  can 
supply  coke  when  the  demand  exceeds  the  production. 

{To  be  continued.) 


While  not,  of  course,  in  any  way  claiming  to  have  made  a  record 
for  quick  travelling,  which  was  not  the  object  with  which  he  set 
out  on  his  journey,  Mr.  Charles  Bland,  of  the  Bland  Light  Syndi- 
cate, informed  a  "Journal  "  representative  who  called  upon  him 
a  few  days  since  that  he  had  just  returned  from  a  trip  round  the 
world  which — including  both  intentional  and  involuntary  stop- 
pages— had  been  performed  in  a  time  that  would  certainly  have 
astonished  M.  Jules  Verne  when  he  was  writing  his  exciting  book 
"  Round  the  World  in  Eighty  Days."  In  making  the  circuit  of 
the  earth,  Mr.  Bland  was  absent  from  England  53  days,  during 
which  time  he  travelled  nearly  miles — ig^  days  being  spent 
in  railway  trains,  and  21  days  on  board  ship.  These  figures  are 
rather  interesting,  as  giving  some  indication  of  what,  even  with 
short  stoppages,  can  be  accomplished  by  those  in  a  hurry — and 
who  is  not  ? — under  modern  conditions  of  travel.  That  Mr. 
Bland,  being  a  man  of  observation  and  a  man  of  business,  has 
profited  personally  by  his  tour,  we  have  not  the  slightest  doubt. 
Wide  travel  must  be  good  for  everybody;  but  for  Englishmen 
it  usually  possesses  the  additional  advantage  of  still  further  in- 
creasing their  appreciation  of  their  own  country.  Mr.  Inland's 
absence,  short  though  it  was  in  point  of  time,  was  long  enough  to 
have  this  effect  upon  him.  Just  what  he  has  seen  and  what  he 
has  done  while  away,  were  unfolded  in  the  course  of  an  interview  ; 
and  to  anyone  who  may  think  that  to  "  go  and  do  likewise  "  would 
be  a  good  way  of  spending  a  summer  vacation,  the  following 
brief  outline  of  Mr.  Bland's  remarks  should  be  of  use,  while  to 
others  let  us  hope  they  will  prove  of  interest. 

Starting  from  Charing  Cross  on  Monday,  April  25,  and  tra- 
velling straight  through,  r/d  Ostend,  Brussels,  Berlin,  and  Warsaw, 
Moscow  was  duly  reached  ;  and  from  this  point,  after  a  halt  of  an 
hour  or  two,  began  the  long  journey  on  the  Trans-Siberian  Rail- 
way to  Vladivostock.  The  numberless  villages  which  were  passed 
gave  the  impression — which  no  doubt  was  a  perfectly  correct  one 
— that  the  peasants  are  very  poor.  At  every  stopping  station 
the  passengers  were  beset  by  beggars,  mostly  clad  in  filthy  rags. 
Roads  there  are  conspicuous  by  thtir  absence.  Crossing  oxer  the 
Ural  Mountains,  some  magnificent  views  were  obtained  ;  and  a 
fifty-minute  stop  at  Tcheliabinsk,  afforded  an  opportunity  of  visit- 
ing the  town  and  one  of  the  churches.  In  this  part  of  the  world, 
every  effort  is  made  to  prevent  the  taking  of  photographs;  and 
should  an  enthusiast  find  it  impossible  to  refrain,  he  must  either 

bribe  the  police  or  bring  his  camera  into  action  when  their  backs 
are  turned.  Omsk,  the  Capital  of  Siberia,  was  the  next  important 
place  reached  ;  and  here  Mr.  Bland  had  to  part  with  one  of  his 
travelling  companions,  who,  curiously  enough,  was  visiting  that 
town  with  the  object  of  securing  a  contract  of  the  value  of  over  a 
million  pounds  sterling,  for  putting  down  sewage  works,  paving 
streets,  and  erecting  gas  and  electricity  works.  It  seems  that 
there  is  a  lot  of  money  at  Omsk ;  and  apparently  it  is  in  a  very 
thriving  condition,  as  the  land  round  there  is  owned  by  wealthy 
Russians  who  were  at  one  time  exiled  from  their  country.  From 
Omsk,  the  country  for  a  thousand  miles  or  so  was  of  a  flat  and 
swampy  nature  ;  but  the  tedium  of  this  part  of  the  journey  was 
relieved  by  the  excellence  of  the  railway  arrangements.  The 
train  was  run  by  the  Wagons-Lits  Company;  the  rolling-stock 
being  precisely  the  same  as  that  which  is  familiar  to  travellers  in 
Europe.  Subsequently,  the  country  gradually  improved,  and 
beautiful  scenery  was  passed  through — very  similar  to  that  which 
is  encountered  east  of  Winnipeg.  At  Lake  Baikal,  there  was  a 
change  of  trains.  The  lake  was  covered  with  ice  ;  and  later  when 
Boisa,  on  the  borders  of  Mongolia,  was  reached,  it  was  snowing 
hard,  and  news  was  received  that  a  snow  block  had  taken  place 
15  miles  ahead.  Such  an  event  was  unheard  of  at  that  time  of 
the  year  (May  5) ;  and  the  railway  authorities  were  consequently 
quite  unprepared  for  it.  However,  400  or  500  men  were  put  to 
work  ;  and  ultimately  this  obstacle  was  removed,  and  the  train 
proceeded  on  its  way,  after  a  delay  of  36  hours. 

The  travellers  reached  Vladivostock  early  in  the  morning  of 
May  g,  only  to  find  that,  in  consequence  of  the  stoppage  at  Boisa, 
they  had  missed  the  steamer  connection  to  Tsuruga,  in  Japan,  and 
would  have  to  wait  four  days  for  the  next  boat.  Vladivostock, 
which  is  beautifully  situated  in  a  fine  harbour,  is,  of  course,  a 
town  under  military  law.  Except  for  walking  up  and  down  the 
main  street,  there  is  nothing  to  be  done  there  ;  the  only  amuse- 
ment offered  being  a  few  cinematograph  shows.  Even  the  selling 
of  photographs  and  picture  postcards  is  prohibited.  However, 
the  time  was  whiled  away  somehow,  and  \'ladivostock  was  left  on 
May  12 — the  s.s.  "  Raizan"  having  a  smooth  passage  to  Tsuruga, 
which  was  reached  two  days  later. 

While  in  Japan,  Mr.  Bland  visited  a  number  of  towns  ;  though 
he  had  to  curtail  his  stay,  in  consequence  of  the  unfortunate  delay 
which  had  taken  place  at  \'ladivostock.  Hospitality  was  every- 
where extended  to  the  visitor,  who,  of  course,  inspected  all  the 



[July  5,  1910. 

Kyoto  Qas- Works  in  Course  o!  Erection. 

gas-works  he  could,  and  found  them  apparently  in  a  very  flourish- 
ing condition,  in  spite  of  the  competition  of  electricity.  Every- 
where modern  machinery  and  appliances  were  to  be  seen ;  and 
the  works  are  run  entirely  by  Japanese  engineers,  who  keep  in 
touch  with  European  methods  by  carefully  studying  the  technical 
papers.  They  displayed  the  utmost  keenness  to  learn  everything 
possible  with  regard  to  what  was  going  on,  and  what  new  appli- 
ances were  being  placed  upon  the  market. 

The  three  illustrations  are  photographs  of  buildings  in  course 
of  erection  in  connection  with  a  gas-works  for  Kyoto.  In  the 
"Journal"  for  Nov.  24,  1908  (p.  558),  there  appeared — in  con- 
nection with  the  series  of  articles  "  Round  the  World — and 
Some  Gas-Works  " — a  photograph  of  the  street-lighting  arrange- 
ments at  Kyoto,  which  was  at  that  time  carried  out  solely  by 
means  of  Japanese  lanterns ;  and  it  was  stated  by  Mr.  Maurice 
Graham  that,  though  Kyoto  had  a  population  of  500,000,  there 
were  no  gas-works  there.  It  was,  he  added,  said  that  a  Com- 
pany had  had  a  concession  for  over  two  years  for  gas  lighting ; 
but  unfortunately  the  financial  depression  in  the  country  had 
delayed  matters.  The  gas-works  now  being  put  up — which  it  is 
hoped  will  be  completed  by  the  end  of  the  year — will  doubtless 
soon  result  in  an  alteration  of  the  primitive  street  lighting  then  in 
vogue.  Electricity  has  for  some  time  been  installed  in  the  town ; 
but,  in  spite  of  this,  confidence  is  expressed  that  gas  will  be  able 
to  fairly  hold  its  own,  as  the  Japanese  are  rapidly  learning  the 
advantages  to  be  derived  from  cooking  and  heating  by  gas. 
Kyoto,  which  is  a  very  interesting  place,  was  originally,  it  may  be 
mentioned,  the  Capital  of  Japan.  It  was  the  home  of  Buddhism  ; 
and  there  are  many  ancient  temples  to  be  seen  there — some 
of  them  at  least  1200  years  old.  Referring  to  Japan  generally, 
Mr.  Bland  emphatically  maintains  that  the  country  and  people 
have  been  in  no  way  over-rated.  The  men  are  keen  and  business- 
like; the  women  most  charming;  and  the  country  lovely.  The 
treaty  ports — such  as  Kobe,  Yokohama,  and  Tokio — are,  of  course, 
very  much  European.   There  are  large  houses  and  shops;  and  the 

Japanese  in  these  towns  have  generally  adopted  European  dress. 
But  in  the  inland  towns,  all  the  quaint  and  interesting  Japanese 
customs  still  prevail.  So  pleased  was  Mr.  Bland  with  his  recep- 
tion in  the  Island,  that  he  wishes  to  make  special  acknowledgment 
of  his  indebtedness  to  the  Engineers  and  other  officials  of  the 
various  gas-works  visited,  and  to  express  bis  great  appreciation 
of  the  kindness  that  was  everywhere,  and  in  every  possible 
manner,  extended  to  him. 

To  resume  the  story  of  the  travel.  "  Good-bye  "  was  said  to 
Yokohama  on  May  24,  when  the  Canadian  Pacific  mail  steamer 
"  Empress  of  India  "  was  boarded.  The  sea  was  calm,  but  the 
weather  most  unpleasant.  The  northerly  route  taken  was  an 
extremely  cold  one.  In  fact,  for  seven  days  the  sun  was  not  seen  ; 
and  when  eventually  it  did  show  itself  for  a  few  minutes,  and 
observations  could  be  taken,  it  was  found  that  the  ship  was 
further  north  than  had  been  expected.  Pleasure  was  manifested 
when  the  fine  harbour  of  Vancouver  was  reached.  Only  two 
hours  were  spent  there ;  but  even  this  short  time  was  sufficient  to 
give  one  the  impression  that  very  great  prosperity  prevailed. 
The  town  was  all  hurry  and  bustle — thus  indicating  that  there 
was  a  lot  of  business  doing.  The  Canadian  Pacific  Railway  was 
next  joined,  eii  route  for  Montreal.  First  there  was  to  be  enjoyed 
the  beautiful  scenery  of  the  Rockies ;  and  afterwards  the  fertile 
plains  of  Western  Canada  were  crossed,  where  towns  spring  up 
like  magic.  Over  a  journey  of  goo  miles,  the  development  of  farm 
life  could  be  fully  studied  ;  and  though  the  country  is,  of  course, 
quite  flat,  there  was  much  interest  in  the  "  life  "  to  be  seen. 
Montreal  was  reached  on  Jime  9,  and  the  same  evening  the 
R.M.SS. "  Virginian  "  (of  the  Allan  Line)  was  boarded.  The  weather 
was  beautiful,  and  the  run  down  the  St.  Lawrence  most  enjoy- 
able. Again  the  northerly  route  was  taken  through  the  Straits  of 
Belle  Isle  ;  and  any  number  of  icebergs  were  encountered — an 
ajjpropriate  circumstance,  in  view  of  the  fact  that  among  the  pas- 
sengers was  Sir  Ernest  Shackleton.  After  an  otherwise  unevent- 
ful voyage,  Liverpool  was  safely  reached  on  June  17. 


There  was  recently  issued  as  a  Blue-Book  the  report  for  1909 
of  the  Chief  Inspector  of  Factories  and  Workshops  (Dr.  Arthur 
Whitelegge,  C.B.),  which,  as  usual,  contains  references  to  some 
matters  in  which  readers  of  the  "Journal  "  are  interested. 

Before  turning  to  the  divisional  reports,  which  are  summarized 
by  Mr.  H.  M.  Robinson,  it  may  be  mentioned  that  Dr.  Whitelegge 
himself  has  something  to  say  with  regard  to  the  efiicient  lighting 
of  factories.  This  is  a  subject,  it  seems,  which  has  hitherto  been 
carefully  looked  after  abroad.  There  are  in  Holland  especially 
some  strict  rules  in  force.  The  employment  of  women  and  young 
persons  is  forbidden  in  works  in  which  artificial  lighting  is  required 
(in  the  absence  of  exceptional  meteorological  conditions)  between 
the  hours  of  9  a.m.  and  3  p.m.  In  addition  to  this,  there  is  the 
requirement  of  a  definite  standard  of  illumination  for  certain  pro- 
cesses— 15  bougies-metres  (about  1-5  candle-feet)  for  embroidery, 
working  in  precious  stones  and  gold  and  silver,  the  engraving  of 
metal  and  wood,  the  nianufacture  of  scientific  instruments,  print- 
ing, mechanical  knitting  and  quilting,  sewing,  draughtmanship, 
and  the  repairing  of  clocks  and  watches  ;  and  10  bougies-metres 
(about  I  candle-foot)  in  other  industries  in  which  a  strong  light 
is  especially  important.  In  the  Belgian  code,  there  is  a  converse 
provision,  which  requires  that  the  operatives  shall  be  protected 
from  glare.  He  admits  that  the  question  of  standards  is  beset 
by  many  difficulties,  at  present  only  imperfectly  investigated;  and 
that,  in  the  absence  of  a  standard,  a  broad  requirem.ent  of  ade- 
quate lighting  is  only  a  half-measure.  Even  as  regards  daylight, 
it  is  pointed  out,  there  is  no  constancy  in  the  illumination  of  a 
whole  room ;  and  there  are  many  things  that  have  to  be  taken 
into  account.  Then  with  artificial  light  other  considerations 
arise,  apart  from  contamination  of  air  by  all  except  electric  light 
and  ventilated  gas-burners— namely,  the  quality  of  the  light  and 
the  intensity  of  the  source  from  which  it  is  radiated.    It  appears, 

says  Dr.  Whitelegge,  that  artificial  light  in  which  the  rays  from 
the  violet  (actinic)  end  of  the  spectrum  predominate,  may  on  that 
account  be  less  efficient,  at  all  events  for  certain  kinds  of  work, 
and  that  radiation  from  a  small  bat  intensely  lumiuous  source, 
such  as  an  unshaded  electric  light,  may  be  more  trying  to  the 
sight,  and  hence  less  effective,  than  the  same  amount  of  light 
diffused  from  a  larger  surface.  He  adds  that  the  subject  as 
affecting  industrial  employment  is  not  one  which  admits  of  settle- 
ment by  a  stroke  of  the  pen ;  and  close  investigation  of  the  con- 
ditions will  be  necessary.  As  a  beginning,  Mr.  D.  R.  Wilson,  one 
of  the  Inspectors,  has  been  directed  to  inquire  into  the  present 
lighting  of  certain  classes  of  work-rooms,  beginning  with  under- 
ground bakehouses  in  London. 

Turning  to  the  summary  of  sectional  reports,  it  is  found  that 
most  of  the  staff  again  comment  on  the  greater  use  in  factories  of 
suction  gas  or  electricity  as  a  motive  power;  and  one  Inspector 
estimates  that  the  electrical  energy  generated  for  this  purpose 
has  increased  by  100,000  H.P.  as  compared  with  1908.  All  the 
reports  speak  of  the  attention  given  to  the  proper  ventilation  of 
suction-gas  plants.  A  memorandum  issued  from  the  central 
office,  pomting  out  the  dangers  to  be  guarded  against,  and  the 
precautions  to  be  adopted,  has  been  widely  circulated.  Several 
cases  of  poisoning  were  noted.  Another  Inspector  describes  a 
curious  case  caused  by  the  discharge  of  the  engine-exhaust  into 
a  passage  in  which  carts  stood  while  being  loaded  at  the  factory. 
Eight  horses  were  affected  by  the  fumes,  and  died.  One  official 
mentions  that  inquiry  into  the  manufacture  of  incandescent 
mantles  disclosed  unpleasant  effects  on  the  workers  from  the 
vapour  arising  from  the  baths  in  which  the  mantles  are  dipped, 
and  from  excess  of  carbon  dioxide  generated  in  the  process  of 
seasoning.    Exhaust  ventilation  has  had  beneficial  results. 

Flueless  gas-stoves  are  dealt  with  by  several  of  the  Inspectors. 
Mr.  A.  P.  Vaughan,  of  the  South-Eastern  Division,  says  there  are 
still  found  cases  where  the  crude  means  of  warming  by  open  coke- 
fires  in  buckets  or  by  ordinary  gas-jets  are  used,  and  have  to  be 
prohibited.  Between  the  two  extremes  of  highly  satisfactory  and 
highly  unsatisfactory  methods  of  warming,  come  flueless  gas- 

July  5,  igio.] 



stoves  and  hot-water  radiators  with  unventilated  gas-burners 
beneath.  These  have  been  noticed  in  many  places;  and,  he 
says,  however  effective  they  may  be  in  securing  a  "  reasonable 
temperature,"  they  raise  the  question  as  to  whether  they  do  not 
interfere  with  the  purity  of  the  air.  Mr.  A.  Lewis,  of  the  South- 
western Division,  points  out  that  each  of  the  Inspectors  has  a 
word  to  say  on  the  troublesome  flueless  stove  and  radiator;  and 
the  consensus  of  opinion  expressed  is  against  the  use  of  them  as 
heating  agents.  The  experience  of  occupiers  also  tends  to  up- 
hold the  same  view  ;  and  for  this  reason  the  use  of  the  stoves  and 
radiators  has  been  vohintarilv  discontinued  in  favour  of  other 
means  of  heating.  Mr.  J.  H.  Walmsley,  of  the  Midland  Division, 
also  referring  to  flueless  gas-stoves,  remarks  that  the  attention  of 
occupiers  has  been  called  to  the  necessity  for  preventing  fumes 
escaping  into  the  workrooms;  and  much  has  been  done  to  make 
things  satisfactory.  Mr.  J.  A.  Hine,  of  the  North-Eastern  Divi- 
sion, reports  that  Mr.  Younger,  of  the  Halifax  District,  had  an  air 
sample  taken  in  a  small  work  room  warmed  by  means  of  a  flue- 
less stove;  and  it  showed  47-8  parts  of  carbonic  acid  per  10,000. 
Another  sample,  after  the  stove  had  been  replaced  by  another 
gas-stove  fitted  with  a  flue,  contained  18-2  parts  only  of  carbonic 
acid,  not  in  itself  a  good  result,  but  an  illustration  of  the  extent  to 
which  the  air  was  polluted  by  the  flueless  stove.  Mr.  Dunolly,of 
the  Stockton  District,  remarks  that  the  fumes  generated  from  all 
gas-stoves  are  heavier  than  air  at  the  same  temperature.  They 
rise  solely  by  reason  of  their  being  at  first  hotter  than  the  sur- 
rounding air ;  and  as  soon  as  they  enter  a  long,  narrow  flue,  they 
readily  lose  heat  and  form  a  complete  stoppage  to  any  further 
passage  of  the  fumes  up  the  flue.  A  short,  wide  flue  for  all  gas- 
stoves  is  therefore  essential.  Mr.  l>utler,  of  the  Huddersfield 
District,  notes  that  it  is  very  unusual  to  find  any  gas  or  oil  stoves 
used  for  regulating  temperature  without  flues  for  carrying  away 
the  exhaust.  Occasionally  in  tailors'  work-rooms  a  gas-stove  used 
for  the  heating  of  irons  is  found  to  be  unventilated ;  and  as  such 
stoves  are  a  factor  in  maintaining  the  temperature  of  the  room, 
he  has  required  ventilation,  either  by  inserting  them  in  an  open 
fireplace  or  providing  special  flues.  Water-radiators  with  a 
small  gas-jet  are  not  employed  at  all.  Whatever  use  they  may 
be  in  ordinary  sale  rooms,  offices,  &c.,  he  has  found  that  they 
are  quite  inadequate  for  the  heating  of  work-rooms.  Mr.  R.  E. 
Graves,  of  the  Northern  Division,  remarks  that,  in  spite  of  all 
that  has  been  written  and  said  by  Inspectors  on  the  use  of 
flueless  gas-stoves  and  radiators,  they  continue  to  be  increasingly 
employed.  In  large  rooms  not  very  fully  populated,  and  provided 
with  suflicient  natural  outlets,  the  objections  are  not  so  great ; 
but  in  small  rooms,  where  windows  and  doors  are  the  only  means 
of  ventilation,  such  contrivances  cannot  but  be  injurious  ;  and  he 
invariably  requires  ample  ventilation.  Many  samples  have  been 
taken  to  test  the  conditions;  and  in  almost  every  case  a  very  high 
percentage  of  carbonic  acid  has  been  found  in  conjunction  with 
flueless  stoves.  Miss  Slocock,  one  of  the  Lady  Inspectors,  says 
that  gas-stoves  are  being  utilized  more  and  more  as  a  means  of 
warming;  and  with  a  good  flue  fitted  straight  into  the  chimney, 
they  seem  to  answer  well,  and  to  have  no  unpleasant  effects, 
beyond  making  the  air  of  the  room  very  dry.  But  fitted  with 
flues  with  many  right-angled  turns,  they  are  not  so  satisfactory; 
and  without  flues  they  vitiate  the  atmosphere.  "  Electric  radia- 
tors for  heating  would  appear  to  be  the  solution  of  the  difficulty 
in  rooms  where  a  flue  is  impossible  ;  "  but  she  is  "  still  informed 
that  the  cost  is  prohibitive." 

There  is  reported  by  Mr.  Bremner  Davis,  of  the  Kent  District- 
a  case  with  one  fatal  result  which  occurred  during  the  year  in 
connection  with  a  water-gas  plant  recently  installed  in  a  gas, 

The  wrought-iron  duct  leading  from  the  blowing  fans  to  the  generator 
was  shattered  ;  and  the  man  was  struck  by  pieces  of  it.  The  case  is 
important  as  indicating  a  danger  probably  existing  in  many  similar 
plants,  and  which  might  be  better  guarded  against  than  it  generally  is. 
The  operator's  evidence  showed  that  the  plant  pressure  had  been  tend- 
ing to  be  high  during  the  day  ;  but  while  he  knew  there  was  a  little,  he 
did  not  consider  that  serious  blocking  of  the  scrubber  was  taking  place. 
After  the  explosion,  however,  it  was  found  that  there  had  been  a  block 
there  ;  and  this  necessarily  meant  that  the  pressure  must  have  risen 
considerably,  and  possibly  in  quite  a  short  interval.  Unfortunately, 
the  operator  did  not  realize  the  danger  of  this,  and  was  not  certain  that 
he  had  looked  at  the  generator  gauges  just  before  he  opened  the  blast- 
valve  in  the  usual  course.  Immediately  it  was  opened,  the  explosion 
occurred  in  the  blast-duct. 

Gas  can  get  into  this  only  in  two  ways — either  by  leakage  past  the 
valve  faces  when  the  valve  is  closed,  or  by  overcoming  and  forcing 
back  the  blast-pressure  when  the  valve  is  opened  ;  and  this  can  happen 
only  if  the  pressure  on  the  generator  side  is  greater  than  that  of  the 
blast.  In  this  instance,  leakage  past  the  closed  valve  can  be  excluded. 
The  valves  are  of  excellent  design  and  construction,  with  double  faces 
and  a  powerful  wedge  action  for  sealing  them.  It  was  proved  that  the 
faces  were  not  corroded.  Above  all,  however,  the  space  between  the 
two  faces  is  ventilated  to  the  open  air.  Even  if  both  faces  did  leak —in 
itself  excessively  improbable  with  an  uncorroded  valve — the  vent  pre- 
vented any  gas  getting  back  against  the  blast-pressure  into  the  duct.  It 
IS  therefore  practically  certain  that,  when  the  valve  was  opened,  a 
back-rush  of  gas  took  place  by  reason  of  the  high  pressure.  This 
formed  an  explosive  mixture  with  the  air  ;  and  the  red-hot  generator 
Ignited  it.  I  happened  to  be  almost  an  eye-witness,  as  I  was  close  to 
the  place  at  the  time,  and  so  had  an  unusual  opportunity  of  first-hand 

Since  then  I  have  visited  many  water-gas  plants,  and  have  found 
present,  in  many  of  them,  some  or  all  of  the  following  sources  of  danger 
whose  existence  migh  t  lead  to  a  similar  explosion  :  No  separate  pressure- 
gauge  on  the  blast-pipe  side  of  the  blast-valve,  or  one  placed  some  dis- 

tance from  the  other  gauges,  so  that  comparison  between  them  is  awk- 
ward and  likely  to  be  omitted  by  the  operator.  They  should  be  close 
together  on  the  same  scale  and  level,  so  that  the  difference  between 
their  levels  is  patent  to  the  eye.  Those  in  charge  have  not  realized  that 
it  is  essential  to  safety  that  these  two  gauges  in  particular  should  be 
observed  and  compared  by  the  operator  immediately  before  the  blast- 
valve  is  opened  on  every  occasion.  This,  with  properly  placed  gauges, 
occupies  only  a  fraction  of  a  second.  The  usual  large  relief  opening 
was  provided  in  the  ducts  in  the  case  in  point  ;  and  unfortunately  the 
idea  is  widespread  that  explosions  are  thereby  rendered  of  small  mo- 
ment. This  was  effectually  disproved  by  the  accident  in  question  ;  and 
it  is  no  more  to  be  expected  that  thin  steel  duct  of  large  diameter 
should  be  kept  from  fracture  by  relief  openings,  than  a  gun  barrel 
would  be  by  its  opening  to  the  barrel,  were  its  metal  proportionately 
thin.  Practically  no  gun  construction  yet  evolved  will  stand  really  high 
explosives  ;  and  yet  there  is  a  free  opening  of  the  barrel.  The  expla- 
nation, well  enough  known  to  those  concerned,  need  not  be  mentioned 

Interlocking  gear  in  other  parts  of  the  apparatus  is  fitted  by  some 
makers,  in  order  to  prevent  incorrect  relative  movement  of  different 
valves  ;  and  it  acts  excellently.  To  prevent  this  wrong  opening  of  the 
blast-valve,  however,  while  interlocking  gear  is  not  impossible,  it  would 
be  complex,  and  perhaps  be  apt  to  get  out  of  order.  It  could  be  done 
by  a  differential  mechanism  operated  by  pistons  or  diaphragms  con- 
nected with  each  of  the  two  pressures  ;  or  by  an  elect:  ical  make-and- 
break  within  the  glass  of  a  differential  gauge  with  a  relay  and  electro- 
magnetic or  even  weight  or  spring  actuated  locking  mechanism. 

Water-gas  operators  are  usually  intelligent  and  reliable  men  ;  and  if 
they  are  made  to  realize  the  point,  and  provided  with  the  simple 
appliances  before  named,  there  would  be  reasonably  adequate  protec- 
tion against  explosion  from  the  cause  in  point. 

Among  the  other  accidents  (which  include  more  than  one  acety- 
lene explosion),  the  following  case  is  reported  from  the  Swansea 
District.  An  explosion  occurred  at  an  oil-gas  works  where  the  gas 
is  produced  as  the  result  of  the  destructive  distillation  of  crude 
petroleum  oils.  The  products  of  decomposition  in  these  cases 
are  all  of  a  highly  inflammable  and  dangerous  nature.  In  this 
particular  instance,  a  woman  had  taken  her  child  to  the  gas- 
works to  inhale  the  fumes  from  the  oil  gas  as  a  cure  for  whooping 
cough.  While  they  were  standing  near  the  tank  in  which  the 
liquid  portions  of  the  distillate  condense,  there  was  a  sudden 
flash,  and  they  were  enveloped  in  flames ;  the  woman  being 
immediately  burnt  to  death,  and  the  child  dying  two  days  after. 
The  explosion  was  probably  caused  by  the  volatile  liquid  in  the 
tank  evaporating  and  the  resulting  vapour  gradually  creeping 
outwards  to  a  railway  track  just  outside.  A  heavy  train  was 
being  spragged  on  the  siding;  and  the  friction  between  the  wheels 
and  rails  caused  a  spark  which  fired  the  vapour.  Several  of  the 
Birmingham  Inspectors  report  explosions,  some  of  which  have 
occurred  at  enamelling  stoves.  Attention  has  been  drawn  to  the 
possibility  of  explosion  through  the  employment  of  naked  gas- 
lights in  near  proximity  to  the  doors  of  enamelling  stoves  heated 
by  bunsen  burners,  which  are  usually  arranged  in  rows  near  the 
floor  of  the  stove.  Accidents  have  also  been  caused  by  the 
extinction  of  the  bunsens,  possibly  by  a  sudden  draught  when 
closing  the  doors,  and  the  subsequent  ignition  of  the  accumu- 
lated gas  when  the  doors  of  the  stove  were  re-opened.  An 
explosion  occurred  in  the  crank-chamber  of  a  large  four- 
cylinder  vertical  gas-engine,  with  the  result  that  the  cover  of 
the  two-to-one  gear  was  blown  oft.  It  is  impossible  for  gas  to 
get  into  this  chamber.  All  the  bearings  are  lubricated  by 
means  of  a  system  of  forced  lubrication,  the  oil  being  forced  by 
means  of  a  pump  through  tubes  and  channels  to  each  bearing. 
That  forced  to  the  crank-shaft  and  crank-bearings  escapes  into 
the  crank-chamber,  whence  it  flows  to  the  sump,  from  which 
it  is  again  pumped.  The  crank-chamber  becomes  heated  to  a 
fair  temperature,  and  the  revolution  of  the  cranks  causes  a  large 
amount  of  splashing ;  so  that  the  atmosphere  of  the  chamber  is 
full  of  oil  vapour  caused  by  spraying  principally.  Ordinarily, 
there  is  no  possibility  of  the  mixture  of  air  and  oil  vapour  becom- 
ing ignited  ;  but  in  this  case  the  hollow  piston  galled  and  heated 
to  such  an  extent  that  oxidation  of  the  metal  resulted.  This,  of 
course,  implies  that  a  very  high  temperature  was  reached;  and  it 
is  assumed  that  this  ignited  the  explosive  mixture.  Ventilation 
of  the  crank-chamber  is  provided  by  means  of  two  pipes — one 
admitting  air,  a  second,  at  the  other  end  of  a  chamber,  allowing 
of  its  escape.  From  this  second  pipe,  vapour  was  issuing  in  the 
case  of  another  similar  engine  at  the  time  of  the  visit.  A  like  ex- 
plosion is  said  to  have  happened  at  another  factory.  There  are, 
it  is  stated,  still  grounds  for  complaint  with  regard  to  the  unsatis- 
factory methods  of  fencing  gas-engine  fly-wheels.  An  instance  is 
given  of  an  accident  (which  resulted  fatally)  to  a  workman  while 
engaged  in  taking  out  the  piston  of  a  gas-engiae.  The  supply  of 
gas  was  shut  off  at  the  principal  valve,  and  the  engine  allowed  to 
run  itself  to  a  stand.  The  man  then  uncoupled  the  connecting- 
rod,  and,  holding  it  in  his  hands,  called  for  the  crank  to  be  turned 
into  a  new  position.  While  this  was  being  done,  and  owing  to 
the  electrical  ignition  device  not  having  been  disconnected,  some 
gas  lurking  in  the  end  of  the  cylinder  was  fired,  which,  all  resist- 
ance having  been  removed,  blew  the  connecting-rod  with  great 
force  against  him.  Attention  of  gas-engine  attendants  at  these 
works  is  now,  by  notice  affixed  on  the  engine,  drawn  to  the  dangers 
resulting  from  not  disconnecting  the  ignition  device. 

Mr.  Jackson,  of  the  Liverpool  District,  draws  attention  to  the 
fact  that  many  accidents  are  due  to  carelessness ;  and  he  suggests 
as  a  remedy  the  adoption  of  such  a  scheme  as  is  in  force  in  a  very 
large  works  in  his  district.  Briefly  the  scheme  is  this :  The  works 
are  divided  into  departments,  and  each  department  has  its  own 
divisional  committee,  elected  annually,  half  the  members  of  which 



[July  5,  1910. 

are  workmen  and  half  are  foremen,  with  the  head  of  the  depart- 
ment as  chairman.  Their  duties  consist  of  (i)  considering  and 
reporting  upon  any  suggestions  that  may  be  made  to  them  for 
improvements  in  their  department,  either  as  to  manufacture  or 
better  fencing,  or  safer  modes  of  working ;  (2)  to  see  the  rules 
of  the  works  are  properly  carried  out,  and  to  prevent  waste  or 
irregularities;  (3)  to  investigate  all  accidents  reported,  and  to 
ascertain  the  cause,  and  say  if  anyone  is  to  blame ;  (4)  to  hear 
appeals  from  employees  with  regard  to  dismissal,  &c.  They  also 
make  a  quarterly  inspection  of  the  machinery  and  plant  used  in 
their  department,  and  report  if  fencing,  &c.,  has  been  properly 
maintained.  Their  reports  are  considered  by  the  managing- 
director  and  his  colleagues ;  and  their  recommendations,  if 
approved,  are  adopted.  In  regard  to  accidents,  their  finding  is 
posted  up  in  the  department  concerned ;  and  it  is  found  to  be  an 
excellent  check  on  carelessness,  for  no  worker  likes  to  be  posted. 
As  a  result  of  this  scheme,  the  works  are  a  model  of  fencing  and 
etticiency  in  working.  In  1909,  only  86  reportable  accidents  oc- 
curred, with  4364  persons  employed,  or  less  than  2  per  cent.  Of 
these,  one  was  fatal,  none  were  classed  as  severe,  and  only  six  as 
moderately  severe. 

The  danger  of  poisoning  by  carbonic  oxide,  which  is  particu- 
larly associated  with  the  manufacture  and  use  of  suction  gas, 
producer  gas,  and  water  and  other  power  gases  is  better  known 
and  appreciated,  says  Mr.  Vaughan.  In  country  parts,  the  gas 
plant  is  usually  placed  in  the  open  air  outside  the  factory  ;  but 
in  towns,  and  in  London  especially,  it  is  more  often  in  some  con- 
fined space.  The  question  of  ventilation  has  here  become  im- 
portant, and  in  the  case  of  newer  gas  plants  has  been  satisfac- 
torily dealt  with  ;  the  engine-houses  being  well  ventilated  to  the 
open  air,  and  the  air-intake  for  the  engine  being,  in  many  in- 
stances, arranged  from  the  outside,  instead  of  from  the  engine- 
house  itself.  One  firm  have  devised  a  simple  arrangement  for 
detecting  gas  leakage.  The  gas-cylinder  is  fixed,  and  a  small 
cup  containing  water  is  screwed  on  to  the  valve,  which  is  placed 
uppermost,  so  that  the  bubbles  of  any  escaping  gas  could  be 
seen,  and  an  empty  cylinder  at  the  critical  moment  be  presented. 
Mr.  Lewis  says  the  rapid  growth  in  the  use  of  producer  gas  for 
power  points  to  the  advisability  of  urging  the  makers  of  various 
plants  to  see,  at  the  time  of  installation,  that  the  rooms  where 
they  are  fixed  (often  in  basements)  are  suitably  ventilated.  Every 
endeavour  is  made  by  the  Inspectors  generally  to  impress  upon 
those  in  charge  of  these  plants  the  dangerous  nature  of  the  gas, 
the  personal  precautions  necessary,  and  the  importance  of  taking 
steps  to  prevent  the  diffusion  of  the  gas  into  the  engine-house 
and  other  parts  of  the  works.  Mr.  Walmsley  points  out  that 
part  of  the  Walsall  district  is  within  the  area  of  the  Mond  Gas 
Company's  undertaking.  No  complaints  have  been  received  of 
any  excess  of  carbon  monoxide,  which  is  limited  by  the  Company's 
Act  to  14  per  cent.,  while  the  gas  certainly  possesses  "  a  distinctive 
and  readily  perceptible  smell,"  which  is  also  stipulated  in  the  same 
Act.  Mr.  Rogers,  of  the  Birmingham  District,  says,  with  regard  to 
carbonic  oxide  poisoning :  The  only  case  of  any  moment  that  came 
to  our  notice  last  year  was  that  of  the  occupier  of  a  small  factory 
who  was  found  dead  on  the  floor  of  his  gas-engine  room.  The 
gas-pipe  from  the  town  supply,  which  contained  some  carburetted 
water  gas,  was  found  disconnected,  with  the  gas  on.  The  post- 
mortem examination  disclosed  signs  of  carbonic  oxide  poisoning. 
Several  cases  of  defective  air-intake  and  of  badly- ventilated  gas- 
engine  rooms  have  been  dealt  with.  In  one  case  it  was  urged 
that  producer  gas  used  for  heating  stoves  should  be  given  a  dis- 
tinctive and  easily  perceptible  smell.  In  another  factory,  the 
waste-pipe  for  blowing  off  the  gas  when  starting  the  suction-gas 
producer  was  found  discharging  into  the  air  of  the  work  room,  14 
feet  above  the  floor.  This  pipe  was  continued  to  the  open  air. 
Special  attention  throughout  the  division  has  been  given  to  the 
ventilation  of  engine-houses  where  water  gas  and  similar  gases 
(suction  gas,  Dowson  gas,  Mond  gas,  &c.)  are  used.  In  many 
cases  the  air  intake  to  the  engine-house  has  been  removed  from 
the  inside  to  the  outside,  and  additional  ventilation  provided. 
From  Huddersfield  there  are  reported  two  cases  of  carbonic 
oxide  poisoning — one  from  an  ordinary  escape  of  gas,  and  the 
other  in  connection  with  a  suction-gas  plant.  One  Inspector 
remarks  upon  the  carelessness  and  risk  run  by  some  attendants 
at  producer-gas  plants.  In  the  Liverpool  District,  Mr.  Jackson 
says  that  much  time  has  been  given  to  the  ventilation  of  suction- 
gas  plants;  and  considerable  help  has  been  received  from  manu- 
facturers and  their  architects  (as  well  as  from  the  makers),  who 
have  consulted  him  as  to  what  ventilation  was  required.  They 
have  been  told  that  mechanical  ventilation  would  be  insisted 
upon,  if  the  plant  was  put  in  a  basement. 

Under  the  heading  of  sanitation,  Mr.  G.  Bellhouse,  of  the  North 
Western  Division,  gives  a  record  of  air  samples,  and  to  them 
appends  the  following  note  :  The  returns  indicate  a  good  standard 
of  ventilation ;  and  it  is  specially  interesting  to  note  the  results 
obtained  in  gassing  rooms,  where  a  high  proportion  of  carbonic 
acid  might  be  expected  from  the  gas-jets.  As  a  fact,  however, 
no  sample  showed  a  proportion  higher  than  14-5  parts  per  10,000  ; 
and  one  Inspector  quotes  a  case  where  it  was  only  3-3.  Another 
Inspector  similarly  reports  satisfactory  results  being  obtained  from 
ironing  rooms  in  laundries,  which  varied  from  4-0  to  6  5  parts  per 
10,000.  The  worst  results  were  obtained  in  tailoring  and  dress- 
making workshops;  and  may  be  attributed  to  either  unsuitable 
means  of  heating  or  to  the  means  of  ventilation  not  being 
properly  applied.  As  an  example,  an  Inspector  quotes  a  case 
where  in  the  first  instance  the  analysis  showed  a  proportion  of 

59'9  per  10,000.  The  room  was  heated  by  a  flueless,  gas-heated 
radiator.  This  was  removed,  and  a  stove  with  a  flue  was  fixed  in 
its  place.  A  further  analysis  then  showed  that  the  proportion  had 
been  reduced  to  ly^.  A  Lady  Inspector  says:  One  of  the  indus- 
tries in  which  excessive  temperatures  are  most  constantly  found 
is  that  of  incandescent  gas-mantle  making.  In  the  burning-off  and 
seasoning  departments  of  those  visited,  where  the  heat  is  very 
great  and  the  distribution  of  the  plant  makes  control  of  it  difficult, 
a  good  deal  has  been  done  to  minimize  this  by  special  ventilation, 
but  with  only  partial  success.  None  of  those  I  have  visited  were 
built  for  an  industry  of  this  kind  ;  and  the  difliculty  of  unsuitable 
premises  is  naturally  great  where  there  are  processes  or  material 
requiring  unusual  conditions. 

Mr.  Lewis  remarks  that  a  matter  respecting  which  all  doubt 
appears  now  to  have  been  removed  is  the  necessity  for  connecting 
the  fume-pipes  of  all  gas-ironing  machines  in  laundries  with  an 
efficient  fan  exhausting  into  the  open  air.  The  Inspector  for 
Plymouth  makes  mention  of  workrooms  wherein  he  found  large 
burners  for  heating  irons  without  any  means  provided  for  taking 
away  the  fumes.  They  were  generally  placed  in  front  of  a  fire- 
place, because  the  occupiers  thought  the  fumes  would  pass  up 
the  chimney.  The  effect,  however,  was  the  opposite.  The  heat 
of  the  irons  rose  in  front  of  the  fireplace,  and  caused  the  air  of 
the  room  to  be  hotter  than  the  air  in  the  chimney  ;  and  the  fumes 
were  therefore  carried  across  the  room.  Mr.  Walmsley  reports 
improvement  generally  in  the  use  of  gas-irons  in  laundries.  Mr. 
Nicholl,  of  the  Lincoln  District,  says  the  manager  of  one  laundry 
pointed  out  an  improvement  he  had  made  in  his  ironing  room. 
Gas-heated  hand  irons  had  been  removed,  and  were  replaced  by 
ordinary  irons  heated  on  gas-stoves  of  his  own  invention,  placed 
at  arm's  length  in  front  of  the  workers — not  only  removing  the 
combustion  products  from  under  the  workers'  heads,  but  making 
it  possible  to  fix  hoods  and  ducts  to  remove  the  fumes. 

An  Inspector  in  the  Leeds  District  observes  that  it  was  noted, 
on  visiting  a  small  gas-works  in  a  country  town,  that  the  smoke- 
stack was  over  a  foot  from  the  perpendicular,  and  seemed  likely 
to  fall ;  the  wall  behind  the  retorts  was  slipping  away  from  the 
roof ;  a  roof  principal  was  broken  and  propped  up  by  2  feet  of 
plank  placed  on  end  on  the  top  of  the  not  too  strong  hollow  brick- 
work forming  the  flues;  and  the  purifiers  were  in  an  unventilated 
outhouse,  and  leaked  badly.  The  company  were  requested  to 
undertake  repairs  promptly,  which  they  did.  New  works  are,  it 
is  pointed  out,  now  in  course  of  erection. 

In  the  report  of  the  Medical  Inspector  (Dr.  T.  M.  Legge),  the 
following  statement  by  Dr.  Collis  on  the  subject  of  the  manu- 
facture of  incandescent  mantles  is  quoted  :  Four  factories  where 
incandescent  gas-mantles  are  manufactured  have  been  visited, 
to  ascertain  whether  under  the  present  conditions  of  work  any 
injury  is  caused  to  the  workers  (i)  by  vapour  arising  from  the 
baths  in  which  the  mantles  are  dipped  ;  (2)  excess  of  carbon 
dioxide  generated  in  the  process  of  seasoning  or  burning.  The 
dipping-baths  contain  a  mixture  of  methylated  ether  (industrial 
spirit)  60  per  cent.,  and  methylated  spirit  30  per  cent.,  in  which 
is  dissolved  collodion  and  camphor.  The  vapour  arising  from 
this  mixture,  if  breathed  to  any  extent  by  the  workers,  causes 
headache,  sickness,  anorexia,  sleepiness,  and  lassitude — symptoms 
which  are  experienced  to  a  greater  extent  on  first  commencing 
employment.  At  one  factory,  where  the  workers  had  to  enter 
the  hot  stoves,  heated  to  about  115°  Fahr.,  to  carry  in  mantles 
for  drying,  and  to  remove  the  dried  mantles,  all  seven  workers 
complained  of  some  of  the  symptoms  described.  These  stoves 
have  since  been  reconstructed,  with  beneficial  results.  Suitable 
hoods  and  exhaust  ducts,  minimizing  the  amount  of  vapour  which 
escapes,  can  be  fixed  over  the  dipping-baths. 

In  the  process  of  seasoning  or  burning-off,  carbon  dioxide  is 
given  off  by  the  large  number  of  bunsen  burner  jets  employed. 
In  one  room  there  were  about  640  jets  in  use  for  80  workers. 
The  products  of  combustion  are  removed  by  localized  exhaust 
in  only  two  of  the  factories  visited.  Consequently,  the  amount 
of  carbon  dioxide  found  in  these  rooms  becomes  excessive,  even 
though  there  is  good  general  ventilation  effected  by  means  of 
adequate  exhaust  fans. 

Action  of  Air  on  Coal. — In  a  recent  number  of  the  "  Comptes 
Rendus,"  M.  Mahler  dealt  with  this  subject.  According  to  an 
abstract  of  his  communication  contained  in  the  "Journal  of  the 
Society  of  Chemical  Industry,"  on  passing  a  current  of  dried 
and  purified  air  over  finely  powdered  dried  coal  (different  samples 
of  French  coals)  at  temperatures  up  to  105°  C,  water,  carbon 
dioxide,  and  carbon  monoxide  were  produced ;  the  quantities  in- 
creasing in  general  with  the  temperature,  but  varying  according 
to  the  state  of  division  of  the  coal  and  the  velocity  of  the  air 
current.  For  example,  150  grammes  of  a  coal  from  Courricres 
yielded  in  30  hours  the  following  (juantities  of  carbon  dioxide 
and  monoxide  respectively  at  the  temperatures  mentioned:  25°  to 
30'^  C,  I  c.c,  2-88  c.c. ;  45°  C,  1-55  c.c,  373  c.c. ;  65°  C,  4-25  c.c, 
5-59  c.c;  850  C,  12  c.c,  4-97  c.c;  105°  C.,  30  c.c,  667  c.c.  When 
the  coal  was  not  first  dried,  the  production  of  carbon  monoxide 
was  much  smaller — viz.,  1-13  c.c.  in  30  hours  at  35°  C.  Experi- 
ments were  also  made  under  similar  conditions  at  higher  tempera- 
tures; and  it  was  found  that  above  125"  C.  there  was  a  consid- 
erable increase  in  the  amounts  of  water,  carbon  dioxide,  and 
carbon  monoxide  produced,  while  indications  were  also  obtained 
of  the  formation  of  hydrocarbons.  Above  150°  C,  the  condensed 
water  was  distinctly  acid,  and  had  an  acetic  odour. 

July  5,  1910.] 




Answers  to  the 

The  City  and  Guilds  Examinations  for  the  third  year  in  "  Gas 
Supply  "  have  now  been  completed,  and  the  list  of  successful 
candidates  issued.  Although  the  results  have  been  communi- 
cated to  the  local  centres,  the  City  and  Guilds  of  London  Insti- 
tute has,  as  already  mentioned  in  the  "Journal,"  so  far  withheld 
them  from  the  Technical  Press.  This  proceeding  must  be  much 
regretted  by  all  who  have  the  true  interests  of  the  courses  in 
"  Gas  Engineering  "  and  "  Gas  Supply  "  at  heart.  The  Technical 
Press,  by  the  publicity  given  in  its  columns  to  the  examination 
courses  has,  we  venture  to  think,  been  a  greater  factor  in  bringing 
these  examinations  before  the  notice  of  the  young  men  of  the  in- 
dustry than  the  mere  announcement  of  them  in  the  programme 
of  the  City  and  Guilds  of  London  Institute.  These  programmes 
are  only  supplied,  as  a  rule,  to  the  Secretaries  of  the  Technical 
Institutes  and  to  the  Press.  The  Secretaries  of  the  Institutes 
cannot  be  expected  to  have  that  special  interest  in  one  particular 
course  which  editors  of  journals  devoted  to  the  industry  which 
that  special  course  represents  have ;  and  therefore,  for  popularizing 
the  examinations,  the  editors'  influence  must  be  considered  as 
greater  than  the  secretarial  influence.  While  the  latter  is  com- 
mendable so  far  as  it  goes,  there  does  not  appear  to  be  any  sound 
reason  why  the  editors'  sympathy  should  be  alienated  from  the 
course.  liach  year  they  allowed  to  be  published  the  syllabus 
which  governs  the  examinations,  and  also  extracts  from  the 
annual  report  of  the  City  and  Guilds  of  London  Institute.  It 
may  at  once  be  conceded  that  the  publication  of  the  pass  list  is 
an  act  of  grace  on  the  part  of  the  City  and  Guilds  officials;  but 
it  is  an  act  of  grace  that  conduces  to  mutual  goodwill,  and  is 
certainly  not  to  the  disadvantage  of  the  best  interests  of  the 
examinations  which  concern  the  gas  industry.  The  Council  of 
the  Institution  is  an  Advisory  Committee  in  connection  with  the 
examinations,  and  no  doubt  may  be  relied  on  to  consider  care- 
fully the  pros  and  cons  of  publication.  Meanwhile,  we  quite  hope 
that  it  will  not  be  necessary  for  them  to  discuss  this  subject  at 
all,  but  that  the  City  and  Guilds  authorities  will  realize  that  the 
little  extra  trouble  involved  in  the  preparation  of  pass  lists  for 
technical  journals  is  a  practice  that  may  be  continued  with  ad- 
vantage to  the  objects  for  which  it  was  instituted. 

We  are  able  to  ascertain  from  the  report  of  the  Council  of  the 
Institution  that  the  number  of  candidates  who  sat  this  year  in 
"  Gas  Supply  "  totalled  310.  Of  these,  93  were  candidates  in  the 
Honours  Grade — an  increase  of  12  ;  and  217  were  candidates  in 
the  Ordinary  Grade — a  decrease  of  18.  It  would  seem,  therefore, 
that  the  annual  number  of  candidates  is  settling  down  at  the 
round  figure  of  300.  This  does  not  appear  to  be  as  many  as 
might  be  expected,  considering  the  enormous  number  of  distribu- 
tion employees  who  should  have  an  all-round  knowledge  of  most, 
if  not  all,  of  the  matters  enumerated  in  the  syllabus.  The  City 
and  Guilds  certificate  should  be,  as  far  as  possible,  a  reliable 
indication  of  efficient  training  and  study  in  this  branch  of  gas 
technics ;  and  if  the  character  of  the  papers  or  the  regulations 
governing  the  examination  do  not  ensure  this,  the  scheme  should 
be  modified  accordingly. 

At  the  last  meeting  of  the  Manchester  District  Institution  of 
Gas  Engineers,  a  proposal  was  put  forward  for  the  better  training 
and  education  of  gas-fitters.    This  matter  was  also  dealt  with  at 

Questions  Set. 

some  length  by  the  President  of  the  Institution  of  Gas  Engineers 
(Mr.  J.  W.  Helps)  in  his  recent  address.  The  desirability  of  such 
an  extension  of  systematic  training  was  accentuated  by  the  dis- 
cussion on  the  report  of  the  Gas-Heating  Research  Committee.  In 
this  discussion,  it  was  clearly  held,  both  by  the  research  specialist, 
Mr.  E.  W.  Smith,  by  gas  engineers,  and  by  makers  of  gas-fires, 
that  the  competence  of  the  gas-fitter  was  an  important  factor  in 
the  success  or  otherwise  of  gas-heating  appliances  as  installed 
at  consumers'  premises.  Schemes  for  the  better  education  of 
gas-fitters,  however,  should  not  in  any  way  be  inimical  to  the 
City  and  Guilds  examinations  in  "Gas  Supply."  If  certificates 
of  proficiency  are  to  be  awarded  to  gas-fitters,  the  City  and 
Guilds  of  London  Institute  is  the  proper  authority  for  making 
such  awards.  For  a  long  number  of  years  this  Institution 
has  been  recognized  as  the  leading  body  for  the  conducting  of 
technological  examinations.  The  better  training  of  gas-fitters 
was  one  of  the  subjects  put  down  for  discussion  at  the  combined 
meeting  of  the  Commercial  Sections  which  was  held  at  the  Insti- 
tution of  Mechanical  Engineers  on  Tuesday,  June  14.  Owing  to 
the  length  of  the  other  business,  however,  consideration  of  the 
matter  by  the  Joint  Sections  was  deferred  for  twelve  months. 
We  do  not  see  exactly  what  point  there  is  in  this  subject  that 
gives  the  Commercial  Sections  any  special  claim  to  consider  it  as 
distinct  from  the  general  body  of  members  of  the  Institution,  or 
their  accredited  representatives,  to  wit,  the  Council.  It  has  been 
pointed  out  that  the  Council  are  an  Advisory  Committee  in  con- 
nection with  the  existing  examinations  ;  and  if  any  modification  in 
training  is  desired  or  required,  the  Council  is  the  proper  authority 
to  consider  the  matter  in  all  its  bearings. 

An  examination  for  gas-fitters  might  very  well  be  made  a  pre- 
liminary (though  not  compulsory)  course  to  the  Ordinary  Grade 
in  "  Gas  Supply."  The  gas-fitter,  having  secured  the  preliminary 
fitter's  diploma,  would  probably  feel  encouraged  to  continue 
his  studies.  Having  acquired  the  habit  of  systematic  training 
and  study,  it  would  not  then  appear  so  difficult  to  tackle  the  two 
courses  in  "  Gas  Supply  "  as  at  present.  Unless  there  is  greater 
evidence  of  study  on  the  part  of  distribution  employees  than  is 
shown  by  the  number  presenting  themselves  for  examination,  the 
industry  cannot  look  forward  too  confidently  to  the  keener  fight 
which  will  be  waged  for  light,  heat,  and  power  custom.  A  larger 
number  of  competent  teachers  should  be  available ;  and  the 
heads  of  gas  undertakings  in  the  Provinces  should  emulate  the 
example  of  Metropolitan  and  Suburban  heads,  who  realize  the 
importance  of  having  an  educated  outside  staff. 

In  this  year's  examinations,  the  candidates  in  "  Gas  Supply  " 
had,  as  formerly,  the  choice  of  14  questions  in  each  grade,  and 
of  these  not  more  than  eight  were  to  be  answered.  The  marks 
awarded  to  the  questions  were  modified  somewhat  as  compared 
with  previous  years ;  for  whereas  formerly  the  questions  had 
respectively  a  value  of  36  or  39  marks,  this  year  the  marking 
varied  from  30  to  45.  In  the  Ordinary  Grade,  there  was  one 
question  for  which  45  marks  were  obtainable  ;  and  this  was  one 
to  rightly  answer  which  practical  experience  was  almost  abso- 
lutely essential.  A  similar  remark  may  be  applied  to  the  two 
questions  for  which  42  marks  were  allowed.  Generally  speaking, 
the  questions  which  were  marked  lowest  were  such  as  involved 
the  minimum  amount  of  practical  experience. 

Ordinary  Grade  Questions. 

I.  (A)  Describe  one  form  of  leakage  indicator 
suitable  for  locating  escapes  from  gas- 
mains.  A  gas-main,  200  yards  long, 
supplies  50  consumers,  and  is  connected 
to  the  distributing  system  at  both  ends  ; 
how  would  you  ascertain  the  amount  of 
leakage  (if  any)  from  same  ? 

Anscll's  Leakage  Indicator. — This  instrument 
depends  for  its  action  upon  the  law  of  diffusion 
of  gases,  which  is,  "  that  gases  diffuse  at  a  rate 
inversely  proportional  to  the  square  roots  of 
their  densities."  The  instrument  is  circular  in 
form,  about  6  inches  high  by  3  inches  in  dia- 
meter. The  means  by  which  the  principle  of 
diffusion  is  applied  is  an  elastic  metal  chamber, 
at  the  base  of  which  is  a  porous  tile,  through 
which  the  diffusion  takes  place.  When  the  in- 
dicator is  placed  in  an  atmosphere  containing 
coal  gas,  the  hydrogen  of  the  latter  diffuses 
through  the  porous  tile  into  the  elastic  metal 
chamber  quicker  than  the  nitrogen  of  the  air 
can  pass  out ;  the  velocities  being  in  the  pro- 
portion of  I  to  14.  A  pressure  is  caused  in  the 
metal  chamber,  and  the  movement  of  the  elastic 
me'al  is  transmitted  by  suitable  mechanism 
to  an  index  pointer,  which  moves  over  a  dial 
marked  to  show  percentage  of  gas  present.  A 
tap  and  valve  are  provided  which  communicate 
with  the  metal  chamber,  so  that  the  coal  gas 
may  be  let  out  after  a  test  has  been  made  ;  the 
tap  and  valve  always  being  left  open  when  the 
instrument  is  out  of  action. 

To  make  a  test,  a  hole  is  drilled  down  below 
the  level  of  the  main,  and  in  close  proximity, 
by  means  of  a  crowbar.  Then  a  ring  of  clay  or 
similar  material  is  placed  round  the  top,  so  as 
to  allow  the  whole  of  the  porous  tile  access  to 
any  gas  which  may  be  escaping.  The  smallest 
quantity  will  be  registered  quickly  ;  the  maxi- 
mum effect  being  obtained  within  two  or  three 

Fig.  I. 

minutes.  This  process  is  repeated  along  the 
line  of  main  until  the  maximum  percentage  of 
leakage  is  registered,  and  at  this  place  excava- 
tion for  repairs  is  made. 

To  test  for  the  quantity  of  leakage  in  a  main 
200  yards  long,  supplying  50  consumers,  and 
connected  at  both  ends,  a  simple  arrangement 
is  shown  in  fig.  i.    This  consists  of  a  test-meter 

connected  by  flexible  tubing  to  J-inch  stand- 
pipes.  All  the  service  cocks  are  closed  ;  con- 
sumers having  previously  been  notified  of  the 
proposed  test.  The  main  is  then  securely  bagged 
off  at  each  end,  and  the  test-meter  is  attached. 
The  meter  is  usually  of  the  wet  type,  provided 
with  a  circular  spirit  level,  levelling  screws,  &c., 
and  indicating  the  consumption  per  hour  by 
observations  of  one  minute. 

To  make  a  test,  the  inlet  tap  to  the  meter  is 
turned  on,  and  the  index  hand  of  the  meter 
moves  rapidly  round  until  the  "dead"  portion 
of  the  main  is  completely  filled  with  gas.  If 
the  index  hand  afterwards  moves,  there  is  a 
leakage  in  the  main  according  to  the  amount 
registered  on  the  dial.  A  number  of  observa- 
tions should  be  taken,  with  a  short  interval  be- 
tween each. 

I.  (B)  Describe  fully  the  operation  of  tempo- 
rarily stopping  the  leakage  from  a  split 
8-inch  main  ;  permanent  repairs  being 
impossible  for  some  days. 
To  temporarily  repair  a  broken  8-inch  main, 
the  pipe  should  be  thoroughly  cleaned  on  each 
side  of  the  fracture.    A  band  of  thin  sheet  lead 
is  then  well  smeared  with  white  or  red  lead  and 
placed  over  the  fracture,  being  kept  in  position 
by  strong  copper  wire.    It  is  also  advisable,  if 
the  temporary  repair  has  to  stand  a  day  or  two. 
to  place  round  the  sheet  lead  two  clips  made  of 
flat  iron,  each  in  two  sections,  bolted  together. 
If  sheet  lead  is  not  obtainable,  strong  calico  or 
sacking  should  be  used.    This  should  be  well 
smeared  with  red  or  white  lead  and  wrapped 
round  the  gas-main  two  or  thjree  times;  each 



[July  5. 1910- 

wrapping  in  turn  being  smeared  with  red  or 
white  lead.  The  whole  is  then  bound  together 
with  strong  cord. 

In  case  of  a  cracked  socket,  the  crack  must 
be  filled  in  with  iron  cement  or  red  lead. 

2.  A  five-light  wet  meter  brought  from  a  con- 

sumer's premises  is  found  to  be  register- 
ing 25  per  cent.  slow.  To  what  causes 
may  this  be  ascribed  ?  How  would  you 
proceed  to  put  themeterinto  a  thoroughly 
satisfactory  condition,  and  certify  the 
result  of  the  work  by  testing  on  com- 
pletion ? 

Causes. — i.  Metal  float,  spindle,  or  plug 
sticking,  in  which  case,  if  the  water-line  falls 
very  low,  the  supply  of  gas  is  not  shut  off.  It 
is  improbable,  however,  that  the  water  line 
would  get  so  low  as  to  cause  a  25  per  cent,  slow 
registration  unless  water  was  leaking  from  the 
meter.  2.  Meter  worked  above  its  normal 
capacity.  3.  Breakdown  of  registering  me- 
chanism. 4.  Drum  working  against  a  large 
amount  of  friction  causing  slow  revolution. 
5.  Faulty  drum — i.e.,  holes,  &c.,  in  case. 

Repairs. — The  drum  should  be  removed, 
thoroughly  examined,  and  cleaned  by  immers- 
ing in  soda  and  water.  Small  perforations  may 
be  found  in  the  drum  ;  and  if  so,  they  must  be 
soldered  up.  Any  rust  or  corrosion  must  be 
removed  and  the  interior  of  the  meter  washed 
out  with  soda  and  water.  The  metal  float  and 
valve  should  also  be  inspected  and,  if  neces- 
sary, put  into  proper  working  condition.  If 
the  drum  is  not  repairable,  a  new  drum,  with 
compensating  arrangement  attached,  should  be 
substituted.  The  registering  mechanism  should 
next  be  examined,  to  see  that  all  the  wheels  are 
in  good  working  order,  that  no  teeth,  etc.,  are 
missing  from  the  wheels,  and  faulty  wheels  (if 
any)  replaced.  The  parts  of  the  meter  should 
then  be  carefully  put  together ;  the  joints  in 
the  outer  case  being  made  with  a  mixture  of 
red  and  white  lead,  and  tested  for  soundness 
and  accuracy. 

Testing. — Place  the  meter  on  a  level  bench 
and  fill  with  water.  Connect  the  inlet  to  the 
gas  supply  and  the  outlet  to  a  line  of  gas- 
burners,  which  are  then  lighted.  When  all  the 
air  has  been  expelled  from  the  meter  and  pipes, 
the  lights  are  regulated  until  i  cubic  foot  per 
hour  is  passing,  and  the  joints  tested  for  sound- 
ness by  a  mixture  of  soap  and  water.  A  gas 
pressure  of  not  less  than  3  inches  should  be 
used  for  this  test.  Gas  is  then  passed  from  a 
graduated  test  holder  (say)  of  5^  cubic  feet  or 
II  cubic  feet  capacity  at  a  constant  pressure  of 
J-inch  of  water.  When  the  small  dial  on  the 
meter  has  reached  a  definite  point  and  the  holder 
has  been  adjusted  to  a  convenient  mark,  gas 
is  passed  through  the  meter  and  burned  at  the 
float  of  lights.  After  passing  5  or  10  cubic 
feet,  the  readings  of  the  holder  and  meter  are 
compared,  and  the  discrepancy  (if  any)  noted. 
The  percentage  error  can  be  easily  calculated, 
and  must  not  exceed  2  per  cent,  fast  or  3  per 
cent,  slow,  after  correcting  for  temperature  and 
barometric  pressure,  to  comply  with  the  Sales 
of  Gas  Act. 

3.  State,  in  percentages,  the  composition  of  the 

following  alloys  and  the  influence  which 
each  component  has  upon  the  finished 
alloy :  Brass,  gun  metal  or  bronze,  solder. 
In  what  way  are  two  pieces  of  composi- 
tion (lead)  pipe  joined  by  means  of  a  blow 
pipe,  and  what  precautions  have  to  be 
observed  ? 

The  composition  of  ordinary  yellow  brass  is 
2  parts  of  copper  to  i  of  zinc  ;  hard  brass  for 
bearings,  8  parts  of  copper  to  i  of  zinc — i.e.,  in 
general  engineering  practice  it  varies  from  2  to 
8  parts  of  copper  to  i  of  zinc.  If  the  copper  is 
in  a  greater  proportion  than  4  to  i,  the  brass  has 
a  reddish  appearance ;  while  if  less  than  3  to  i, 
the  brass  appears  to  be  more  like  zinc.  Brass 
is  tough.  The  quantity  of  zinc  determines  the 
degree  of  fusibility  of  the  brass— the  greater 
the  zinc  content,  the  more  fusible  the  alloy. 
Bronze  is  an  alloy  of  copper  and  tin,  usually 
composed  of  about  9  parts  of  copper  to  i  of  tin 
(sometimes  containing  a  little  zinc).  Hard  gun 
metal  contains  5  parts  of  copper  to  i  of  tin  ; 
soft,  about  16  parts  of  copper  to  i  of  tin.  The 
percentage  of  tin  determines  the  hardness  of  the 

Solders  may  be  divided  into  "hard"  and 
"  soft "  kinds,  and  are  all  composed  of  lead 
and  tin. 

Fine  solder,  2  parts  tin  i  part  lead.  Fuses  at 
340°  Fahr. 

Fine  solder,  ij  parts  tin  i  part  lead,  Fuses 
at  334°  Fahr, 

Coarse  solder,  i  part  tin  3  parts  lead.  Fuses 

at  482°  Fahr. 
Plumbers'  fine,  i  part  tin  i  part  lead.  Fuses 

at  370°  Fahr. 
Note  :  The  coarse  solder  is  of  the  "  hard  " 

type  ;  the  others  being  of  the  "  soft"  kind. 
More  tin  increases  the  quality  of  the  solder, 

pose  of  attaching  weights  W  to  regulate  to  the 
necessary  pressure.  M  is  a  cast-iron  cover  to 
fit  on  to  the  casing  enclosing  the  whole. 

The  action  of  the  governor  is  as  follows  :  The 
gas  enters  the  inlet  chamber  at  C  or  D  and 
passes  between  the  valve  H  and  seating  K  into 
the  outlet  chamber.  If,  however,  the  pressure 
is  greater  than  is  required,  weights  are 
taken  off  the  bell;  thus  allowing  the 
spindle  G  to  rise  and  decrease  the  size 
of  the  inlet  orifice.  Different  weights  are 
tried  until  the  desired  pressure  is  obtaiend. 
Then  the  governor  automatically  opens 
and  closes  the  valve-way,  according  as 
more  or  less  gas  is  required,  but  always 
maintains  it  at  the  same  pressure. 

Fig.  2, 

Pig-  3- 

Fig.  4. 

and  also  lowers  the  melting  point.  When  a 
solder  contains  a  large  proportion  of  lead,  the 
alloy  is  coarse  and  requires  a  high  temperature 
for  fusing.  A  good  solder  will  emit  a  "  crack- 
ling "  noise  on  being  bent. 

To  join  two  pieces  of  compo  pipe  together, 
one  end  is  funnelled  out  by  means  of  a  tan  pin 
(fig.  2),  so  that  the  other  piece  will  just  fit  into 
it  and  leave  a  small  groove  to  make  the  joint. 
The  inside  of  the  funnelled  end  is  cleaned,  and 
the  top  edge  cut  off  cleanly  with  a  shave  hook 
(fig.  3).  The  other  end  to  be  inserted  is  then 
carefully  cleaned  by  scraping  to  a  depth  of 
J-inch  ;  the  lower  end  being  slightly  bevelled. 
This  end  is  then  forced  into  the  opened  one 
until  the  joint  is  firm  enough  to  remain  unsup- 
ported. A  little  powdered  resin  and  oil  is  then 
placed  in  the  space  between  the  pieces  of  pipe 
to  act  as  a  flux.  A  spirit  torch  is  lighted  and 
the  flame  directed  slightly  above  the  joint  by 
means  of  the  blow-pipe.  A  stick  of  solder  is 
held  in  the  flame,  also  against  the  joint  ;  the 
solder  and  flame  being  worked  round  until  the 
union  is  complete.  The  joint  is  finally  cleaned 
with  tallow  and  cloth. 

When  making  a  joint  with  solder,  it  is 
essential  that  the  surfaces  of  the  component 
parts  shall  be  perfectly  cleaned  by  fluxes  and 
free  from  metallic  oxides.  Such  fluxes  are  zinc 
chloride,  resin,  or  sal  ammoniac,  which  prevent 
oxidation  of  metals  when  heated.  The  flame 
must  not  be  allowed  to  play  on  any  portion  of 
the  joint  too  long,  as  this  would  involve  risk  of 
melting  the  pipe.  Must  not  get  the  joint  too 
hot,  or  the  solder  may  run  into  the  pipe,  and 
block  it  up.  Care  must  be  taken  to  work  out 
any  air-bubbles  in  the  solder. 

4  (A).  Why  is  it  desirable  to  have  pressures  at 
consumers'  premises  regulated  ?  De- 
scribe, with  the  aid  of  a  sketch,  one  form 
of  house  service  governor. 

It  is  necessary  to  have  the  pressure  regulated 
at  consumers'  premises  because  of  the  variation 
at  which  gas  is  supplied,  and  because  of  the 
variation  in  quantity  demanded  at  different 
times.  Uniformity  of  pressure  is  especially 
desirable  for  inverted  burners.  Other  reasons 
are  the  prevention  of  waste  of  gas  and  breaking 
of  mantles. 

Pig-  S. 

Fig.  5  is  a  sketch  of  a  Peebles  consumer's 
governor,  which  consists  of  an  outer  cast-iron 
casing  A,  which  is  divided  into  two  chambers 
(inlet  and  outlet)  by  the  partition  B.  The  inlet 
connection  can  be  made  at  either  C  or  D,  which- 
ever seems  most  adaptable  to  the  fittings.  E  is 
an  annular  mercury  cup  firmly  secured  to  the 
main  casting.  In  this  cup,  the  bell  F  is  free  to 
rise  and  fall  sensitively  to  the  variation  of  de- 
mand. To  the  underside  of  the  bell  is  attached 
a  spindle  G,  which  works  through  a  brass 
guiding  sleeve  L  in  the  top  of  the  mercury  cup. 
This  spindle  carries  a  flat  disc  valve  H,  which 
fits  into  the  seating  K,  by  which  the  gas-orifice 
can  be  increased  or  diminished.  The  spindle 
is  made  to  project  through  the  bell  for  the  pur- 

4  (B) .  How  would  you  proceed  to  prove  the 
presence  of  leakage  in  the  fittings  of  a 
consumer;  the  leakage  being  too  small 
to  be  readily  indicated  by  the  index  of 
the  meter  ? 

An  excellent  method  for  proving  the  existence 
of  a  very  minute  leakage  in  a  consumer's  fittings 
is  by  the  use  of  Milne's  "  Reliable  "  leak-testing 

Fig.  6. 

This  consists  of  a  small  bolder  A,  floating  in 
an  annular  copper  tank  of  water.  B  is  a  small 
glass  bottle,  half  filled  with  water,  to  which  are 
connected  two  tubes — -one  just  slightly  sealed 
in  water,  and  the  other  unsealed  and  having  a 
tap  on  it.  These  tubes  are  branched,  one  on 
each  side  of  the  tap  E,  on  the  main  pipe  leading 
into  the  bell  of  the  holder.  To  operate  it,  con- 
nect the  pipe  C  with  india-rubber  tubing  to 
some  part  of  the  fittings.  Turn  off  all  taps  on 
the  fittings,  also  the  meter-tap,  and  then  open 
the  tap  D  and  draw  up  the  bell.  When  nearly 
full  of  air,  close  the  tap  D,  weight  the  bell,  and 
open  the  tap  E  ;  thus  allowing  the  pressure  in 
the  bell  on  the  fittings.  When  the  bell  has 
become  steady,  close  the  tap  E  and  open  the 
tap  F  on  the  small  tube,  then  the  only  connec- 
tion between  the  fittings  and  the  bell  is  through 
the  water.  Thus,  if  the  pressure  in  the  fittings 
falls,  through  a  leakage,  the  pressure  in  the 
holder  will  then  be  greater,  and  will  thus  over- 
come the  slight  seal  in  the  bottle,  and  bubbles 
of  air  will  be  seen  to  pass  in  this  way.  The 
machine  is  so  sensitive  that  a  leakage  of  i  cubic 
foot  in  350  hours  is  easily  revealed. 

5.  A  room  with  2000  cubic  feet  of  air  space  is 
lit  with  one  inverted  burner  consuming 
3  cubic  feet  of  gas  per  hour.  What 
quantity  of  air  will  be  required  for  com- 
bustion, and  what  will  be  the  proportion, 
by  volume,  of  its  chief  constituents? 
Assuming  the  air  of  a  room  is  changed 
twice  per  hour,  what  percentage  will  the 
air  required  by  the  burner  bear  to  the 
total  quantity  passing  through  the  room  ? 

The  quantity  of  air  required  for  the  combus- 
tion of  I  cubic  foot  of  gas  varies  slightly  with  ■ 
the  varying  composition  of  coal  gas  from  5*5 
cubic  feet  to  5-7  cubic  feet.  Therefore,  taking 
the  mean  as  5'6  cubic  feet  of  air  for  i  cubic  foot 
of  coal  gas,  the  quantity  required  for  3  cubic 
feet  of  coal  gas  will  be  3  x  5'6 — i.e.,  i6-8  cubic 

The  proportion  by  volume  of  the  chief  con- 
stituents of  the  air  are  :  Oxygen,  21  per  cent.  ; 
nitrogen,  79  per  cent. 

If  the  air  of  the  room  is  changed  twice  per 
hour  or  once  in  30  minutes,  then  the  volume 
2000  X  2  =  4000  cubic  feet,  which  will  have 
passed  through  the  room.  The  percentage  of 
air  required  by  the  burner  to  the  amount  of  air 
passing  through  the  room  is 

100  X  i6-8  gq^^ig        per  cent. 


{To  be  Continued.) 

July  5,  igio.] 




It  would  be  impossible  to  do  anything  but  commend  this  excellent 
treatise  on  the  theoretical  and  practical  position  of  the  gas-turbine 
at  the  present  day.  All  that  is  important  in  connection  with  this 
fascinating  subject  has  been  grouped  together  to  render  the  work 
both  useful  and  instructive. 

The  object  of  this  book  is  to  compile  in  one  volume  the  results 
of  the  work  of  English,  French,  German,  and  other  organizations, 
so  as  to  enable  engineers,  who  are  at  present  investigating  the 
subject,  to  appreciate  how  much  work  has  already  been  done,  and 
so  save  unnecessary  repetition — the  frequent  cause  of  much  waste 
of  time  in  all  matters  of  research.  One  has  only  to  consider  the 
present  position  of  steam-turbines  in  order  to  realize  how  highly 
desirable  it  is  that  the  gas-turbine  should  meet  with  successful 
development  to  a  similar  extent. 

In  his  first  chapter,  the  author  traces  the  evolution  of  the 
earliest  forms  of  motors  rotated  by  heat,  from  the  smoke  jack, 
actuated  by  fire,  to  the  Stolze  hot-air  turbine,  and  the  later  tur- 
bines of  De  Laval  and  Lemale.  A  great  deal  of  space,  but  none 
too  much,  is  devoted  to  the  reproduction  of  a  paper  on  "A 
Scientific  Investigation  into  the  Possibilities  of  Gas-Turbines  " 
read  by  Mr.  R.  M.  Neilson  before  the  Institution  of  Mechanical 
Engineers  in  1904,  and  the  highly-important  discussion,  con- 
tributed to  by  the  most  experienced  engineers  on  the  subject  of 
turbines,  which  followed  the  reading  of  the  paper.  Much  infor- 
mation is  contained  in  a  paper  read  by  M.  Sekutowicz  before 
the  Society  of  Civil  Engineers  of  France,  to  which  are  devoted  a 
couple  of  chapters. 

So  many  difficulties  lie  in  the  way  of  a  successful  issue  to  the 
attempts  to  bring  the  gas-turbine  from  the  experimental  to  the 
practical  stage,  that  readers  of  Mr.  Suplee's  book  will  possibly 
consider  that  the  author  is  somewhat  unduly  optimistic.  Of  these 
difficulties  the  question  of  temperature,  during  working,  of  the 
material  of  which  the  turbine  is  composed  is  by  no  means  the 
least.  When  it  is  considered  that  the  temperature  at  which  the 
material  forming  the  turbine  must  necessarily  be  maintained  while 
at  work  far  exceeds  the  fusing  point  of  iron,  steel,  and  copper,  it 
will  be  seen  the  task  before  experimentalists  is  no  light  one. 

The  problem  before  the  pioneers  of  the  steam-turbine  was  by 
no  means  so  abstruse  ;  for  in  this  case  the  temperature  of  the 
working  fluid  does  not  exceed  that  at  which  the  ordinary  and  most 
suitable  metals  practically  retain  their  full  strength.  There  is, 
however,  no  need  to  be  too  pessimistic  of  the  prospects  before  the 
gas  turbine;  for,  as  the  author  points  out,  "there  are  many  active 
and  energetic  minds  at  work  on  the  problem,  and  commercial  re- 
sults may  soon  be  expected  to  follow;"  though  Mr.  Dugald  Clerk, 
in  the  discussion  on  Mr.  Neilson's  paper,  said  that  "  he  did  not  see 
any  immediate  future  for  a  gas-turbine,  except  in  possibly  utilizing 
exhaust  gases  from  reciprocating  engines,  which  at  present  were 
liberated  under  considerable  pressures." 

The  last  chapter,  on  the  "  Practical  Work  of  Armengaud  and 
Lemale,"  is  most  enlightening,  and  demonstrates  to  the  reader 
that  the  progress  in  gas-turbines  has  been  by  no  means  illusory. 
It  is  stated  that  a  number  of  120- H. P.  gas-turbines  of  a  special 
type  have  been  actually  installed  in  submarine  torpedoes  com- 
pleted for  active  service.  These  turbines  travel  at  a  speed  of 
1500  revolutions  per  minute;  and  yet  the  total  weight  is  only 
162  lbs.  There  is  also  described  a  small  gas-turbine,  built  by 
Karasodine,  operating  with  regularity  and  success.  Developing 
about  2-H.P.,  its  speed  is  no  less  than  10,000  revolutions  a 
minute  ;  while  the  diameter  of  the  turbine  is  only  6  inches.  As 
the  author  points  out,  the  continuous  turning  effort  is  often  most 
desirable  ;  and  taking  into  consideration  the  small  size,  the  possi- 
bilities of  such  an  apparatus  become  evident. 

The  subject  is  very  capably  treated,  and  the  work  of  the  author 
cannot  but  assist  in  the  practical  development  of  a  type  of  engine 
which  may  well,  in  the  future,  bring  much  grist  to  the  mill  of  the 
gas  engineer.    The  book  may  be  thoroughly  recommended. 

*  "The  Gas-Turbine."  By  H.  H.  Suplee.  London  :  Chas.  Griffin  and  Co., 
Limited;  1910.  []. 

French  Gas  and  Electricity  Undertakings.— We  have  received 
from  the  offices  of  the  "  Journal  de  I'Eclairage  au  Gaz  et  b.  I'Elec- 
tricit6,"  7,  Rue  Geoffroy- Marie,  Paris,  the  directory  of  gas  and 
electricity  undertakings  which,  for  about  fifteen  years,  has  been 
issued  under  the  supervision  of  M.  Maurice  Germain,  the  Editor 
of  the  above-named  publication.  The  edition  for  the  present 
year  has,  of  course,  been  revised  and  brought  up  to  date.  In  the 
section  relating  to  gas  will  be  found  a  complete  list  of  gas-works, 
particulars  of  the  locaUties  served  from  them,  the  names  of  the 
officials,  &c.,  and  a  list  of  gas-fitters.  The  portion  devoted  to 
electricity  furnishes  a  large  amount  of  information  in  regard 
to  undertakings  supplying  this  illuminant;  and  there  is  a  Ust  of 
towns  possessing  a  system  of  electric  tramways.  Each  section  of 
the  book  contains  a  chapter  givmg  the  names  of  the  larger  gas 
^AA  ^^^^^"^'ty  companies,  with  the  amount  of  capital,  the  official 
address,  the  names  of  the  directors,  and  the  number  of  works 
owned ;  together  with  Hsts  of  suppliers  of  plant  in  connection  with 
both  of  these  industries.  The  work  is  now  well  established  ;  and 
every  effort  has  been  made  to  ensure  for  the  present  edition  the 
^me  success  which  has  attended  the  issue  of  its  predecessors. 
Ihe  price  of  the  book  is  4  frs.  in  other  countries  than  France. 


[Conlinued  from  p.  957  of  last  week's  issice.] 
The  Meter  and  Governor  Room. 
This  room  contains  a  wet  station  meter  of  81,190  cubic  feet  per 
hour  capacity  and  two  district  pressure  regulators,  with  30-iiich 
connections,  and  a  bye-pass  with  relief  governor  between  the 
meter  inlet  and  the  district  main.  The  floor  on  which  the  meter 
and  governor  stand  is  about  10  ft.  6  in.  above  the  ground  level. 
The  apparatus  is  supported  at  this  height  on  an  iron  structure, 
while  the  whole  building  rests  on  brick  foundations  and  a  pile 
framing.  The  connections  under  the  floor  of  the  governor-room 
are  so  arranged  that  gas  can  be  passed  if  required  direct  from  the 
purifiers  to  the  governors;  while  there  is  a  bye-pass  for  the 
station  meter  and  a  connection  with  a  valve  between  the  inlet 
and  outlet  of  the  gasholders.  With  a  view  to  subsequent  exten- 
sions, the  main  leading  from  the  station  meter  to  the  inlet  to  the 
gasholders  is  30  to  44  inches  in  diameter;  the  outlet  main  from 
the  gasholder  is  44  inches  in  diameter;  and  the  main  leading  to 
the  district  pressure  regulators  is  the  same  size. 


The  inlet  and  outlet  mains,  consisting  of  wrought-iron  pipes 
44  inches  in  diameter,  are  carried  from  the  governor-house  to  the 
gasholders  at  a  height  of  16  feet  above  the  ground  level — measur- 
ing from  the  under  side  of  the  mains.  They  enter  a  valve-house 
situated  between  the  two  gasholder  tanks,  and  there  branch  to 
the  two  holders.  The  branches  are  laid  underground.  The  tanks 
of  the  gasholders  are  annular,  and  stand  on  annular  foundations 
which  rest  above  ground  on  brickwork  which,  under  ground,  is 
carried  by  granite  concrete  supported  by  a  ring-shaped  founda- 
tion of  numerous  piles,  securely  tied  together.  These  piles  are 
52  ft.  6  in.  to  56  ft.  in  length.  The  horizontal  roof  of  the  tank  is 
partly  carried  by  the  iron  tank  and  partly  by  a  column.  It  has 
ribs  with  flexible  joints.  The  interior  of  the  tank  is  used  as  a 
store  for  iron  and  fire-clay  goods.  A  steam-pipe  runs  through  the 
annular  brick  foundation ;  and  from  it  four  branches  are  carried 
to  the  rim  of  the  tank.  They  feed  six  injectors  for  heating  the 
water  in  the  tank  and  four  injectors  for  heating  the  water  in  the 
cup  of  the  No.  I  gasholder,  which  is  telescopic.  The  steam  con- 
nection between  the  fixed  steam-pipes  and  the  cup  is  by  means  of 
metallic  flexible  tubing,  which  runs  over  a  roller  carried  by  the 
rising  and  falling  gasholder,  so  that  the  length  of  tube  remains 
constant  in  all  positions.  The  gasholder  bells  have  man-holes 
and  dip-pipes  over  the  inlet  and  outlet  mains,  so  that  access  can 
be  obtained  to  the  mains  without  entirely  grounding  the  bell  or 
emptying  the  gas  from  it.  This  arrangement  has  proved  of  prac- 
tical value ;  as,  after  nine  years'  working,  it  became  necessary  to 
clear  the  outlet  main  of  the  telescopic  holder  of  accumulated 

Liquor  Distillation  Plant. 

To  the  north  of  the  condenser  and  washer  building  is  a  simple 
massive  brick  building,  of  2153  square  feet  area,  containing  the 
liquor  distillation  plant.  There  are  two  column  stills  capable  of 
dealing  with  2206  and  4412  gallons  respectively  per  diem  of  crude 
liquor.  The  smaller  still  was  brought  from  the  old  works.  The 
concentrated  liquor  is  stored  in  a  wrought-iron  cylindrical  tank, 
from  which  it  is  pumped  by  means  of  an  air-pump  into  the  tank 
waggons  which  are  run  along  the  north  front  of  the  building. 
There  are  also  in  the  same  building  two  boilers  and  a  press  for 
boiling  and  filter-pressing  cyanogen  sludge.  The  ammonia  liber- 
ated in  the  boiling  is  recovered  in  a  small  condenser  as  concen- 
trated liquor.  The  filtrate  from  the  presses  is  worked  up  to 
sulphate  of  ammonia.  The  lime  sludge  from  the  stills  is  collected 
in  a  pit  in  the  basement  of  the  building,  having  a  partition  to 
facilitate  the  separation  of  the  water,  which  is  run  off  into  the 
sludge  catch-pit  in  the  water-tower. 

The  Water-Tower. 

The  water  required  on  the  works  is  taken  from  the  River 
Pregel.  A  storage  tank  of  about  700,000  gallons  capacity  is  in- 
stalled in  a  water-tower  to  the  west  of  the  liquor  distillation 
house.  Having  regard  to  the  small  area  of  this  tower  and  the 
weight  of  it  and  its  contents,  it  was  a  specially  difficult  matter  to 
secure  a  sufficiently  firm  foundation.  A  framing  of  piles,  nearly 
40  feet  in  length,  was  adopted  ;  and  the  tower  stands  on  it  on  an 
annular  concrete  base.  The  hollow  space  within  the  concrete 
base  is  used  for  a  tank  which  is  divided  by  two  radial  partition 
walls.  One-half  is  used  as  a  sludge  catch-pit  and  the  other  as  a 
tar-tank.  The  tower  is  carried  up  to  a  height  of  about  43  feet 
above  the  ground,  where  it  is  covered  with  a  tiled  roof;  but  out  of 
the  latter  txteuds  au  uun  framing,  having  the  shape  of  a  trun- 
cated cone,  which  carries  the  wrought-iron  elevated  tank  for  the 
river  water.  The  bottom  of  the  tank  is  of  the  Intze  type  of  con- 

Immediately  below  the  roof  of  the  main  portion  of  the  tower  is 
an  annular  concrete  tank  of  a  capacity  of  35,300  gallons,  which  is 
for  the  storage  of  drinking  water,  as  a  reserve  in  case  of  any 
interruption  of  the  drinking  water  supply  to  the  works,  which 
ordinarily  is  taken  from  the  town  mains.  Directly  underneath 
this  is  an  annular  tank  of  353,000  gallons  capacity,  which  is  used 
as  a  tar-tank.  A  pipe  with  provision  for  steam-heating  passes 
from  the  tar-tank  to  the  outside  of  the  tower,  where  it  terminates 



[July  5,  1910. 

in  a  valve  directly  above  the  railway  line,  so  that  tank  waggons 
can  be  filled  through  it.  Beneath  the  tar-tank,  at  a  height  of 
iS  feet  above  the  basement,  is  an  intermediate  floor  available  for 
stores.  The  basement  is  used  for  the  storage  of  sulphate  of 
ammonia  and  for  the  accommodation  of  the  requisite  pumps. 

Water-Gas  Plant  and  Boiler-House. 

In  anticipation  of  a  third  retort-house  being  required,  a  third 
pile-framing  foundation  was  put  in  ;  and  at  the  east  end  of  this 
the  water-gas  plant  and  relief  gasholder  from  the  old  works  were 
erected  in  1003.  The  building  is  iron-framed,  with  cement  and 
wire-lattice  walls.  An  electro-motor  is  used  for  driving  the  fan. 
A  station  meter  from  the  old  works  is  used  for  measuring  the 
water  gas.  The  generators  have  been  refitted  with  valves  with 
safety  interlocking  gear.  An  improved  dust  separator  was  attached 
to  each  generator;  and  the  scrubbing  capacity  was  increased  by 
the  provision  of  a  second  scrubber  and  extending  the  height  of 
the  former  scrubber.  The  uncarburetted  water  gas  made  was 
at  first  passed  experimentally  into  the  retorts,  but  later  through 
the  dip-pipes  into  the  hydraulic  mains  of  the  retort-benches. 

The  boiler-house  is  attached  to  the  liquor  distillation  house. 
It  contains  in  the  first  instance  two  water-tube  boilers  of  the 
Babcock  and  Wilcox  type,  each  of  3230  square  feet  heating  surface 
and  646  square  feet  superheating  surface.  The  boilers  produce 
steam  of  8  atmospheres  pressure  with  250^  to  300°  superheating. 
They  are  heated  with  coke  breeze ;  and  the  flue  gases  are  drawn 
by  means  of  Sturtevant  fans  into  an  iron  chimney  on  the  north 
side  of  the  house.  The  fans  will  produce  a  draught  of  14-ioths. 
Two  steam-mains  pass  from  the  boilers  through  the  washer-house 
to  the  retort-houses  and  water-gas  plant.  One  steam-pipe  is 
carried  through  the  liquor  distillation  house  to  the  water-tower, 
and  so  to  the  purifier-house,  governor-room,  and  the  gasholders. 
Another  pipe  goes  to  the  baths  and  kitchens. 

Technical  Dex-eloi'ment  of  the  New  Gas-Wokks. 

As  already  described,  provision  was  made  for  the  erection  of  a 
third  retort-house  by  putting  in  the  foundations,  which  were, 
however,  made  use  of  ior  the  time  being  for  the  water-gas  plant 
from  the  old  works.  By  the  year  1905,  the  maxinunu  daily  output 
of  the  existing  retort-house  plant  had  been  overtaken  by  the  con- 
sumption. Experiences  elsewhere,  however,  indicated  that  it 
would  not  be  desirable  to  extend  the  retort-house  plant,  accord- 
ing to  the  old  designs,  with  inclined  retorts.  In  order  to  secure 
time  for  consideration  of  the. new  types  of  carbonizing  plant  which 
■were  being  introduced,  recourse  was  had  to  the  plan  of  increasing 
the  productive  capacity  of  the  works  by  the  addition  of  water  gas. 
Up  to  this  time,  water  gas  had  been  introduced  into  the  hydraulic 
main,  and  thus  a  sufficiently  uniform  and  satisfactory  working  had 
been  obtained  without  artificially  carburetting  the  water  gas. 
Further  increase  of  the  make  of  water  gas,  however,  necessitated 
carburetting.  The  altered  market  conditions,  and  the  position  of 
the  new  gas-works,  pointed  to  the  production  of  water  gas  carbu- 
retted  with  oil  being  most  economical.  All  the  apparatus  of  the 
old  plant,  with  the  exception  of  the  generators  and  the  fans,  was 
therefore  done  away  with,  and  on  the  space  thus  rendered  avail- 
able a  water-gas  generator,  with  carburettor  and  superheater  for 
a  productive  capacity  of  35,000  cubic  feet  per  hour,  was  erected. 
The  apparatus  was  arranged  so  that  the  generator  could  be  used 
if  desired  by  short-circuiting  the  carburettor  and  superheater  for 
the  production  of  blue  water  gas.  A  "  Standard  "  washer-scrubber 
from  the  old  gas-works  was  erected  for  scrubbing  the  water  gas. 
The  oil-tank  was  constructed  within  the  relief  gasholder. 


The  new  coal-conveying  plant  came  into  use  in  igo6.  Owing 
to  its  geographical  position,  Kdnigsberg  depends  on  England  for 
its  coal  supply.  The  channel  from  the  Baltic  Sea  to  the  River 
Pregel  at  Konigsberg  was  deepened  in  1902  to  admit  of  large  sea- 
going vessels  coming  up  to  Konigsberg.  The  gas-works  is,  there- 
fore, supplied  direct  with  coal  from  the  steamers.  But  the  supply 
may  be  cut  off  for  four  months  of  the  year  by  ice.  Hence  two 
adjacent  halls,  having  an  area  of  about  68,900  square  feet,  were 
erected  as  coal-stores.  On  the  river  foreshore,  two  travelling 
tower  cranes  were  installed  with  grabs  of  i  to  i.V  tons  capacity. 
The  grabs  and  cranes  are  worked  from  an  engine  box  on  the 
tower  by  means  of  electric  winding  gear.  The  coal  arrives  in 
steamers  of  2000  to  5000  tons  capacity,  having  usually  three  or 
four  hatches.  The  grabs  fill  themselves  automatically  in  the  holds 
of  the  boats,  and  are  then  run  up  and  discharged  into  a  receiver, 
the  lumps  passing  over  a  screen  to  the  coal-breaker,  from  which 
a  load-measuring  vessel  is  filled.  This  vessel  fills  in  turn  the 
■waggons  on  a  rope-line  which  runs  to  the  coal-store.  The  waggons 
pass  over  an  automatic  weighing  machine  as  they  leave  the  coal 
unloading  berth.  In  each  of  the  coal  halls  are  two  electrically 
driven  travelling  cranes  of  about  130  feet  span.  The  cranes 
travel  on  lines  running  along  the  sides  of  the  halls.  The  two 
cranes  are  coupled  to  a  travelling  line,  about  260  feet  in  length, 
which  traverses  the  two  halls,  and  carries  an  inclined  plane  which 
can  be  hooked  by  means  of  sliding  tongues  on  the  rope  of  the 
rope-line.  On  the  travelling  cranes  there  are,  at  short  distances, 
shiftmg  lugs  by  which  the  waggons  of  the  rope-line  are  tipped. 
The  waggons  on  the  rope-line  are  impelled  to  the  sheds,  there- 
fore, only  by  vis  viva  on  the  iuclined  railways.  An  elevator  is 
provided  at  the  south-east  corner  of  the  coal-store  for  raising  coal 
.from  railway  waggons  to  the  rope-line  if  required.  For  removing 
coal  from  the  store,  there  is  a  travelling  crane,  with  grabs  in  both 

halls.  The  filled  grab  conveys  the  coal  to  the  middle  gangway  of 
the  two  halls,  where  it  is  discharged  into  the  receiver  of  a  rope- 
line  conveyor,  by  which  it  is  taken  to  the  retort-houses.  Provision 
is  also  made,  by  means  of  the  rope-line,  for  conveying  coal  direct 
from  the  steamers  to  a  receiver,  from  which  it  is  transferred  to  the 
retort-house  conveying  lines. 

Additional  Apparatus. 

In  1906,  the  purifying  plant  was  extended  by  the  addition  of 
two  vessels  of  689  square  feet  area  of  grids.  This  brought  the 
number  up  to  six  vessels,  which  are  worked  in  two  sets  of  three. 
The  station  gas-meter  being  no  longer  sufliciently  large  was  sup- 
plemented by  the  installation  of  a  dry  rotary  meter  of  a  capacity 
of  105,000  cubic  feet  per  hour  (made  by  the  Rotary  Meter  Com- 
pany, of  Manchester).  A  third  exhauster  of  175,000  cubic  feet 
capacity  per  hour  was  added  in  1907.  In  igo8,  a  third  boiler  of 
3230  square  feet  heating  surface  was  erected  in  the  boiler-house  ; 
and  in  the  same  year  the  extension  of  the  carbonizing  plant  was 
put  in  hand.  After  due  consideration  of  the  modern  types  of 
carbouizers.  it  was  decided,  on  the  ground  of  low  depreciation 
charges  and  high  productive  capacity,  to  erect  two  inclined 
chamber  settings  each  containing  four  carbonizing  chambers  for 
a  charge  of  tons.  In  1909,  this  installation  was  enlarged  by 
the  addition  of  four  more  settings  of  four  chambers  each.  A  view 
of  the  discharging  side  of  these  chambers  was  given  in  last  week's 
issue,  and  a  detailed  description  of  them  was  published  in  the 
"  Journal,"  Vol.  CVIII.,  p.  109.  A  comprehensive  statement  of 
the  working  results  cannot  be  given  here  ;  but,  speaking  generally, 
it  may  be  said  that  a  considerable  advance  in  the  yield  of  gas  has 
been  undoubtedly  obtained  by  the  use  of  this  plant. 

In  January  last  a  third  washer  was  erected  primarily  for  the 
extraction  of  ammonia;  but  it  was  so  arranged  that  it  could  be 
used  if  required  for  the  extraction  of  cyanogen  from  gas  which 
had  been  previously  freed  from  anuuonia.  The  rapid  develop- 
ment in  the  output  of  gas  showed  that  the  provision  made  in  the 
scheme  for  the  new  works  for  washing  and  purifying  plant  would 
soon  be  inadequate.  The  make  of  gas  had  nearly  doubled 
between  the  years  1902  and  1909;  and  in  the  latter  year  a  maxi- 
nuim  daily  make  of  3,378,000  cubic  feet  was  attained.  The  new 
works  was  intended  tor  apparatus  for  a  maximum  daily  make  of 
about  7  million  cubic  feet.  In  order  to  avoid  as  far  as  might  be 
the  construction  of  new  apparatus  houses,  and  to  work  on  as  low 
a  capital  outlay  as  possible,  an  attempt  was  made  to  solve  the 
following  problems:  (1)  To  make  the  recovery  of  ammonia  from 
the  crude  gas  independent  of  the  temperature  of  the  washing 
water  and  of  the  gas ;  (2)  to  introduce  a  cheap  process  for  the 
production  of  sulphate  of  ammonia,  as  hitherto  concentrated 
liquor  only  had  been  sold  ;  (3)  to  eifect  the  economical  recovery 
of  cyanogen  ;  and  (4)  to  diminish  the  space  required  for  sulphur 
purification.  Study  of  these  questions  led  (in  1907)  to  a  contract 
being  concluded  with  a  Zehlendorf  Company,  by  which  that 
Company  erected  on  the  gas-works,  at  their  own  cost  and  risk,  a 
washing  plant  of  about  4  million  cubic  feet  capacity  per  diem. 
This  plant  was  to  test  the  applicability  of  the  different  processes 
devised  by  Herr  Walther  Feld.  Trials  were  made  of  it  at  the  end 
of  1908  and  the  beginning  of  1909  ;  and,  as  a  consequence  of  the 
results  obtained,  the  installation  was  modified  and  is  now  again 
at  work.  The  course  pursued  is  as  follows:  The  crude  gas  is 
freed  from  tar  as  hitherto  ;  and  then  sulphur  and  ammonia  are  ex- 
tracted from  it  by  means  of  sulphurous  acid.  Then  it  is  treated 
with  a  solution  of  sulphate  of  iron  or  zinc,  which  solution  is  re- 
generated by  means  of  sulphurous  acid  and  air.  In  the  regenera- 
tion, sulphur  is  precipitated,  and  is  used  again  for  the  prepara- 
tion of  the  sulphurous  acid  required.  The  procedure  is  therefore  : 
Firstly,  complete  recovery  of  ammonia  as  sulphate,  independently 
of  the  temperature  of  the  gas  and  without  the  purchase  of  sul- 
phuric acid;  secondly,  the  limitation  of  the  dry  purification  for 
sulphuretted  hydrogen  to  a  small  portion  of  the  sulphuretted 
hydrogen  contained  in  the  crude  gas;  and,  thirdly,  economy  of 
space  through  the  use  of  rotary  washers  with  vertical  axes.  The 
gas  thus  freed  from  ammonia  is  then  purified  from  cyanogen  ;  and 
the  rest  of  the  sulphuretted  hydrogen,  which  was  not  taken  up  in 
the  ammonia  washers,  is  passed  into  the  dry  purifiers. 

The  distributing  system  was  enlarged  owing  to  a  number  of 
suburbs  being  taken  into  the  municipal  area  on  April  i,  1905.  In 
the  summer  of  that  year  gas-mains  were  extended  to  these 
suburbs,  and  public  lighting  was  introduced  there.  In  1907,  a 
special  main,  of  14-inches  diameter,  was  laid  to  the  north-west 
suburb  of  Amalienau.  At  the  end  of  the  year  1908,  the  distribut- 
ing system  had  a  length  of  83  miles  of  main,  and  there  were  3935 
public  lamps,  of  which  1900  were  prov  ided  with  distance-lighting 
apparatus  actuated  by  increased  pressure  from  the  gas-works. 
The  extension  of  the  distributing  system  in  1906  included  the 
laying  of  two  mains,  of  26-inches  diameter,  beneath  the  River 
Pregel.    The  length  under  the  river  bed  was  about  360  feet. 

{To  he  continued.) 

We  have  received  from  the  Council  of  the  Scottish  Junior 
Gas  Association  (Western  District)  the  "  Transactions  "  ior  the 
past  session,  as  reprinted  from  the  "Joi'rnal."  Seven  papers 
were  read ;  and  there  were  four  visits  to  works.  The  subjects 
dealt  with  were  full  of  interest ;  and  the  Council,  in  their  report, 
say  that  the  attendance  of  members  at  all  the  meetings  was  well 
maintained.  There  is  an  index  to  the  papers;  and  at  the  end  of 
the  pamphlet  is  a  list  of  the  office  bearers  and  members 

July  5,  igio.] 




The  Report  and  Accounts  for  the  Year  1909-10. 

The  report  of  the  Council  of  this  Association,  presented  at  the 
annual  meeting  at  Kiinigsberg  on  the  20th  to  the  24th  ult.,  refers 
first  to  the  celebration  last  year  of  the  jubilee  of  the  Association, 
and  the  success  of  the  general  meeting  held  at  Frankfort-on  the 
Main  in  connection  therewith.  The  album  issued  in  commemo- 
ration of  the  completion  of  fifty  years'  activity  has  already  been 
reviewed  in  our  columns  [Vol.  CVIL,  p.  i6g].  The  report  states 
that  it  has  been  very  widely  circulated  among  public  authorities, 
colleges,  and  other  bodies  to  which  it  was  likely  to  be  of  interest, 
and  has  been  received  with  most  favourable  comments. 

Reference  is  next  made  to  the  election  last  year  to  honorary 
membership  of  the  Association  of  Dr.  Hans  Bunte  and  Herr  W. 
von  Oechelhaeuser,  to  whom  illuminated  scrolls  recording  the 
election  were  presented  at  Carlsruhe  and  Dessau  on  Dec.  18  and 
Feb.  20  last  respectively.  The  Bunsen-Pettenkofer  Medallion  of 
Honour  was  conferred  on  Mr.  W.  H.  Lindley,  of  Frankfort,  in 
recognition  of  his  distinguished  work  in  connection  with  water 
supply  in  Germany  and  abroad,  and  the  great  services  which  he 
has  rendered  to  the  Association,  especially  through  the  various 
Technical  Committees  on  which  he  has  served.  The  same  dis- 
tinction has  been  conferred  also  on  the  chiefs  of  two  firms  of 
makers  of  gas  plant  and  apparatus — Dr.  E.  Blum,  of  the  Berlin- 
Anhalt  Engineering  Company,  and  Dr.  R.  Pintsch,  of  the  firm  of 
that  name. 

In  recognition  of  the  changing  conditions  of  the  gas  industry, 
and  to  counteract  the  favour  shown  by  municipal  authorities  and 
others  to  electricity,  it  was  decided,  at  a  meeting  held  on  March  14 
last  at  Berlin,  to  found  an  Organization  for  Promoting  the  Sale  of 
Gas.  The  Council  decided  on  April  8  to  support  this  organiza- 
tion by  an  annual  contribution  to  it  from  the  Association's  funds 
of  £2'^o  (which  decision  was  confirmed  by  the  general  meeting 
at  Konigsberg).  The  Council  have  lodged  a  protest  with  the 
Secretary  of  State  for  the  Interior  against  a  new  German  law  for 
facilitating  the  distribution  of  high-tension  electricity.  Another 
protest  has  been  sent  to  the  Ministers  of  the  Interior,  of  Com- 
merce, and  of  Public  Works  against  the  favour  shown  to  electric 
lighting  for  warehouses,  concert-rooms,  and  theatres  by  the  regu- 
lations of  the  Chief  of  Police  of  Berlin.  In  order  to  bring  home 
to  consumers  and  others  the  great  industrial  importance  of  the 
gas  industry  and  its  progress  in  recent  years,  the  Association 
have  started  on  the  compilation  of  industrial  statistics  relating  to 
the  last  three  years,  and  many  valuable  conclusions  have  been 
already  obtained  therefrom  ;  but  the  full  results  are  not  yet  ready. 
The  Council  and  the  Technical  Committees  of  the  Association  have 
also  given  much  attention  to  the  question  of  spreading  knowledge 
in  regard  to  the  use  of  gas  and  its  wide  applicability,  by  means 
of  lectures,  &c. ;  and  it  is  hoped  that,  through  steps  taken  by  the 
German  Continental  Gas  Company,  a  greater  number  of  pro- 
perly qualified  lecturers  and  instructors  will  be  available  shortly 
for  this  work.  The  Association  are  acting  jointly  with  the  new 
Organization  for  Promoting  the  Sale  of  Gas  in  endeavouring  to 
secure  ample  space  for  exhibits  relating  to  gas  and  water  supply 
at  the  International  Exhibition  of  Hygiene  which  is  to  be  held  in 
Dresden  next  year ;  and  as  the  meeting  of  the  Association  will  be 
held  in  that  city,  members  will  then  have  a  good  opportunity  of 
seeing  the  results  of  the  work  done  to  organize  the  gas  and  water 

The  report  next  refers  to  the  arrangements  which  had  been 
made  in  the  spring  for  the  visit  of  members  of  the  Association  to 
England  in  the  second  week  after  Whitsuntide,  for  a  tour  of  in- 
spection of  the  gas-works  in  London,  Edinburgh,  and  Glasgow, 
and  to  the  postponement,  in  consequence  of  the  death  of  King 
Edward,  of  the  visit  to  about  the  end  of  September,  when  it  is 
hoped  a  large  number  of  members  will  participate  in  the  tour. 

The  proposal  emanating  from  England,  America,  and  France 
for  the  adoption  of  an  international  unit  of  light  based  on  com- 
parative measurements  of  the  standards  of  light  in  common  use 
in  the  different  countries  was  considered  by  the  Council.  While 
believing  that  Germany  has  in  the  Hefner  lamp  the  unit  of  light 
which  has  been  proved  to  be  the  best  available  for  practical 
photometry,  the  Association,  acting  in  unison  with  the  Union  of 
German  Electricians,  have  deemed  it  inexpedient  for  the  time 
being  to  raise  objection  to  the  proposed  international  candle,  pro- 
vided its  ratio  to  the  Hefner  unit  is  exactly  determined.  It  was 
considered  that  such  an  international  unit  of  light  should  have  a 
rational  basis,  and  be  sharply  definable  and  reproducible,  as  is 
the  case  with  the  Hefner  unit  at  the  present  time.  But  so  long  as 
the  units  and  methods  employed  in  photometry  differ  as  greatly 
as  they  do  now,  conversion  of  experimental  results  by  calculation 
cannot  be  avoided ;  and  hence  the  creation  of  an  international 
unit  does  not  seem  to  the  Council  to  be  very  pressing.  The 
Association  and  the  Union  of  Electricians  have  in  the  meantime 
addressed  a  petition  to  the  Imperial  Office  for  the  Interior,  asking 
the  assistance  of  the  German  Government  and  the  Imperial 
Physical-Technical  Institute  in  work  directed  towards  the  creation 
of  a  rational  unit  of  light  having  a  scientific  basis.  The  Minister 
of  the  Interior  has  sanctioned  the  investigation  of  the  question  by 
the  Physical-Technical  Institute;  and  his  subsequent  action  will 
depend  on  the  results  of  this  investigation.  No  substantial  pro- 
gress since  last  year  has  to  be  reported  in  the  endeavour  to  create 
an  international  gas  screw-thread. 

The  Council  record  their  thanks  to  the  members  of  the  various 
Technical  Committees  of  the  Association  for  their  labours.  The 
thirtieth  of  the  annual  volumes  of  gas  statistics  compiled  under 
the  auspices  of  the  Association  relates  to  the  year  190S,  and 
embodies  several  alterations  in  the  information  furnished  as  com- 
pared with  the  earlier  volumes.  Questions  now  dealt  with  in  the 
statistics  include  the  number  of  settings  and  the  number  and  type 
of  the  retorts  or  chambers  in  use,  the  production  and  use  of  water 
gas,  and  particulars  of  long-distance  gas  supplies  and  high-power 
gas  lighting.  The  statistics  now  relate  to  287  gas  undertakings,  as 
compared  with  273  in  the  previous  year.  A  considerable  increase 
in  the  consumption  of  gas  is  generally  shown,  though  it  is  not  quite 
so  great  as  in  the  previous  year.  It  is  intended  to  make  a  more 
comprehensive  volume  of  statistics  once  every  five  years ;  and 
the  first  of  such  volumes  is  that  which  is  now  in  the  press. 

The  number  of  members  of  all  classes  of  the  Association  has 
increased  by  twelve  in  the  course  of  the  year,  and  now  amounts 
to  1 107. 

The  report  next  refers  to  the  eight  District  Gas  and  Water 
Associations  which  are  affiliated  to  the  German  Association,  and 
gives  particulars  of  their  membership  and  the  meetings  which 
they  have  held  during  the  past  year.  Then  a  list  is  given  of  con- 
tributors to  the  fund  for  furthering  the  scientific  work  of  the 
Association,  and  to  grants  made  from  the  funds  of  the  Schiele 
Foundation  to  students  and  for  research  work.  The  Benevolent 
fund  of  the  Association  dispensed  during  the  year  about  £l^2  to 
29  families  or  persons. 

The  report  states  that  Mr.  W.  H.  Lindley,  of  Frankfort,  retires 
this  year  from  the  Council,  and  is  not  eligible  for  re-election. 
[Herr  H.  Ries,  Manager  of  the  Munich  Gas- Works,  was  chosen 
by  the  general  meeting  at  Konigsberg  to  succeed  him.] 

The  accounts  show  receipts  for  the  year  amounting  to  about 
/"2028,  and  a  sum  brought  forward  of  ^"924.  The  ordinary  ex- 
penditure amounts  to  ;f  1770;  and  there  is  an  item  of  ^^9x4  of  ex- 
traordinary expenditure  towards  the  Instructional  and  Experi- 
mental Works  at  Carlsruhe.  The  book-value  of  these  works  now 
is  about  £zzb2. 

Reports  of  the  Technical  Comniittees. 

The  Heating  Committee. 

The  draft  set  of  prescriptions  and  rules  for  the  sale,  regulation, 
and  use  of  gas  brought  forward  by  the  Committee  at  last  year's 
meeting  ["Journal,"  Vol.  CVI.,  p.  971]  waa,  in  so  far  as  its 
second  section — viz.,  "  Rules  for  Fitting  Work  " — was  concerned, 
submitted  to  the  German  District  Gas  Associations  for  their 
opinion  and  suggestions  as  to  desirable  alterations.  The  Com- 
mittee now  record  their  warmest  thanks  for  the  valuable  hints 
received  from  these  Associations. 

In  regard  to  technical  questions,  the  proposals  of  the  Committee 
could,  generally  speaking,  be  forthwith  adopted.  The  Rhenish- 
Westphalian  and  Brandenburg  Association,  however,  emphasized 
the  point  raised  at  the  last  meeting — viz.,  that  under  no  circum- 
stances must  the  supervision  of  fitting  work  be  subject  to  the 
police  authorities,  even  though  the  latter  may  only  serve  as  a 
backing  for  the  gas-works  which  will  actually  exercise  the  control. 
After  much  deliberation,  the  Committee  finally  came  to  an  agree- 
ment that  in  all  the  circumstances  the  testing  and  control  of  gas- 
fitting  work  must  be  in  the  hands  of  the  gas-works,  and  that  the 
police  authorities  should  be  entirely  excluded  from  the  rules,  in 
order  especially  to  avoid  collisions  between  them  and  the  gas- 
works in  cases  where  the  latter  undertake  fitting  work.  The 
Committee  was  of  opinion  that  fitting  was  to-day  so  important  a 
branch  of  the  activities  of  a  gas  undertaking  that  not  only  should 
all  parts  of  the  rules  which  gave  the  police  any  control  be  deleted, 
but  that  the  introduction  to  the  rules  should  be  modified  so  as 
to  express  the  importance  of  the  fitting  work  now  carried  out 
by  gas-works.  In  opposition  to  the  idea  that  the  authority  of 
the  police  would  be  necessary  to  make  the  prescriptions  effectual 
and  to  impose  penalties  for  faulty  fitting  work,  it  was  pointed  out 
that  the  provision  of  the  rules,  that  in  cases  in  which  the  condi- 
tions were  not  fulfilled  gas  should  not  be  supplied,  was  sufficient 
authority  for  refusing  to  make  the  connection  with  the  main 
where  the  house  installation  was  defective.  Moreover,  the  pre- 
scriptions might  be  regarded  as  generally  accepted  rules  in  the 
building  and  decorating  trade,  and  failure  to  comply  with  them 
would  be  an  infraction  of  the  common  law  and,  as  such,  punish- 
able by  fine.  In  order  to  avoid  risk  of  partiality  in  cases  where 
the  gas-works  which  acts  as  the  controlling  authority  undertakes 
fitting  work,  provision  has  been  made  for  appeal  to  some  person 
who  shall  be  independent  of  the  gas-works,  fhe  question  of  pro- 
vision for  dealing  with  strikes  of  fitters  might,  the  Committee 
thought,  be  allowed  to  stand  over  for  a  time.  It  was  considered 
undesirable  to  put  any  restriction  on  the  right  of  a  fitter  to  under- 
take work  in  any  district.  A  joint  sitting  of  the  Committee 
and  representatives  of  the  German  Fitters'  Union  was  held  on 
March  12  at  Frankfort ;  and  while  it  was  found  impossible  to  con- 
form to  the  views  of  the  latter  in  all  respects,  it  was  decided  to 
formulate  them  in  an  appendix  to  the  report.  The  Committee 
consider  that  the  rules,  as  now  set  out,  are  ready  for  the  approval 
of  the  Association.  They  were  approved  by  the  general  meeting 
at  Konigsberg. 



[July  5,  igio. 

The  proposal  of  Herr  Reichard,  that  the  Committee  should 
undertake  to  train  lady  instructors  in  gas  cooking,  has  been  met 
by  the  German  Continental  Gas  Company  placing  their  lady 
instructor  at  the  disposal  of  other  gas-works  for  lecturing  pur- 
poses. Also  the  newly-formed  "  Organization  for  Promoting  the 
Sale  of  Gas"  [referred  to  in  the  report  in  last  week's  "Journal" 
of  the  proceedings  at  the  meeting  of  the  German  Association]  has 
made  a  special  point  of  stimulating  gas  cooking  by  lectures  on 
the  subject. 

A  new  question,  which  has  come  before  the  Committee  is  the 
participation  of  the  Association  in  the  International  Exhibition  of 
Hygiene  at  Dresden  in  igii.  At  a  joint  meetingof  this  Committee 
and  the  Water- Works  Committee  held  at  Frankfort  on  March  13 
last,  it  was  decided  that  it  was  desirable  that  the  Association 
should  participate,  and  a  special  Sub  Committee  was  appointed 
to  report  on  the  arrangements  which  could  be  made.  This  Sub- 
Committee  has  recommended  that  a  special  pavilion  should  be 
secured  at  the  Exhibition  for  the  gas  and  water  industries,  with  a 
view  particularly  to  displaying  their  hygienic  and  scientific  aspects. 
The  steps  taken  by  the  General  Secretary  to  obtain  this  have  not 
yet  reached  any  definite  conclusion,  and  the  financial  support  re- 
quired cannot  therefore  yet  be  fixed. 

The  resignation  by  Herr  L.  Korting,  one  of  the  Honorary  Mem- 
bers of  the  German  Association,  and  until  recently  Manager  of 
the  Hanover  works  of  the  Imperial  Continental  Gas  Association,  of 
his  seat  on  the  Committee,  has  been  accepted  with  much  regret, 
and  the  retirement  of  Herr  Galley  from  the  Committee  is  also 
announced.  The  report  is  signed  by  Dr.  E.  Schilling,  of  Munich, 
as  Chairman  of  the  Committee. 

The  set  of  prescriptions  and  rules  for  the  sale  and  use  of  gas, 
which  have  been  referred  to  in  the  foregoing  report,  are  printed 
as  an  Appendix  to  it.  They  cover  40  pages,  and  are  divided  into 
a  preface  and  four  sections,  of  which  the  first  relates  to  the  regu- 
lation of  the  relations  between  gas-works  and  consumers,  the 
second  to  prescriptions  for  fitting  up  houses  and  rules  for  gas- 
fitting,  and  the  third  constitutes  a  simple  statement  for  the  infor- 
mation of  consumers  on  the  properties  and  use  of  gas.  The  fourth 
section  is  supplementary  to  the  second,  and  merely  gives  explana- 
tions and  additions  proposed  after  the  latter  had  been  drafted.  It 
is  unnecessary  to  refer  in  detail  in  the  "Joi'knal"  to  the  set  of 
rules  and  prescription.s. 

Gas-Metf.r  Committee. 

This  Committee  report  that  they  have  not  put  any  fresh  work 
in  hand,  and  that  the  investigations  already  started  have  been 
hampered  through  the  many  other  claims  on  the  time  of  their 
members  individually.  Consequently,  the  work  of  the  Committee 
has  not  progressed  so  rapidly  as  might  be  wished.  The  artificially 
prepared  membranes  for  dry  meters,  which  had  previously  been 
made  in  small  pieces  for  preliminary  examination,  have  now  been 
produced  in  larger  sizes,  and  found  to  be  as  good  as  the  small 
pieces  formerly  made.  Experimental  meters  for  5  and  20  lights 
made  up  with  these  membranes  are  ready  for  distribution  to  the 
gas-works  which  have  undertaken  to  submit  them  to  supervised 
durability  trials.  The  Committee  have  decided  that  these  should 
be  conducted  as  far  as  possible  on  a  uniform  basis. 

The  question  of  a  reduction  of  the  fees  charged  for  stamping 
gas-meters  has  been  further  considered,  and  the  President  has 
agreed  to  present  a  petition  to  the  Bundesrat  urging  the  necessity 
of  a  reduction  in  the  fees  at  present  prescribed  by  resolution  of 
that  body.  The  Committee  have  continued  their  work  aiming 
at  the  unification  of  the  external  dimensions  of  the  gas-meters 
made  by  different  firms.  There  seems  little  difficulty  in  arriving 
at  uniformity  in  regard  to  wet  meters ;  but  the  dry  meters  vary 
greatly,  and  the  Committee  are  still  in  communication  with  the 
representatives  of  the  firms  of  makers  in  regard  to  an  agreement 
as  to  the  dimensions.  The  question  of  meter  unions  and  threads 
has  also  been  considered ;  and  the  Committee  recommend  the 
adoption  of  the  sizes  approved  for  gas  and  water  pipes  by  the 
Joint  Standards  Committee  of  the  Association  and  of  the  Asso- 
ciation of  German  Engineers  in  1903. 

The  Committee  had  been  asked  to  make  trials  of  the  "  Rota  " 
apparatus  for  measuring  gas  made  by  the  Rota  works  at  Aix-la- 
Chapelle.  Several  examples  of  it  were  supplied  for  an  extended 
trial ;  and  observations  taken  by  two  members  of  the  Committee 
showed  that  while  it  was  not  applicable  to  the  exact  measurement 
of  quantities  of  gas,  it  was  useful  for  a  number  of  other  purposes, 
such  as  the  rapid  measurement  of  the  gas  consumption  of  lamps 
and  apparatus,  and  for  regulating  gas-nipples,  testing  of  meters 
in  situ,  determining  the  amount  of  gas  passing  through  a  pipe,  and 
measuring  the  air  for  the  revivification  of  oxide  in  the  purifiers, 
and  of  gases  generally  for  mixing. 

The  Committee  record  their  thanks  to  the  Imperial  Standards 
Department  for  the  interest  which  it  has  taken  in  the  work  of  the 
Committee.  The  report  is  signed  by  Herr  C.  Kohn,  of  Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main,  who  is  the  Chairman. 

Water- Works  Committee. 
The  report  of  the  Committee  on  the  working  of  Water- Works 
states  that  they  held  two  meetings.  I^eference  is  made  to  the 
publication  of  the  twentieth  issue  of  the  "  Water  Statistics," 
compiled  under  the  direction  of  the  Committee.  This  contains 
reports  from  381  undertakings,  compared  with  345  in  the  previous 
year's  issue.  It  is  the  practice  to  include  full  particulars  of 
the  machinery  and  equipment  of  different  works  in  every  fifth 
year's  volume,  and  the  present  issue  contains  this  complete  in- 

formation.   In  other  years  only  new  plant  is  referred  to.  It 

was  decided  to  include  in  the  next  volume  information  on  many 
points  not  hitherto  dealt  with  ;  and  additional  questions  were 
accordingly  drawn  up  for  issue  to  the  authorities  concerned. 
A  large  number  of  answers  have  already  been  received.  One 
question  was  as  to  whether  any  tests  were  made  o  the  calorific 
power  of  the  fuel  used  on  the  works  ;  and  56  undertakings  replied 
that  they  made  such  tests,  while  298  replied  that  they  did  not. 
Another  question  was  as  to  whether  the  manager  had  had  any 
opportunity  of  seeing  a  water-diviner  at  work ;  and,  if  so,  with 
what  result.  Only  24  answers  were  in  the  affirmative.  The  ques- 
tion of  water-divination  was  discussed  at  one  meeting;  and  the 
information  obtained  showed  that  the  "  art "  was  again  in  the 
ascendant.  The  Committee  were  unanimously  of  the  opinion 
that  the  collection  and  sifting  of  particulars  of  cases  of  the  use 
of  the  divining-rod  and  the  publication  of  the  results  of  this  inves- 
tigation would  be  the  best  means  of  correcting  erroneous  views 
thereon.  Reference  is  made  in  the  report  to  the  joint  meeting 
with  the  Heating  Committee,  called  to  consider  the  question  of 
the  participation  of  the  Association  in  the  International  Exhibi- 
tion of  Hygiene  at  Dresden  next  year.  The  result  of  this  meeting 
has  been  referred  to  in  the  report  of  the  Heating  Committee  [vide 
supra] .  The  Committee  deplore  the  loss  by  death  during  the  year 
of  Herr  E.  Kunath,  one  of  the  oldest  members.  The  report  is 
signed  by  Herr  Reese  (Dortmund),  Chairman  of  the  Committee. 

Electrolysis  Committee. 

The  report  of  this  Committee  for  the  year  igog-io  states  that 
no  independent  work  has  been  carried  out,  as  for  the  time  being 
the  activity  of  the  Committee  is  merged  in  the  Electrolysis  Com- 
mittee appointed  jointly  by  the  Association  with  the  Association 
of  German  Electricians  and  the  Association  of  German  Tram- 
way and  Light  Railway  Undertakings.  The  Joint  Committee  have 
already  carried  out  investigations  at  Diisseldorf,  on  which  a  cir- 
cumstantial report  has  been  prepared.  A  Sub-Committee  have 
been  appointed  to  sift  the  immense  mass  of  information  collected 
by  the  Committee,  and  to  draw  up  a  set  of  preset  iptions  for  general 
acceptance.  Great  difficulty,  however,  has  been  experienced  in 
this  matter,  because  the  interests  of  the  two  principal  parties  in 
the  Committee  are  opposed.  Much  time  has  been  spent  in 
collating  the  results  of  investigations  carried  out  at  Brunswick, 
Nuremberg,  Cassel,  Warsaw,  Beuthen,  and  Diisseldorf.  In  fact, 
one  engineer — viz.,  Herr  Besig — has  been  almost  exclusively  en- 
gaged on  this  work  up  to  the  end  of  the  year.  The  issue  of  the 
complete  report  has  not  therefore  yet  become  possible.  The  pre- 
scriptions suggested  by  the  Sub-Committee  were,  however,  dis- 
cussed in  a  plenary  sitting  of  the  Committee  held  at  Carlsruhe  on 
April  30  last,  with  the  gratifying  result  that  they  were  unanimously 
adopted,  with  but  trifling  alterations,  and  there  is  every  prospect 
of  their  ultimate  ratification  by  the  three  component  Associations 
of  the  Joint  Committee. 

The  "  Prescriptions  for  the  Protection  of  Gas  and  Water  Pipes 
from  Injurious  Effects  of  Currents  of  Electric  Lines  using  Con- 
tinuous Current  and  the  Rails  as  Conductors  "  are  given  in  an 
appendix  to  the  report.  They  are  in  six  sections,  of  which  the 
first  refers  to  the  range  of  applicability  of  the  prescriptions,  and 
excludes  therefrom  lines  of  which  the  rails  are  insulated  by  being 
laid  on  a  wooden  bed  or  the  like,  and  lines  which  are  at  least  200 
metres  (656  feet)  from  the  nearest  point  of  the  system  of  mains. 
The  second  section  states  that  the  rails  used  for  conducting  the 
current  must  be  laid  and  maintained,  as  far  as  possible,  as  reliable 
and  perfect  conductors.  The  resistance  at  the  joints  must  not 
be  more  than  20  per  cent,  higher  than  the  resistance  of  the  rail 
where  there  is  no  joint.  All  conductors  for  carrying  current 
which  are  connected  with  the  rails  are  to  be  insulated  from  earth. 
The  third  section  refers  to  the  tension  in  the  rails,  and  states  that 
in  urban  localities  where  the  lines  ramify  the  tension  between  any 
two  points  must  not  exceed  2.^  volts,  while  on  outlying  stretches 
the  fall  of  tension  must  not  exceed  i  volt  per  kilometre.  A  higher 
tension  may  be  allowed  on  lines  which  are  only  used  for  one  or 
two  hours  a  day.  The  fourth  section  relates  to  the  resistance 
between  the  rails  used  for  conducting  current  to  earth,  which 
resistance  must  be  as  high  as  possible  and,  if  necessary,  owing  to 
special  conditions  of  soil  or  otherwise,  must  be  increased  by 
effective  insulation.  The  rails  and  conductors  connected  with 
them  must  not  be  connected  with  gas  or  water  pipes  or  other 
metal  bodies  embedded  in  the  earth.  The  distance  between  rails 
and  hydrants,  syphon-pots,  or  other  objects  lying  near  the  surface 
and  attached  to  the  pipes  by  metallic  connection  must  be  at  least 
40  inches.  Insulated  conductors  must  be  used  for  motors,  lights, 
&c.,  fed  from  the  tramway  conductor  except  in  certain  specified 
exceptional  circumstances. 

The  fifth  section  states  that  while  the  preceding  prescriptions 
are  intended  to  avoid  the  possibility  of  pipes  being  destroyed,  it 
is  recognized  that  the  electrolytic  destruction  of  pipes  depends 
quantitatively  on  the  density  of  the  current  passing  from  them. 
Where  the  current  due  to  tramway  currents  has  an  average 
density  exceeding  075  milliampere  per  square  centimetre,  the 
pipe  or  main  is  to  be  considered  unreservedly  as  endangered 
by  the  tramway  ;  and  further  protective  measures  must  be  taken. 
Exception  is  made  for  goods  lines  working  only  for  a  short 
period  of  the  day.  The  sixth  and  last  section  gives  the  provisions 
which  should  be  made  for  supervising  installations,  such  as  the 
carrying  of  test  wires  from  junctions  in  the  line  to  some  central 
point,  so  that  the  potential  at  junctions  may  be  readily  tested. 

The  report  points  out  that  these  prescriptions  tally  generally 

July  5,  igio.] 



with  the  regulations  which  the  Association  have  considered  neces- 
sary, though  their  outward  form  is  different;  and  more  latitude  is 
given  to  the  tramway  constructors  as  to  the  choice  of  means  by 
which  the  desired  end  may  be  attained.  A  few  measures  have, 
however,  merely  been  recommended  instead  of  being  definitely 
prescribed.  The  prescriptions  aim,  on  the  one  hand,  at  pro- 
viding all  the  protection  which  is  imperatively  required,  while  not 
exceeding  what  is  practicable  in  present  conditions.  To  what  ex- 
tent they  fulfil  all  requirements  will  be  revealed  by  future  experi- 
ence only ;  and  as  a  result  of  the  latter,  changes  may  have  to  be 
made.  The  Committee  of  the  Association  propose,  as  soon  as 
the  work  of  the  Joint  Committee  is  finished  and  their  final  report 
issued,  to  resume  independent  inquiries  into  the  tjuestion  of  the 
electrolysis  of  gas  and  water  mains  by  vagrant  currents.  The 
report  is  signed  by  Mr.  W.  H.  Lindley,  of  Frankfort  on-the- Main, 
on  behalf  of  himself  and  his  colleagues. 

The  Instruction  Committee. 
The  training  schools  for  gas  fitters,  &c.,  referred  to  in  previous 
reports,  have  continued  their  work  regularly  during  the  year 
igog  10 ;  and  the  Committee  propose  next  year  to  reconsider  the 
schemes  of  instruction  and  the  results  obtained  at  these  schools. 
The  Committee  have  been  busy  with  the  organization  of  instruc- 
tion in  gas  cookery,  and  have  decided  to  submit  the  following 
propositions  to  the  Council  of  the  Association  :  (i)  That  courses 
of  training  for  ladies  in  cooking  by  gas  be  established  in  suitable 
centres  in  Germany,  such  as  Berlin,  Leipsic,  Dresden,  Carlsruhe, 
Wiesbaden,  &c.,  if  local  conditions  and  the  gas-works  managers 
favour  the  scheme.  (2)  That  it  be  ascertained  through  members 
of  the  Association  what  cookery  schools  exist  in  different  places, 
and  that  gas  apparatus  be  put  at  the  disposal  of  these  schools 
free  of  cost,  and  instruction  be  given  there  on  cooking  by  gas. 
(3)  That  the  ladies  trained  to  give  instruction  be  informed  of  the 
facilities  offered  by  the  gas-works  for  the  supply,  by  hiring  or 
otherwise,  of  gas  cooking  apparatus,  and  that  they  be  requested 
to  include  this  information  in  their  course  of  instruction.  (4) 
That  in  lectures  and  courses  of  instruction  it  be  strongly  recom- 
mended that  explanation  be  given  of  the  regulation  of  gas-burners, 
and  the  mode  of  dealing  with  any  obstructions  which  may  occur. 

(5)  That  in  default  of  courses  on  gas  cooking,  which  should  be 
repeated  frequently  wherever  possible,  it  is  strongly  recommended 
that  suitable  articles  thereon  should  be  inserted  in  the  newspapers. 

(6)  That  it  is  desirable  to  ascertain  and  consider  whether  prepay- 
ment meters  might  not  be  introduced  in  many  places  solely  for 
heating  and  cooking  purposes.  (7)  That  it  is  desirable  to  give 
attention  to  the  supply  of  specially  cheap  gas  cooking  and  heating 
apparatus  for  the  middle  and  lower  classes.  That  the  supply  of 
the  very  inferior  apparatus  often  put  in  by  fitting  firms  must  be 
checked  by  every  possible  means.  (8)  That  where  gas  and  elec- 
tricity are  both  available,  reliable  comparative  trials  of  cooking 
with  gas  and  electrical  apparatus  should  be  carried  out,  and  the 
results  placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  new  organization  for  pro- 
moting the  sale  of  gas. 

The  Committee  further  suggest  that  the  latter  organization 
should  collect  literature,  both  native  and  foreign,  on  heating  and 
cooking  by  gas,  with  a  view  to  compiling  therefrom  a  compre- 
hensive pamphlet  suitable  for  publication.  Finally,  books  on, 
and  recipes  for,  gas  cooking  should  be  published.  The  foregoing 
hints  should  be  taken  by  gas  engineers  as  intended  for  adaptation 
according  to  local  conditions ;  and  the  Committee  invite  sugges- 
tions for  their  modification  and  extension.  The  report  is  signed 
by  the  Chairman  of  the  Committee,  Herr  W.  von  Oechelhaeuser, 
the  General  Manager  of  the  German  Continental  Gas  Company, 
who,  however,  was  unfortunately  prevented  by  indisposition  from 
presenting  it  himself  at  the  meeting  of  the  Association. 

Other  Committees. 
An  abstract  translation  of  the  report  of  the  Committee  for  the 
Instructional  and  Experimental  Gas-Works  of  the  Association 
was  given  in  the  "Journal"  last  week  (p.  961),  and  some  notes 
were  also  given  at  the  same  time  on  the  contents  of  the  report 
of  the  Committee  on  Photometry,  which  report  has  not  yet  been 
issued  in  full.  The  reports  for  the  past  year  of  all  the  Technical 
Committees  of  the  Association  have  therefore  now  been  dealt 
with  in  the  "  Journal  ;  "  the  fulness  of  the  treatment  given  them 
varying,  not  according  to  their  respective  lengths,  but  according 
to  the  extent  to  which  their  contents  seem  likely  to  be  of  interest 
to  English  gas  engineers. 

Prices  realized  at  an  art  sale  at  Christie's  recently  showed 
that  the  late  Sir  Frederick  Mappin  was  fortunate  in  other  spheres 
of  life  than  as  a  gas  administrator.  During  the  sale  of  his  pic- 
tures, a  canvas  by  Constable,  "  Stoke-by-Nayland,  Suffolk,"  sold 
for  8800  guineas— an  auctioneer's  record  for  a  Constable.  In 
1879  this  very  picture  was  sold  for  740  guineas. 

In  connection  with  the  road-tarring  experiments  of  which 
the  results  have  been  recorded  from  time  to  time  in  the 
"Journal,"  the  name  of  Mr.  Rees  Jeffreys  has  been  frequently 
mentioned,  in  his  capacity  as  Secretary  of  the  Roads  Improve- 
ment Association.  We  learn  that  he  has  now  been  appointed 
Secretary  of  the  newly-formed  Road  Board.  The  selection  is  a 
very  good  one,  for,  though  quite  a  young  man,  Mr.  Rees  Jeffreys 
is  an  authority  on  systems  of  highway  administration ;  and  we 
believe  it  was  mainly  through  his  efforts  that  a  Departmental 
Committee  of  the  Local  Government  Board  was  appointed  to 
inquire  into  the  subject  as  far  as  regards  England  and  Wales. 


By  Dr.  E.  Schilling,  of  Munich. 

[Abstract  Translation  of  a  Paper  read  at  the  Meeting  of  the 
German  Association.] 
The  general  assumption  that  the  use  of  gas  for  heating  pur- 
poses is  a  modern  innovation  is  erroneous.  So  long  ago  as  1858 
it  was  announced  in  the  Technical  Press  that  the  Cathedral  at 
Berlin  had  been  heated  by  gas  for  about  two  years  past,  and  also 
that  there  were  eight  gas-stoves  in  the  Church  of  St.  Katherine, 
at  Hamburg.  The  principle  of  the  burner,  known  as  the  Eisner, 
used  in  these  stoves  was  the  combustion  of  gas  above  a  wire 
gauze,  beneath  which  it  had  been  mixed  with  air.  These  Eisner 
burners  were  used  for  a  variety  of  heating  purposes ;  and  the 
author  remembers  quite  well  one  being  used  at  his  home  in  his 
boyhood  for  boiling  the  tea  kettle.  It  was  also  reported  at  the 
same  time  that  a  patent  (dated  January,  1857)  had  been  granted 
for  the  heating  of  irons  for  laundry  work  by  means  of  gas;  and  in 
1859,  a  soldering  apparatus  for  continuous  soldering  by  means  of 
gas  was  described.  This  included  the  use  of  a  blast  worked  by  a 
foot  bellows. 

In  1859,  also,  a  Gorlitz  firm  advertised  gas  cooking  and  heating 
apparatus ;  while  a  Berlin  firm  were  supplying  gas-stoves  for 
heating  churches,  gas-fires,  gas-grills,  and  baking-ovens,  as  well 
as  boiling  burners  for  kitchens  and  chemical  laboratories.  In  an 
advertisement  of  Eisner,  of  Berlin,  in  July,  1859,  it  was  pointed 
out  that  there  was  scarcely  a  branch  of  domestic  work,  of  industry, 
and  of  business  for  which  a  gas  cooking  or  heating  apparatus 
could  not  be  recommended.  Thus  it  is  evident  that  the  use  of 
gas  for  industrial  purposes  is  considerably  older  than  is  usually 
assumed,  and  that  it  has  not  been  brought  about  through  a  falling 
off  in  the  use  of  gas  for  lighting  due  to  the  spread  of  electricity. 
The  Paris  Exhibition  of  1867  contained  the  first  gas-engine  of 
Otto-Langen  type,  thereby  indicating  that  gas  was  already  applic- 
able at  that  date  in  industry  in  the  most  varied  directions.  Be- 
sides cooking  apparatus,  there  were  also  exhibited  there  singeing 
apparatus  for  use  in  wool-works,  dye-works,  and  bleaching-works. 
Jewellers  also  were  using  gas.  Plant  for  chemical  and  metal- 
lurgical purposes  and  laboratory  ovens  were  also  shown. 

Attention  is  at  the  present  time  turned  again  to  industry  by  the 
development  of  an  enormous  number  of  new  applications  for  gas ; 
and  it  is  important  that  the  gas  engineer  should  be  acquainted 
with  them  in  order  to  meet  the  threatened  competition  of  elec- 
tricity for  heating  purposes  in  industry.  A  short  time  ago,  the 
author  was  visiting  a  works  in  which  gas  was  used  for  the  harden- 
ing and  tempering  of  watch  springs;  and  he  was  informed  that 
only  the  day  before  a  representative  of  a  large  electricity  firm  had 
been  setting  out  in  a  most  convincing  manner  the  advantages  of 
the  electrical  hardening  of  steel.  This  reminded  the  author  afresh 
of  the  necessity  that  manufacturers  should  have  explained  to 
them  by  representatives  of  the  gas  industry  also  the  advantages 
of  heating  by  gas.  Numerous  instances  demonstrate  how  much 
can  be  done  in  this  direction  if  the  gas  industry  actively  pushes 
the  application  of  its  staple  product.  A  representative  of  the  gas 
industry  can  be  helpful  not  only  in  bringing  to  the  notice  of  con- 
sumers the  most  suitable  apparatus  and  burners,  but  also  he  can 
gain  their  confidence  by  teaching  them  how  to  use  gas  economi- 
cally.   By  this  means  their  satisfaction  will  be  assured. 

The  competitors  with  which  gas  has  to  reckon  as  a  heating 
agent  are  steam,  water  gas,  producer  gas,  solid  fuels  (among  which 
is  its  own  bye-product,  coke),  and,  finally,  electricity.  While  all 
these  competitors,  with  the  exception  of  electricity,  present  advan- 
tages, in  the  smaller  absolute  cost  of  the  heating  agent,  electric 
energy  is  the  dearest  of  all,  and  it  must  be  again  and  again  brought 
to  the  notice  of  the  public  that  1000  cubic  feet  of  gas,  costing 
2S.  lod.  to  4s.  6d.,  contain  561,800  B.Th.U.;  whereas  i  unit  of 
electricity,  costing  ijd.  to  2^d.,  can,  in  the  most  favourable  case, 
develop  only  3428  B.Th.U.  Consequently,  electricity  can  merely 
come  into  play  as  a  heating  agent  in  quite  exceptional  cases.  If 
gas  engineers  were  called  upon  to  leave  lighting  to  electricity, 
they  might  with  far  greater  justice  call  upon  electricians  to  leave 
heating  entirely  to  gas.  All  the  advantages  that  are  claimed  by 
electricians,  such  as  convenience,  easy  regulation  of  temperature, 
adaptability,  &c.,  are  to  be  attained  in  at  least  as  high  a  degree, 
if  not  higher,  with  gas  ;  and  the  apparatus  required  for  the  latter 
is  for  the  most  part  simpler  and  cheaper.  No  injury,  therefore, 
need  be  feared  for  gas  from  the  competition  of  electricity,  if  gas 
engineers  assist  industrial  consumers  who  have  to  reckon  their 
working  charges  most  carefully,  to  apply  gas  in  a  rational  and  an 
economical  manner.  The  advantages  of  gas  should  be  explained 
to  them  just  as  the  advantages  of  electricity  are  explained  by 
electrical  concerns. 

More  serious  rivals  for  gas  are  the  cheaper  heating  agents, 
particularly  steam.  The  sale  of  gas  will,  however,  extend  more 
in  competition  with  the  latter  the  greater  is  the  success  in  utili- 
zing rationally  the  calorific  power  of  the  gas  and  the  greater  the 
extent  to  which  the  properties  of  gas-tlames  dependent  on  their 
nature,  varying  temperature,  and  shape  are  rendered  available. 
In  order  to  present  a  review  of  the  extent  to  which  gas  has  at  the 
present  day  obtained  a  footing  in  industry  and  business,  the 
author  has  appended  to  his  paper  a  list  of  the  apparatus  used  for 
heating  with  gas,  the  purposes  for  which  it  is  used,  and  the  names 
of  the  most  important  Continental  makers  of  such  apparatus. 
The  list  only  contains  the  results  of  the  author's  own  knowledge 



[July  5,  tgto. 

and  inquiries ;  and  he  hopes  that  it  may  be  extended  by  others. 
Nevertheless,  the  list,  incomplete  though  it  may  be,  indicates  the 
directions  in  which  gas  has  been  applied  with  success  and  in 
which  an  increase  in  the  use  of  gas  is  to  be  obtained. 

There  is  wide  scope  for  the  use  of  gas  in  annealing  and  smelt- 
ing by  means  of  muffle-furnaces  heated  by  a  blast.  Gas  here 
competes  especially  with  the  cheaper  descriptions  of  gas,  such  as 
water  gas,  producer  gas,  and  also  with  furnaces  heated  with  coke. 
The  chief  advantage  of  gas  firing  consists  in  the  extraordinarily 
simple  regulation  of  the  heat  and  the  convenience  with  which  it 
can  be  supervised.  Soot  and  smoke  are  also  avoided.  The  use 
of  water  gas  and  producer  gas  is  only  possible  where  the  amount 
of  work  to  be  done  admits  of  a  special  gas  plant  being  employed. 
The  rapid  development  of  machine  tools  makes  it  necessary  to 
use  in  all  works  well  hardened,  sharp  steel  tools ;  and  in  all  such 
cases  tempering  or  case-hardening  furnaces  heated  by  gas  are 
applicable.  The  tools  are  raised  to  incandescence  in  a  muffle  or 
other  furnace  and  are  heated  to  a  temperature  varying  from  550'^ 
to  1200°  C,  dependent  on  the  quality  of  the  steel. 

The  second  important  operation  is  the  cooling  or  tempering 
of  the  steel,  which  takes  place  in  the  absence  of  air  in  baths  ot 
saline  solution,  oil,  or  molten  white  metal.  Various  types  of  gas- 
furnaces  are  used  according  to  the  procedure  required.  There 
are  also  crucible  furnaces  for  melting  metals  of  all  kinds,  such  as 
gold,  silver,  copper,  brass,  &c.,  in  graphite  crucibles;  and  these 
gas-furnaces  are  extensively  used  both  in  laboratories  and  in  the 
refining  and  working  of  metals,  and  in  the  manufacture  of  alloys. 
Somewhat  similar  furnaces  are  also  used  in  the  porcelain,  enamel, 
and  glass  industries,  for  the  continuous  and  rapid  burning  in  of 
designs  on  glass,  porcelain,  &c.  The  heating  gases  in  these  cases 
envelop,  in  the  first  instance,  the  lower  or  high  temperature  muffle- 
furnace,  then  pass  on  to  the  upper  or  preparatory  furnace,  and, 
lastly,  to  the  drying  chamber  ;  so  that  they  are  completely  utilized. 
One  firm  of  apparatus  makers  supplies  for  modern  tool  manufac- 
ture a  special  form  of  salt  bath  crucible  oven,  which  is  used  where 
rapid  cutting  tools  of  tungsten  steel  are  employed,  the  tempera- 
ture for  tempering  which  is  from  1100°  to  1300"  C. 

There  is  wide  and  varied  application  for  gas  for  soldering  and 
brazing,  with  apparatus  ranging  from  the  simple  soldering  bit 
heated  by  the  Bunsen  flame,  to  the  blast  brazmg  tables  which 
are  used  in  the  cycle  industry.  The  modern  forms  of  appliances 
present  great  economy  over  the  old  soldering  irons  heated  with 
the  bunsen  flame,  and  for  work  of  considerable  size  the  use  of 
the  blast  appears  to  be  desirable.  The  blast  allows  the  heat  to 
be  applied  exactly  at  the  desired  point,  and  is  therefore  in  many 
cases  very  advantageous.  The  electrical  power  available  in  most 
works  can  be  used  in  the  simplest  manner  for  providing  the  blast. 
It  is  worth  observing  that  the  electrical  apparatus  works  are  most 
important  consumers  of  gas  for  these  purposes.  The  melting  of 
metals  for  printing  machines  is  also  an  extensive  business. 

Recently,  autogenous  welding,  which,  in  essence,  is  nothing 
more  than  a  smelting  process,  has  come  into  extensive  employ- 
ment. The  apparatus  formerly  used  for  the  purpose  with  hydro- 
gen and  acetylene  has  been  adapted  by  one  firm  for  use  with 
coal  gas.  The  calorific  power  of  the  gas  is  first  increased  by  carbu- 
retting  it  with  benzoline  vapour.  The  temperature  of  the  welding 
cone  of  the  carburetted  coal  gas-oxygen  flame  is  about  2000°  C, 
and  the  flame,  like  the  hydrogen  flame,  serves  to  effect  weldings 
of  metal  up  to  a  thickness  ot  to  3  inches.  The  cost  is  lower 
than  that  of  hydrogen,  apart  from  the  fact  that  coal  gas  is  avail- 
able nearly  everywhere,  and  it  is  unnecessary  to  provide  for  the 
storage  of  compressed  gas  in  steel  cylinders.  A  pamphlet  on  auto- 
genous welding  with  coal  gas  and  oxygen  has  been  issued  by  the 
firm  of  Jacob  Knappich,  of  Augsburg. 

It  has  already  been  indicated  that  gas  is  especially  applicable 
where  high  temperatures  are  required.  The  number  of  works  in 
which  gas  is  used  for  heating  to  moderate  temperatures  is  legion. 
One  of  the  oldest  uses  is  for  singeing  apparatus  in  the  textile 
industry.  For  working  on  the  large  scale,  producer  gas  appears 
to  be  cheaper,  and  also  to  have  the  advantage  that  the  flame  is 
more  suitable  for  singeing  than  a  coal-gas  flame.  This  question 
has  been  discussed  in  recent  technical  literature ;  but  attention 
should  be  given  to  it  by  gas  engineers  in  order  to  ensure  that  coal 
gas  is  not  driven  out  of  a  field  of  application  in  which  it  has 
answered  well  for  many  years,  and  in  which  further  inquiry  may 
show  it  is  still  the  most  suitable  agent.  Gas  is  also  extensively 
applied  in  the  box  making  and  hat  industries.  A  large  industrial 
use  of  gas  is  for  heating  irons;  and  though  coke  or  electricity, 
and  with  large  ironing  machines,  steam  also,  are  applicable,  gas 
possesses  the  advantage  of  being  serviceable  for  either  the  smallest 
smoothing  iron  or  large  ironing  machines.  Special  types  of  ovens 
are  also  extensively  used  for  heating  a  number  of  irons,  up  to 
twenty,  for  use  in  the  millinery  business.  They  are  distinguished 
by  the  low  consumption  of  gas  and  high  efficiency  obtained.  In 
these  applications,  special  attention  has  been  paid  to  improving 
hygienic  conditions  in  work-rooms.  In  laundries,  hospitals,  &c., 
there  is  frequently  used,  in  addition  to  the  steam-heated  ironing 
machine,  a  gas-ironer,  consisting  of  a  hollow  steel  roller  heated 
from  within  with  gas  under  an  air-blast. 

There  is  scarcely  a  branch  of  modern  industry  in  which  gas- 
heated  apparatus  for  drying  does  not  find  a  place.  Though  steam 
may  hold  the  premier  position  in  this  connection,  gas  has  exten- 
sive and  increasing  use.  The  possibility  which  it  presents  of  dry- 
ing at  a  lower  or  higher  temperature  as  required,  and  of  regu- 
lating the  temperature  readily  and  exactly,  are  advantages  which 
ensure  it  a  great  future  in  this  direction.   When  used  in  conjunc- 

tion with  thermostats,  gas  becomes  available  for  maintaining  any 
desired  temperature  constant  for  any  length  of  time.  An  instance 
of  this  application  of  gas  is  the  heating  of  incubators.  Recently 
also  gas  has  come  into  extensive  use  for  the  curing  of  the  so-called 
"  smoked"  meat.  The  use  of  gas  in  the  jam  and  similar  industries 
is  well  known. 

The  use  of  gas  also  for  boiling  and  roasting  and  baking  in 
hotels,  restaurants,  and  eating-houses,  is  too  well  known  to  need 
emphasis.  The  hygienic  advantages  of  gas  as  a  fuel,  especially 
in  sanatoria  and  hospitals,  are  so  great  that  in  modern  installa- 
tions gas  is  taking  the  place  of  steam.  For  example,  in  Davos, 
where  the  avoidance  of  smoke  and  soot  is  imperative,  gas  is 
almost  exclusively  used.  Finally,  the  employment  of  gas  for 
heating  water,  which  originally  only  applied  to  water-heaters  in 
bath-rooms,  has  at  the  present  time  extended  so  that  gas  is  re- 
garded as  an  indispensable  auxiliary  for  the  supply  of  hot  water 
to  whole  buildings  and  works.  Its  advantages,  compared  with 
solid  fuel,  have  become  recognized  for  central  heating  plant ;  and 
it  may  be  anticipated  that,  just  as  for  cooking  the  coal-range  is 
being  forced  into  the  background,  so  for  heating  sohd  fuel  will 
constantly  be  more  and  more  ousted  by  gas. 

It  will  be  realized  from  this  brief  review  of  the  extensive  field 
in  which  gas  is  applicable  in  industry  and  business  that  it  is  prac- 
tically impossible  to  enumerate  all  its  applications,  let  alone  to 
describe  them  in  detail.  Such  was  not  the  author's  purpose.  He 
wished  rather  to  draw  the  attention  of  gas  engineers  to  the  wide 
possibilities  of  increasing  the  output  of  gas  for  heating  purposes, 
and  believes  that  this  paper,  with  its  appendix,  may  serve  to  incite 
others  to  extend  these  possibilities.  The  times  are  now  past  in 
which  gas  works  can  afford  to  ignore  the  development  of  this 
branch  of  trade.  They  are  compelled,  like  any  tradesman,  to 
work  up  their  business  ;  and  the  author  hopes  that  his  paper  may 
come  as  a  small  aid  to  them  in  this  direction. 

The  appendix  to  the  paper  is  an  extensive  list  of  the  different 
types  of  gas  apparatus  for  industrial  and  business  purposes,  with 
the  classes  of  works  or  manufactures  in  which  they  are  used,  and 
the  names  of  the  firms  in  Germany  who  supply  them.  Since, 
so  far  as  we  can  judge  from  glancing  through  the  list,  the  types  of 
apparatus  enumerated  are,  with  many  others,  made  also  in  this 
country,  it  does  not  seem  to  be  necessary  to  refer  further  in  the 
"Journal"  to  this  appendix. 

Canadian  Gas  Association. 

According  to  the  accounts  which  have  reached  us  of  the  third 
annual  meeting  of  this  Association,  which  was  held  at  Hamilton 
(Ont.)  from  the  gth  to  the  nth  ult.,  under  the  presidency  of  Mr. 
J.  S.  Norris,  of  Montreal,  it  was  altogether  very  successful.  The 
following  papers  were  submitted  :  "  Some  Methods  of  Measuring 
Light,"  by  Mr.  W.  C.  Philpott,  the  Chemist  to  the  Toronto  Con- 
sumers' Gas  Company  ;  "  New  Business  Methods,"  by  Mr.  B.  G. 
M'Nabb,  of  Montreal;  "Gas-Engine  Development,  Construction, 
and  Apphcation,"  by  Mr.  R.  A.  Eraser,  of  Toronto  ;  and  "  Recent 
Gas  Installations  in  Hamilton,"  by  Mr.  E.  A.  Howe.  Messrs. 
Hewitt  and  Keillor  submitted  a  report  by  the  Committee  on  the 
Illuminating  Power  and  Calorific  Value  of  Gases  Made  in  Canada ; 
and  Mr.  Norman  Macbeth,  the  Manager  of  the  Illuminating  Engi- 
neering Laboratories  of  the  Welsbach  Company  of  Gloucester 
(N.J.),  delivered  a  lecture  on  "The  Importance  of  Illuminating 
Engineering  to  Gas  Companies."  In  connection  with  the  meeting, 
the  first  Canadian  Gas  Exhibition  was  held  from  the  Gth  to  the 
nth  ult.  The  social  functions  incidental  to  the  gathering  appear 
to  have  been  of  a  very  pleasant  character.  The  new  President 
is  Mr.  Arthur  Hewitt,  of  Toronto.  We  hope  to  notice  the  pro- 
ceedings at  greater  length  in  subsequent  issues. 

The  Calcutta  Appointment.— Readers  will  probably  remember 
that  the  Calcutta  Corporation  a  short  time  ago  invited,  in  our 
advertisement  columns,  applications  for  the  position  of  Gas  Light- 
ing Superintendent.  We  learn  that  the  appointment  has  been 
conferred  upon  Mr.  H.  V.  Eastwell,  who  was  for  some  years  with 
Messrs.  Pontifex  and  Co.  He  has  had  the  personal  supervision 
of  the  fixing  of  large  installations  of  incandescent  gas  lighting  in 
London  and  the  Provinces,  and  considerable  experience  in  the 
maintenance  and  general  supervision  of  public  lamps  on  this  system. 
The  salary  is  Rs.  500  per  month,  rising  to  Rs.  750  per  month  by 
equal  annual  increments. 

Road-Tarring  in  Illinois.— A  tar  macadam  road,  30  feet  wide 
and  400  feet  long,  was  put  down  as  an  experiment  at  Kankakee 
(111.),  to  discover  whether  this  form  of  highway  construction  would 
reduce  the  dust  nuisance  caused  by  the  wearing  away  of  the  top 
dressing  of  the  shale  macadam  streets  which  are  used  to  a  great 
extent  in  that  section.  The  dust  from  the  limestone  was  washed 
into  the  sewers,  and  formed  a  sediment  which  was  removable 
with  great  difficulty.  The  street  re-surfaced  had  been  paved  with 
stone  macadam  three  years  before.  Ordinary  coal  tar,  direct 
from  the  local  gas-works,  was  used,  after  being  allowed  to  settle 
for  about  a  month  in  a  large  well,  heated  by  a  steam  coil.  It  was 
applied  to  the  road  from  lo  gallon  hand  sprinklers— the  only 
method  available.  Upon  the  hot  tar  was  spread  a  top  covering 
of  crushed  limestone,  which  was  compacted  by  a  20-ton  roller. 
After  a  period  of  three  days,  the  street  was  opened  to  traffic. 

July  5,  1910.] 




[A  Paper  read  before  the  Society  Technique  du  Gaz.] 

By  M.  Edouard  Bonnet. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  papers  read  at  the  annual  meeting 
of  the  Societe  Technique  du  Gaz  described  the  design  and  form 
of  a  new  gasholder  tank  in  steel,  patented  and  made  by  the 
Maschinenfabrik  Augsburg  Niirnberg,  and  erected  at  the  muni- 
cipal gas-works  Simmering,  Vienna.  The  distinguishing  feature 
of  this  tank  is  that,  instead  of  the  usual  vertical  side  plates  of 
varying  thicknesses,  its  sides  are  curved  or  bulged,  or  (to  use  a 
more  expressive  word)  bellied  out ;  and  the  plates  composing  it 
are  of  the  same  thickness  throughout.  It  is  claimed  that  this 
gives  a  more  flexible  and,  technically,  superior  structure.  The 
shape  of  the  curve  resembles  somewhat  the  old  Roman  form  of 
tanks  and  the  ancient  pots  for  wine,  oil,  or  other  liquids.  The 
gasholder  working  in  this  tank  is  a  telescopic  one  of  four  lifts, 
containing  150,000  cubic  metres,  or  about  5,300,000  cubic  feet. 
The  writer  of  the  paper — with  the  title  "A  Note  on  Metal  Gas- 
holder Tanks  with  Curved  Sides" — was  M.  Bonnet. 

Reduction  in  the  price  of  gas,  and  increased  make,  have  neces- 
sarily led  gas  companies  to  use  larger  and  more  economical  ap- 
paratus. While  considerable  progress  has  been  made  in  retort 
furnaces,  in  purification,  and  in  the  treatment  of  bye-products, 
&c.,  the  question  of  gasholders  has  long  remained  stationary.  In 
France,  up  to  recent  years,  Paris  only  had  gasholders  of  30,000 
cubic  metres  (about  1,060,000  cubic  feet) ;  Lyons,  Marseilles,  and 
Bordeaux  had  none  exceeding  20,000  cubic  metres  (706,000  cubic 
feet).  In  England  and  America,  however,  there  are  gasholders  of 
345,000  cubic  metres  (say,  12  million  cubic  feet)  and  425,000  cubic 
metres  (or  15  million  cubic  feet).  In  Germany,  towns  of  less  im- 
portance than  ours  ordinarily  have  holders  of  50,000  cubic  metres 
(1,766,000  cubic  feet),  100,000  cubic  metres,  and  more. 

This  increase  of  volume  has  the  great  advantage  of  reducing 
the  price  of  storing  gas,  per  cubic  metre,  from  30  to  10  frs.  and 
even  less,  as  the  gasholder  becomes  larger.  But  it  the  volume 
of  gasholders  and  the  number  of  lifts  are  increased,  the  mode  of 
construction  of  the  tank,  which  is  the  most  delicate  part,  has  not 
been  improved.  The  tank  of  a  gasholder  of  150,000  cubic  metres 
(5,300,000  cubic  feet)  is,  in  fact,  made  in  the  same  way  as  that 
for  gasholders  of  10,000  cubic  metres  (353,000  cubic  feet) ;  and 
this  type  is  neither  logical  from  the  point  of  view  of  the  distri- 
bution of  the  tank  metal,  the  function  of  the  sheeting  and  its 
strength,  nor  economical  as  a  structure. 
A  tank  in  sheet  steel  consists  (fig.  i)  of  a  bottom,  A  A\  a  vertical 
cylinder,  BB\  an  angle-iron,  C,  join- 
ing the  two,  a  circular  gangway,  D  D\ 
and  gussets,  B  D  supporting  the 
standards.  The  gussets  are  riveted  to 
the  tank,  and  transmit  to  it  the  force 
of  the  wind,  which  acts  on  the  lifts  and 
guiding  frame.  The  drawbacks  to  this 
arrangement  are  as  follows  : 

(i).  The  metal  used  for  the  bottom 
is  absolutely  useless  from  the  point  of 
view  of  resistance.    This  bottom  only 
ensures  the  tightness  of  the  cylindrical 
part  of  the  tank  with  the  foundation. 
If  this  tightness  could  be  secured  other- 
wise, the  whole  of  the  metal  of  the 
bottom   could  be  done  away  with. 
There  is,  therefore,  here  a  considerable 
amount  of  metal,  which  often  represents  a  quarter  of  the  total 
weight  of  the  tank,  and  which  has  no  really  useful  place  in  the 

(2)  .  The  vertical  cylindrical  part  resists  the  pressure  of  the 
water,  which  gives  rise  to  circular  tangential  strains.    Its  thick- 

ness  is  calculated  on  the  French  formula :  E  =  

2  X  K  X  R. 

where  K  is  the  relation  of  the  resistance  of  the  riveting  to  the  full 
plate.  This  thickness  is,  then,  proportional  to  the  diameter  and 
to  the  height  of  the  tank;  and,  when  diameters  of  60  and  80 
metres  (197  feet  and  262  feet)  are  reached,  if  safe  limits  in  the 
working  of  the  metal  are  desired,  it  is  necessary  to  have  plates 
up  to  50  and  60  mm.  in  thickness  (i'g6g  and  2*362  inches).  The 
weight  of  tanks  is  then  too  much  ;  the  work  of  hydraulic  riveting, 
the  coincidence  of  the  rivet  holes  which  it  is  necessary  to  drill, 
the  placing  together  of  the  plates,  are  all  difficult ;  and  lastly  the 
price  is  high.  If  the  thickness  of  the  plates  was  independent  of 
the  diameter,  as  in  the  system  to  be  explained,  there  would  be 
considerable  improvement  and  great  saving  effected. 

(3)  .  The  angle-iron  joining  the  bottom  to  the  vertical  part  is 
inevitably  very  thick.  While  the  interior  pressure  increases  the 
diameter  of  the  tank,  the  bottom  of  the  lower  ring  of  plates, 
strengthened  by  the  angle-iron  and  held  by  the  bottom  plates, 
cannot  take  part  in  the  general  tension  of  the  circumference,  and 
causes  partial  strains  which  are  dangerous  and  lead  to  bursts. 

(4)  .  The  gangway,  like  the  bottom,  consists  of  ironwork  which 
does  nothing.  Its  only  effect  is  to  ensure  the  circular  form  of  the 
tank  and  it  adds  nothing  to  its  strength. 

(5)  .  The  force  of  the  wind  is  carried  on  to  the  tank  by  the 
gusset  plates  supporting  the  standards. 

Such  a  tank,  which  already  bears  uniformly  distributed  forces 
by  the  pressure  of  the  water,  has  thus  added  to  it  considerable 
strains  (varying  in  position  and  intensity),  which  it  is  almost 
impossible  to  ascertain.  All  these  drawbacks— almost  nothing 
in  small  gasholders — become  serious  in  larger  ones.  The  fact  of 
having  metal  in  certain  parts  which  does  nothing,  and  vyhich  in 
others  exerts  itself  badly  and  uneconomically,  leads  to  an  increase 
of  weight  and  of  price  which  one  ought  to  try  to  reduce. 

To  obviate  these  disadvantages,  the  Maschinenfabrik  Augsburg 
Niirnberg  (designated  the  "  M.A.N."  Company)  have  endeavoured, 
by  a  better  apportioning  of  the  metal,  to  design  a  tank  which  will 
have  greater  strength  and  be  more  economical  both  as  regards 
the  tank  and  its  framework.  The  principle  of  the  "  M.A.N."  tank 
is  to  replace  the  vertical  rectilinear  side  of  the  tank  by  a  flexible 
curved  side,  sustaining  equal  strains  at  all  its  points. 

Let  us  suppose  a  perfectly  flexible  and  resisting  envelope — a 
sack,  for  example.  If  it  is  hung  in  a  rigid  circle,  as  when  being 
filled,  and  if  it  is  filled  with  water  allowed  to  rest  partly  on  the 
ground,  it  will  take  such  a  shape  that  it  will  have,  at  any  point  of 
the  envelope,  outward  strains  from  the  side,  which  are  equal  all 
over.  This  phenomenon  is  analogous  to  that  of  a  heavy  wire — 
perfectly  flexible,  and  merely  stretched  between  two  points  of 
support.  This  envelope  will  only  have  to  resist  the  forces  of  ten- 
sion in  the  meridian  planes.  Its  form,  and  the  strains  which  it 
will  carry,  will  only  vary  with  the  total  height  of  the  water.  The 
diameter  of  the  vessel  will  not  have  any  influence  either  on  the 
strains  which  support  the  envelope,  or,  consequently,  on  its  thick- 
ness. As  regards  the  circular  tension  on  the  side,  it  is  negligible 
on  account  of  the  tension  following  the  curve. 

Distribution  of  Strains. 

Fig.  2  gives  the  outline  of  the  system.  The  two  ends  of  the 
curve  at  A  and  C  must  be  kept  fixed  ;  and  the  strains  at  these 

two  points  are  directed  according  to 
the  tangents  to  the  curve.  At  C,  the 
strain  is  horizontal ;  and  it  is  bal- 
anced by  the  tension  in  the  bottom. 
This  tension  is  identical  with  that 
of  the  curved  side.  The  thickness 
and  the  fixing  together  will,  there- 
fore, be  the  same  in  the  side  as  in 
the  bottom,  the  metal  of  which  is 
now  utilized  rationally.  The  curved 
side  is  connected  to  the  bottom,  of 
which  it  is  the  tangential  extension, 
by  direct  riveting.  The  bottom 
angle-iron  (the  drawbacks  to  which 
have  just  been  explained)  is  done 
away  with.  At  A,  the  strain  follows 
the  tangent  A  F  to  the  curve.  This 
will  be  counteracted  by  the  hori- 
zontal circular  girder  A A\  and  by  the  vertical  uprights  DAB, 
the  resultant  of  which  is  directed  along  A  F.  These  uprights 
DAB,  connected  together  by  Saint  Andrew  crosses,  rest  on  the 
ground  across  the  bottom  through  the  medium  of  the  supports  K. 
The  curvature  of  the  plates,  the  greatest  dimension  of  which  is 
on  the  meridian,  is  made  so  that  the  line  of  the  middle  of  the 
vertical  section  of  the  plate  coincides  with  the  supporting  curve 

apenmo  6S  metres 

Support-s  under  i/re  Uprighls 

Diagram  of  Curve. 

resulting  from  the  pressure  of  the  water.  The  pressure  of  the 
cylindrical  column  of  water,  which  rests  directly  on  the  bottom, 
and  is  limited  by  the  line  I  C,is  received  by  the  bottom  itself  and 



[July  5,  1910. 

transmitted  to  the  fouudatiou.  The  volume  of  water,  enclosed 
in  the  annular  space  limited  by  the  line  I  C,  and  by  the  side  of 
the  tank  A  B,  gives  rise  to  a  total  pressure  directed  towards  the 
outside  and  the  bottom,  the  vertical  component  of  which  finds  a 
support  on  the  point  K,  which  transmits  the  pressure  direct  to  the 

It  is  interesting  to  observe  that  the  general  form  of  this  curve 
is  that  which  the  Ancients,  and  especially  the  Romans,  gave  to 
the  large-sized  tanks  in  which  they  kept  their  liquids.  The  large 
pottery  jars,  containing  several  hectolitres  of  wine  or  of  oil,  were 
of  a  shape  very  analogous  to  that  of  the  "  M.A.N."  tank. 

Outline  of  the  Curve. 

The  curve  of  the  side  can  be  easily  followed  from  the  diagram, 
fig.  3.  Let  us  suppose  the  problem  solved  and  that  A  B  is  the 
curve  desired,  and  is  such  that  it  supports  equal  strains  at  all  its 
points.  Let  us  take  a  set,  one  metre  wide  on  the  circumference 
of  the  opening,  and  divide  the  curve  into  fifteen  equal  divisions. 
At  the  centre  of  gravity  of  these  divisions,  let  us  apply  the  water 
pressures.  The  table  herewith  gives  the  value  of  these  pressures 
at  different  points. 

Table  of  Water  Pressiiycs  at  Different  Points  of  the  Curve. 

Number  of 

Opening  out 
of  the  Plate. 

Length  of 


Distance  of 
Points  from 
Top  of  Tank. 


Sq.  M. 



I  '020 

I  ■  100 

I  ■  122 




I  '040 

I -144 

I  -480 



I '155 


2 -806 


I  075 



4  -020 


I  090 

I  -200 

4  "430 



I  ■  100 

I  -21 




I  •  no 





I  ■  no 





I  •  no 

I  -22 




I  •  105 



1 1  -  880 


I  "095 

I  -20 




I  075 





I  'ooo 

I  -  10 


13 '497 








I  "045 



By  carrying  out  the  strains  following  the  one  with  the  other, 
parallel  to  their  direction,  the  polygon  of  strains  (fig.  4)  is  formed, 
the  closing  line  of  which  gives  in  full  and  in  direction  the  resultant 
RR'  of  the  pressures.  [The  author  then  proceeds  to  show  how 
the  polygon  is  made  up.]    In  practice,  in  order  to  lay  out  the 

Fig.  4.— Polygon  of  Strains. 

I  mm.  represents  500  kilos. 

curve  (the  points  at  which -it  must  end  being  given),  any  curve 
whatever  is  traced  out  and  oue  applies  to  it  the  water  pressures 
in  each  division.  Then  the  polygon  of  strains  corresponding  to 
these  divisions  is  traced ;  and  this  polygon  should  be  within  a 
circle,  if  the  curve  is  exact.  If  not,  one  begins  again,  and  by  re- 
peated attempts  arrives  at  the  curve  desired.  Ascertaining  the 
tensions  and  the  form  of  the  curve  can  also  be  obtained  analyti- 

A  tank  like  this  weighs  about  two-thirds  of  what  a  tank  with  a 
rectilinear  side  would  weigh,  the  function  of  the  metal  being  the 
same.  Where  the  thickness  of  the  rectilinear  side  would  vary 
from  6  to  35  mm.  (0-236  to  i'378  in.),  a  uniform  thickness  of  5  mm. 
(o-igy  in.)  is  sufficient  for  the  "  M.A.N."  tank.  This  thickness  is 
increased  up  to  7  or  8  mm.  (0-276  or  o-3i5  in.)  from  the  construc- 
tional standpoint. 

Filling  the  Tank. 

During  the  filUng,  the  circumference  of  the  tank  does  not  pre- 
sent a  surface  under  equal  strains,  as  the  form  of  the  side  has 
been  arrived  at  by  supposing  the  tank  to  be  full.  To  prevent  its 
deformation  during  this  filling,  latticed  girders  are  constructed, 
confined  by  the  vertical  uprights,  and  curved  according  to  the 
curvature  of  the  side  to  which  they  are  riveted  (see  fig.  5).  These 

girders  will  have  their  use  only  at  the  moment  of  filling,  and  do 
not  take  any  part  in  the  resistence  of  the  tank  when  once  full. 
They  could  be  done  away  with  after  the  filling.    The  rivets 

fastening  them  to  the  side  do  not 
serve  any  purpose  when  the  tank  is 
full.  The  force  of  the  wind  not  be- 
ing carried  on  to  the  side  of  the  tank, 
the  corresponding  drawback  noticed 
in  cylindrical  tanks  is  overcome. 


As  the  rigid  plates  of  the  "M.A.N  " 
tank,  which  take  all  the  weight  of 
the  metal  work  and  the  pressure  of 
the  wind,  rest  on  the  masonry  sup- 
ports which  surround  the  tank,  the 
strength  of  these  supports  is  only 
of  importance  in  the  one  essential  of 
the  foundation.  Even  the  bottom 
only  supports  the  weight  of  water ; 
and  calculation  has  shown  that  an 
important  depression  in  this  part 
of  the  foundations  would  require 
only  a  slight  increase  in  the  work 
done  by  the  plates. 

The  foundation  consists  then  of 
two  parts: 

(1)  .  An  annular  wall  formed  in  concrete,  the  wall  going  down 
to  solid  ground.  On  the  top  of  this  wall  are  placed  the  rest 
stones  K  (fig.  2)  corresponding  to  the  uprights  intended  to  support 
the  standards.  At  these  points,  the  annular  concrete  wall  is 
strengthened  by  buttresses. 

(2)  .  The  central  surface,  after  taking  up  the  bed  of  soft  earth, 
is  simply  recovered  with  layers  of  gravel  and  sand,  watered  and 
rammed,  over  which  a  bed  of  cement  from  20  to  30  mm.  thick  is 
laid,  so  as  to  ensure  the  binding  of  the  gravel  and  to  smooth  the 
surface.  Above  this,  a  layer  of  asphalte,  30  mm.  thick,  is  spread, 
in  which  the  rivet  heads  sink  down  so  as  to  be  certain  of  con- 
tact with  the  foundation. 

In  case  of  the  sinking  of  one  of  the  supports,  K,  of  the  frame- 
work of  the  tank,  the  connection  of  the  different  parts  is  enough 
to  avoid  deformations  or  tangential  strains.  Tne  form  and  the 
position  of  these  supports  round  the  tank  render  the  adjusting  of 
it  easy  in  case  the  ground  slips,  without  involving  the  difficulties 
which  the  raising  of  a  cylindrical  tank  presents,  resting  wholly 
and  directly  on  the  foundations.  The  foundation  of  the  "  M.A.N." 
tank  is  thus  appreciably  cheaper  than  would  be  the  foundation  of 
a  straight  tank. 

Annular  Tanks. 
When  the  ground  is  very  bad,  and  foundations  have  to  be 
made  on  piles,  annular  tanks  are  introduced.  These  tanks  have 
the  serious  inconvenience  of  having  their  inside  ring  under  com- 
pression ;  and  consequently  they  are  easily  distorted.  To  avoid 
this  inconvenience,  either  very  strong  inside  plating  to  stiffen 
the  inside  ring  is  used,  or  stays  braced  by  bulky  framework  or 
reinforced  concrete  are  adopted.  But  the  mass  of  metal  used 
causes  the  net  cost  to  be  almost  as  high  as  if  the  whole  of  the 
foundation  had  been  piled  all  over  the  surface. 
The  "  M.A.N."  tank  lends  itself  very  well  to  the  annular  form, 

and  can  be  easily  understood 
from  fig.  6.  Both  the  exterior 
and  the  interior  sides  are  in 
tension  and  under  the  same 
conditions.  There  is  no  longer 
any  side  under  compression. 
The  part  A,  A,  representing  the 
bottom  is  in  equilibrium.  The 
parts  A,  C,  B,  D,  have  their 
two  sides  the  same.  This 
arrangement  is  only  given  as 
a  record ;  but  it  shows  an 
excellent  solution  of  the  an- 
nular tank.  It  should,  how- 
ever, be  added  that  it  has  not 
yet  been  made. 

Other  interesting  improve- 
ments have  been  proposed 
by  the  "  M.A.N."  Company  in 
the  guiding,  in  details  of  con- 
struction, in  the  framework 
supporting  the  crown,  and  in 
the  warming  of  the  hydraulic 
cups.  It  is  only  possible  to 
name  them  here ;  the  author 
being  desirous  of  calling  atten- 
tion chiefly  to  the  tank  with 
curved  side,  which  marks  im- 
portant progress. 

The  "  M.A.N."  Company 
have  under  construction  the 
following  gasholders  with  curved  sides  : — 

One  of  250,000  cubic  metres  at  Brigittenau,  Vienna; 
,,      40,000     ,,       ,,       ,,  Mayence; 
,,      120,600     ,,       ,,       ,,  Nuremberg; 
,,      25,000  ,  Augsburg. 

Fig.  6. 

July  5,  1910.] 



One  gasholder  of  this  type,  of  150,000  cubic  metres  capacity, 
is  now  regularly  used  at  the  gas  works  of  Simmering,  Vienna. 
The  Municipal  Commission  to  whom  was  entrusted  the  acceptance 
of  this  gasholder  has,  during  and  after  the  filling  of  it,  taken 
observations  and  precise  measurements  which  are  of  considerable 

The  measurements  of  elongation  taken  at  the  largest  circum- 
ference of  the  curved  tank — that  is,  at  point  B  in  fig.  7  (taking 
into  account  the  influence  of  the  temperature) — showed  that  the 
circumference,  which  was  2i7'59  metres,  was  elongated  78  mm. 
(3-071  inches).    The  static  calculation  had  anticipated  76  mm. 

Fig.  7- 

The  measurement  taken  at  the  point  A,  at  the  top  of  the  ring  of 
the  tank,  gave  an  elongation  of  100  mm.  (3-94  inches).  The  static 
calculation  had  given  gg  mm.  As  regards  the  horizontal  position 
of  the  tank,  it  was  ascertained  that  the  top  of  the  tank  had  given 
way  at  the  maximum  5  mm.  (o'ig7  in.);  the  conditions  imposed 
had  allowed  65  mm.  (2-559  The  sinking  at  the  point  C  was 

15  mm.  (o'sgi  in.)  The  elastic  elongations  of  the  curved  tank, 
as  measured,  were,  therefore,  nearly  in  absolute  agreement  with 
them  as  they  had  been  calculated.  This  remarkable  agreement  is 
due  to  the  fact  that  the  form  adopted  for  the  work  is  such  that  all 
the  strains  which  arise  are  ascertained  statically,  without  it  being 
necessary  to  bring  in  hypotheses  of  distortion,  as  one  is  obliged 
to  in  most  metal  structures. 

On  account  of  the  excellent  result  of  the  filling  of  the  tank,  a 
new  gasholder  of  five  lifts  with  a  curved  tank,  of  250,000  cubic 
metres,  has  been  ordered  for  the  works  at  Brigittenau. 

•This  new  type  of  tank  appears,  therefore,  to  be  of  considerable 
interest  where  gasholders  above  20,000  cubic  metres  (706,300 
cubic  feet)  are  contemplated,  but  especially  for  those  of  the 
largest  size,  both  from  the  point  of  view  of  sound  construction 
and  in  regard  to  economical  installation. 


By  M.  Antoine  Foillakd. 
[Abstract  of  a  Paper  read  before  the  Societe  Technique  du  Gaz.] 

One  of  the  visits  made  by  members  of  the  Societe  Technique 
du  Gaz  during  their  annual  meeting  was  to  the  Landy  works  of 
the  I^aris  Gas  Company,  where  were  seen  many  important  elec- 
trical appliances  for  the  handling  of  coal  and  coke.  Among  these 
were  the  Sautter-Harle  electrically  driven  coke-discharging  ma- 
chines, which,  it  will  be  remembered,  were  adopted  by  the  old 
Compagnie  Parisienne  du  Gaz.  There  are  thirteen  machines 
on  this  system  now  in  use,  and  four  in  course  of  construction. 
It  was  fitting,  therefore,  that  there  should  be  a  paper  dealing  with 
these  machines;  and  M.  Foillard  contributed  a  short  one  to 
the  proceedings,  under  the  title  of  "A  Supplementary  Note  on 
the  Electrical  Dischargers  of  the  Societe  du  Gaz  of  Paris."  His 
paper  showed  that  experience  had  led  to  the  simplifying  and 
strengthening  of  the  dischargers;  and  the  main  point  dealt  with 
was  the  adoption  of  a  discharging  machine  having  two  rams 
instead  of  one,  which  allows  greater  freedom  in  the  working,  and 
permits  one  ram  or  pusher  to  be  at  rest  and  to  cool  down  while 
the  other  is  at  work. 

He  said :  My  object  to-day  is  not  to  describe  the  principle  of 
these  machines,  which  I  put  before  the  meeting  of  igo6 ;  but 
rather  to  give  some  details  that  may  be  of  interest.  These  dis- 
chargers are  of  two  different  models,  one  with  a  single  pusher, 
and  the  other  with  two  pushers,  placed  side  by  side,  which  can 
be  used  alternately,  passing  from  one  to  the  other  by  means  of 
gearing,  put  into  or  out  of  work  by  a  lever  under  the  control  of 
the  driver  of  the  machine. 

Fig.  I  shows  the  two  end  plates  of  the  rams  and  the  coupling 
gearing,  which  can  only  be  put  into  operation  by  one  or  other  of 
the  two  sets  of  gearing  driving  the  pushers.  The  advantage  of  this 
arrangement  is  to  give  the  machine  greater  power  in  case  of  its 
being  called  upon  to  do  an  unusual  amount  of  work,  either  regu- 
larly or  through  accident.  There  is  always  one  pusher  cooling 
itself  while  the  other  is  at  work. 

In  a  general  way,  both  the  single  and  the  double  pushers  which 
the  Societe  du  Gaz  of  Paris  have  at  work,  have  been  much 
simplified  and  strengthened.  Experience  has  shown  us  that  in 
these  installations,  it  is  before  all  things  necessary  to  have  strong 
material,  free  from  all  complication  ;  and  automatic  combinations, 
that  we  formerly  had,  were  found  to  have  greater  drawbacks  than 

The  author  then  refers  to  the  three  types  of  racks  working  the 
pusher-plate  that  have  been  tried  on  the  Paris  machines.  The 

Coupling  Gearing 
Pig.  I.— Front  View  of  the  Two  Kams. 

first  was  a  small  one  of  simple  llat  iron,  30  mm.  wide  by  75  mm. 
deep  (i[  in.  by  3  in.).  It  soon  got  hot,  and  rc<iuired  repairing. 
The  second  type  was  a  built-up  one,  consisting  of  a  flat  bar  across 
two  angle-irons,  separated  and  closed  by  an  inverted  T-piece.  The 
groove  in  the  middle  was  used  to  receive  the  water  for  keeping 
the  pusher  cool.  This  artificial  cooling  was  not  found  to  be  suc- 
cessful ;  and  the  necessity  for  having  a  water-tank  on  the  machine 
(which  tank  often  failed  to  get  filled)  also  proved  inconvenient. 
So  the  third,  and  last,  form  has  been  adopted  which  has  given 
every  satisfaction.  It  is  a  massive  bar  of  forged  steel  of  double 
T  section,  and  of  great  rigidity,  both  horizontally  and  vertically. 
It  is  go  mm.  wide  by  100  mm.  deep  by  32  mm.  thick  (about  3.1  in. 
by  4  in.  by  i|  in.). 

r:s  o  riy 

1        ■,  ,       ;;  U 

XIT — O- 
Renewable  Friction  Biocli 


Fig.  2.— 5ide  View  of  tiie  Pusiier-Plates. 

Fig.  2  shows  a  side  view  of  the  pusher-plates.  It  consists  of 
two  plates,  each  12  mm.  (i  in.)  thick,  braced  by  tubes,  through 
which  the  bolts  pass,  and  strengthened  by  a  channel  iron.  At  the 
bottom  part  are  two  blocks  or  friction  plates  which  can  be  easily 
renewed  when  worn  out.  In  the  original  machines,  the  ram  end 
consisted  of  a  single  plate.  It  quickly  got  distorted,  becoming 
V-shaped  and  making  a  wedge  in  the  mass  of  coke. 

The  author  proceeds  to  give  some  figures  relating  to  the  normal 
working  of  the  machines  with  a  single  ram  ;  the  retorts  being 
6  metres  long  (ig  ft.  8  in.)  and  charged  with  about  600  kilos,  of 
coal  (nearly  12  cwt.),  which  is  carbonized  in  eight  hours.  The 
results  given  have  been  obtained  while  the  machines  have  been 
undergoing  the  ordinary  methodical  upkeep,  which  the  Societe  du 
Gaz  organize  so  well.  The  average  time  for  the  discharge  of  one 
retort,  including  all  accessory  movements,  is  55  seconds ;  or  in 
60  minutes  each  machine  could  discharge  65  retorts.  The  speeds 
per  second  for  the  different  movements  are  as  follows : — 

„    ,  (  Discharging    .     360mm.  (s.ay,  14  inches) 

Pusher  .    .    .    .  I  Return  .    460    „    (  „    18     „  ) 

Travel  of  the  machine  600    ,,    (  ,,    24     >.  ) 

,,         ,  ^  (Upwards    .     .    220    ,,    (  ,,     &i    ,,  ) 

Vertical  movement    J3^^^^^3^j.j3    .    230    „    {  „     9     ..  ) 

The  consumption  of  electricity,  at  240  volts,  in  normal  working 
is  as  follows : — 

„    ,  I  Discharging   iSoo  watts 

Pusher  .    .    .    .  I  Return    1080  „ 

Travel  of  the  machine   1200  ,, 

,  M  Upwards   1800  ,, 

Vertical  movement  ^  ^^^^^^^^jg  _^ 

From  diagrams  taken,  it  appears  that  tLie  expense  of  energy  in 
normal  working  per  retort  discharged  is  only  about  17  to  20  watt- 
hours.  Reckoning  25  watts  (to  take  into  account  wrong  move- 
ments and  anything  unforeseen),  the  result  is  arrived  at  that  forty 
retorts  containing  17  (metric)  tons  of  coke,  and  having  produced 
about  7200  cubic  metres  (254,2^0  cubic  feet),  are  discharged  with 
an  outlay  of  energy  of  i  kilowatt-hour. 

Gas  from  Peat.— A  French  patent  has  been  taken  out  by  the 
Peat  Gas  and  Coal  Company  for  a  process  of  manufacturing  gas 
from  peat.  According  to  an  abstract  of  the  specification  in  the 
"Journal  of  the  Society  of  Chemical  Industry,"  the  wet  peat  is 
treated  in  a  disintegrator  so  as  to  destroy  its  porosity,  and  at  the 
same  time  it  is  sprinkled  with  petroleum  or  other  hydrocarbon. 
The  pasty  mass  is  then  heated  in  a  retort  until  it  is  converted  into 
coke.  Air  is  admitted  to  the  retort  during  the  coking,  and  the 
heated  air,  mixed  with  gas  from  the  retort,  is  carburetted  by  passing 
through  tar  obtained  from  the  peat.  The  gas  is  then  cooled  and 
the  bye-products  are  condensed. 



[July  5,  1910. 


By  M.   R.  DE  LA  BOULAYE. 

[4  Paper  read  before  the  Society  Technique  du  Gaz.] 

Both  the  Paris  desigQ  and  the  De  Brouwer  type  of  retort 
charging  and  discharging  machines  came  in  for  some  notice  in  the 
proceedings  at  the  annual  meeting  of  the  French  Gas  Society. 
The  object  of  the  paper  dealing  with  the  latter  type  was  not  to 
describe  the  separate  charging  and  discharging  machines  on  the 
De  Brouwer  system,  which  are  so  well  known  and  appreciated, 
but  to  bring  to  notice  a  combined  machine,  made  by  the  Com- 
pagnie  Anonyme  Continentale,  and  at  work  at  the  Angers  Gas- 
Works.  The  author  of  the  paper,  M.  R.  de  la  Boulaye,  points  out 
the  improvements  that  have  been  made — such  as  having  an  inde- 
pendent motor  for  the  pusher,  instead  of  driving  it  from  the 
travelling  motor;  and  an  indicator  for  showing  the  actual  amount 
of  coal  projected  into  any  given  retort.  He  compares  the  separate 
machines  with  a  combined  one,  and  also  a  suspended  charger 
with  one  travelling  on  the  floor;  and  he  comes  to  the  conclusion 

that  the  latter  requires  more  upkeep  than  the  former,  but  that 
in  the  majority  of  cases  the  balance  of  advantages  rests  with  the 
travelling  charger.  For  gas-works  of  average  size,  he  considers 
the  combined  machine  is  the  neater  and  more  practical. 

At  Angers,  the  charger  and  the  pusher  are  side  by  side  on  a 
carriage-frame  running  on  four  wheels,  two  of  which  are  driving 
ones.  Over  the  top  is  a  storage  tank,  of  about  6  cubic  metres 
(212  cubic  feet)  capacity,  for  the  feeding  of  the  charging  machine. 
There  are  three  motors — one  for  the  charger,  another  for  the 
pusher,  the  third  for  the  general  driving.  The  electric  current 
is  taken  by  a  trolley  from  an  overhead  wire.  The  current  goes  by 
way  of  a  commutator  in  two  directions — either  to  the  discharging 
motor,  or  to  the  general  one,  which  (by  means  of  three  sets  of 
gearing)  drives  the  travelling,  the  lifting  and  lowering  apparatus, 
and  the  Archimedian  screw  supplying  the  charger.  All  levers  are 
close  at  hand  for  the  driver  of  the  machine,  who  has  also  in  sight 

The  Combined  De  Brouwer  Retort  Charging" Discharging  Machine  at  the  Angers  Qas-Worlts. 

the  speedometer,  recording  the  rate  of  revolutions  of  the  charger, 
and  a  divided  dial,  with  moving  pointer,  showing  the  weight  of 
coal  thrown  into  the  retort. 

Improvements  and  Drawbacks. 

Some  improvements  have  been  introduced  in  this  machine. 
In  former  machines,  the  pusher  was  driven  by  the  travelling 
motor  by  means  of  a  vertical  shaft.  Now  it  is  driven  directly  ; 
and  some  mechanism,  which  was  necessarily  delicate,  has  been 
done  away  with.  Further,  the  control  of  the  discharge  was  more 
complicated,  as  it  necessitated  the  handling  of  two  levers.  The 
number  of  motors  is,  moreover,  not  increased,  as  the  Archime- 
dian screw,  now  worked  from  the  general  motor,  before  required 
a  special  motor. 

Another  improvement  is  that  in  front  of  the  driver  is  a  dial, 
with  marked  divisions  and  a  needle  worked  from  the  spiral 
screw,  indicating  the  number  of  its  turns.  After  each  retort 
charge,  the  indicator  returns  to  zero.  A  mark  shows  the  number 
of  divisions  over  which  the  needle  ought  to  pass  so  as  to  get  the 
desired  charge  of  coal.  Each  division  gives  6-5  to  7  kilos,  (say, 
14  to  15  lbs.)  of  coal.    To  verify  the  weight  obtained,  a  charge  is 

made  in  an  experimental  retort ;  and  the  coal  is  then  withdrawn 
and  weighed.  The  regularity  of  the  layer  of  coal  is  also  thus 
ascertained.  This  arrangement  has  undoubted  advantages.  It 
allows  of  variations  in  the  weight  of  the  charge  being  made  even 
during  the  charging.  Further,  by  showing  at  every  moment  what 
is  the  point  reached  in  the  charge,  it  ensures  the  regular  reduc- 
tion of  the  speed,  and,  consequently,  the  evenness  of  the  layer  of 
coal.  But  exact  control  of  the  weight  of  coal  carbonized  cannot 
be  counted  upon.  Its  condition,  notwithstanding  the  spiral  screw, 
has  considerable  influence  on  the  amount  of  the  charge.  Dry, 
dusty  coal  will  give  more  weight  than  when  it  is  in  lumps ;  wet 
coal  will  give  an  opposite  result.  With  very  wet  coal,  it  hardly 
slides  on  the  screw,  with  the  result  that  a  retort  will  be  half  full 
for  the  same  number  of  divisions  which,  at  another  time,  will  give 
a  retort  crammed  full.  Without  going  to  such  an  extrerrie,  there 
are  considerable  variations.  Thus,  the  same  coal  has  given  with 
65  divisions,  419  kilos.,  and  with  62  divisions  415  k.Vios.,  or  only 
4  kilos.  (8-8  lbs.)  less,  instead  of  a  difference  of  ?,o  kilos.  (44  lbs.), 
which  there  ought  theoretically  to  have  bee":).  The  error  can 
easily  reach,  on  an  average,  one  ton  in  fifty;  and  as  it  occurs 
sometimes  one  way  and  sometimes  the  oth  er,  it  may  be  taken  in 

July  5,  1910.] 



practice  to  be  much  more.  However,  it  is  the  only  serious  draw- 
back experienced  with  this  machine,  and,  indeed,  it  is  less  than 
with  the  preceding  machines.  In  all  other  ways,  every  satisfac- 
tion has  up  to  now  been  given. 

Combined  and  Separate  Machines  Compared. 

It  remains  to  be  seen  if  it  is  better  to  adopt  separate  charging 
and  discharging  machines,  or  whether  the  combined  machine 
offers  equal  facilities  in  working.  The  combined  machine  is  natu- 
rally bigger  and  heavier  than  each  separate  machine.  Its  four 
points  of  support  cover  a  surface  of  yzo  metres  by  3  metres,  or 
g-6o  square  metres  (103  square  feet) ;  and  its  total  height,  includ- 
ing the  slope  of  the  coal,  is  6-6o  metres  (21  ft.  8  in.).  But  though 
the  dimensions  of  a  single  pushing  machine  are  less  than  these, 
those  of  both  machines  would  be  as  large. 

The  weight  in  full  work  of  the  combined  machine  is  from  20  to 
22  tons;  while  the  weight  of  a  single  machine  is  about  15  tons. 
All  that  is  required  is  to  make  the  travelling  floor  stronger. 

Again,  it  may  be  objected  that  if  an  accident  occurs,  either  to 
the  motor  or  to  other  mechanical  parts  of  a  combined  machine,  the 
whole  is  brought  to  a  standstill.  To  guard  against  this,  the  best 
thing  to  do  is  to  have  a  machine  in  reserve.  It  is  in  this  way  that 
we  have  up  to  now  avoided  not  only  stoppages,  but  also  delays  in 
the  times  of  making  the  charge.  Should,  however,  the  purchase 
of  a  second  machine  appear  too  costly,  with  a  number  of  change- 
parts  in  reserve,  any  breakdowns  whatever  could  very  quickly 
be  remedied. 

The  cleaning  and  upkeep  of  the  machines,  which  we  have  been 
able  to  do  regularly  and  fully,  on  account  of  having  a  reserve 
machine,  have  not  brought  to  light  any  apparent  wear  after  seven 
months'  working,  notwithstanding  the  large  bulk  in  motion.  We 
do  not  see,  therefore,  how  it  can  be  argued  that  the  weight,  dimen- 
sions, and  difficulties  of  maintenance  of  the  combined  machine 
are  reasons  for  preferring  separate  machines. 

Neither  can  it  be  said  that  it  is  more  difficult  to  work,  for  our 
experience  has  proved  that  both  the  discharging  and  charging  are 
very  simply  and  very  quickly  done.  As  soon  as  the  retort-lids 
are  opened,  horizontal  tiers  are  discharged.  While  the  coke  is 
being  taken  away  by  the  conveyor,  the  retort  lids  and  ascension 
pipes  are  cleaned.  Then  the  retorts  are  charged,  the  coal-tank 
refilled,  and  the  machine  placed  for  the  following  charge.  All 
this  requires  20  to  25  minutes  to  discharge  3000  kilos,  of  coke  and 
to  charge  3900  kilos,  of  coal. 

All  the  special  supervision,  consequent  upon  the  combination 
of  the  two  machines  in  one,  can  be  carried  out  during  necessary 
stoppages;  and,  in  our  opinion,  two  separate  machines  cannot 
work  more  quickly  than  one  combined  machine.  Where  a  large 
number  of  retorts  are  placed  in  the  same  line,  and  the  charging 
is  done  immediately  after  each  discharge,  then  there  is  an  advan- 
tage in  having  separate  machines;  and  the  duration  of  carbon- 
ization in  each  retort  is  thus  prolonged.  This  also  necessitates  a 
larger  staff.  If  needs  be,  it  could  be  adopted  with  a  combined 
machine.  But  the  cleaning  of  the  retort-lids  would  have  to  be 
done  first  of  all ;  and  the  manipulation  of  the  machine  would 
become  very  complicated.  The  longer  time  taken  would  thus 
destroy  any  advantage. 

Comparison  of  Travelling  and  Hanging  Chargers. 
The  combined  machine,  like  the  floor  travelling  charging 
machine  with  coal  reservoir,  has  a  disadvantage  in  comparison 
with  the  suspended  charger.  It  cannot  charge  more  than  nine 
or  ten  retorts  without  returning  to  the  main  storage  tank  to  be  filled 
up  with  coal.  This  means  loss  of  time.  We  must,  therefore,  com- 
pare installations  having  hanging  chargers  and  storage  tanks 
above  the  retort-bench,  with  those  having  travelling  chargers  and 
themselves  carrying  the  coal. 

The  first  arrangement  necessitates  an  elevator,  a  conveyor,  and 
coal-bunkers  with  supporting  girders.  The  second  always  re- 
quires an  elevator,  but  does  without  the  conveyor  and  bunkers  ; 
tue  elevator  feeding  directly  a  general  storage  tank  of  large  capa- 
city. The  last  requires  a  strong  framework  to  support  it ;  but  it 
is  independent  of  the  retort-house,  which  remains  undisturbed, 
except  during  the  time  of  charging. 

The  capital  cost  of  these  two  types  is  practically  the  same ;  the 
cost  of  the  coal-bunkers  and  conveyor  making  up  for  the  greater 
cost  of  the  travelling  charger  and  erecting  the  general  storage 
tank.  The  travelling  charger  requires  more  upkeep  than  the 
suspended  one;  but  in  the  long  run,  the  coal-bunkers  are  eaten 
by  the  oxidizing  action  of  the  coal ;  and  the  conveyor  wants 
keeping  up  every  minute.  Generally,  the  bunkers  are  20  metres 
square,  or  of  16  tons — the  amount  required  for  a  bed  in  24  hours. 
It  is,  therefore,  necessary  to  feed  them  every  day  whatever  be  the 
number  of  beds  in  work.  Some  installations  even  have  no  tank 
above  the  bench  ;  and  the  coal  supply  has  to  be  carried  on  day 
and  night,  with  many  men,  wearing  out  the  apparatus  and  making 
repairs  and  upkeep  difficult. 

With  a  reservoir  of  80  to  90  tons,  only  supplying  three  beds  of 
nine  retorts,  as  is  the  case  at  Angers,  the  coal  is  raised  in  the 
winter  only  five  days  in  the  week — the  sixth  being  kept  for  clean- 
ing and  maintenance.  Now,  in  the  summer,  it  is  necessary  only 
to  work  three  or  four  days  per  week.  Besides  reducing  the  staff, 
this  avoids  useless  wear  of  the  machinery  and  facilitates  repairs. 
There  is  less  outlay  for  steam,  and  alleviation  of  the  mechanic's 
work  at  the  electricity  station  at  night  and  on  Sundays. 

Plants  of  the  two  types  have  not  been  long  enough  at  work  yet 
to  afford  practical  information  on  the  comparative  costs  of  upkeep 

over  a  certain  period  ;  but  it  seems  that  in  many  cases  the  advan- 
tage lies  with  the  travelling  charger  and  general  reservoir.  Plants 
at  very  large  works  and  those  at  works  of  average  size  should 
be  distinguished.  For  the  former,  several  machines  have  to  be 
employed,  with  many  general  reservoirs  requiring  a  lot  of  room. 
The  size  of  these  plants  enables  the  full  power  of  the  elevators, 
breakers,  tkc,  to  be  used ;  and  the  intermittent  feeding  of  reser- 
voirs does  not  present  the  same  problem. 

For  a  medium-sized  works,  however,  the  combined  machine 
seems  the  most  fitting  and  most  practical  solution  of  mechanical 
charging  and  discharging.  The  manipulation  is  as  easy  and  as 
quick  as  with  the  separate  machines ;  the  price  of  the  combined 
machine  is  less;  the  storage  tanks  above  the  bench  are  not 
required  ;  and  the  coal-projector  allows  intermittent  feeding,  and 
consequently  a  better  use  of  material.  Moreover,  the  saving 
which  results  from  the  adoption  of  the  combined  machine  is  so 
much  that  in  all  works  it  is  well  to  provide  reserve  machines, 
which  emphasizes  the  difference  in  the  cost  of  the  two  kinds  of 
installations.  In  such  a  case,  the  combined  machine  has  all  the 
conveniences  of  the  separate  machines. 


By  M.  Vanderpol,  of  Lyons. 
[A  Paper  read  before  the  Societe  Technique  du  Gaz.] 

The  author  began  by  pointing  out  that  it  is  generally  acknow- 
ledged that  in  burning  a  given  gas  with  the  object  of  producing 
the  maximum  temperature,  it  is  necessary  to  use  the  minimum 
quantity  of  air  ;  the  proportion,  in  the  case  of  coal  gas,  ranging 
from  five  to  six  times  the  volume  of  the  gas.  In  order  to  take  in, 
and  mix  with  the  gas,  the  air  necessary  for  complete  combustion, 
the  method  adopted  is  either  that  of  suction  by  a  chimney,  or  of 
pressure  of  either  the  gas  or  the  air.  As  regards  the  taking-up 
of  the  air  by  the  gas,  the  latter  is  one  seventti  the  volume  of  the 
mixture  which  it  is  required  to  produce;  and  as  its  density  is 
about  half  that  of  the  air,  a  given  mass  of  gas  is  required  to  take 
up  air  to  the  amount  of  (say)  thirteen  times  this  mass.  It  will  thus 
be  understood  that  when  using  gas  at  the  ordinary  pressure  this 
may  not  be  an  easy  matter  in  practice  ;  and  the  mixtures  so  made, 
even  with  the  aid  of  the  draught  produced  by  a  chimney,  are  not 
at  all  perfect.  In  order  to  produce  a  more  certain  and  energetic 
draught  of  air,  and  a  more  perfect  mixture  of  the  latter  with 
the  gas,  it  has  been  the  practice  to  use  the  gas  at  an  increased 
pressure  of  from  i  to  2  metres  of  water.  For  two  reasons,  such 
high  pressure  is  disadvantageous.  In  the  first  place,  there  is 
greater  risk  of  leakage  ;  and,  secondly,  the  orifice  from  which  the 
gas  issues  has  to  be  of  very  small  diameter. 

Attempts  have  been  made  to  bring  the  air  and  the  gas  together 
by  means  of  the  former,  with  results  which  have  been  good, 
though  inferior  to  those  obtained  with  compressed  gas.  This 
system,  however,  has  the  drawback  of  requiring  a  duplication  of 
the  mains  supplying  the  burners— one  set  for  gas,  and  another  for 
the  compressed  air.  Furthermore,  in  order  to  secure  constant 
proportions  of  the  two  gases,  both  must  be  maintained  at  precisely 
the  same  pressure  at  the  burner— a  condition  which  is  not  easy 
to  fulfil,  if  the  consumption  on  the  main  is  at  the  same  time  under- 
going variations. 

The  third  solution  of  the  problem  to  which  attention  has  of 
late  been  turned  consists  in  previously  mixing  the  air  and  gas  in 
suitable  proportions.  This  system  has  some  advantages.  First 
of  all,  a  more  intimate  mixture  of  the  air  and  gas  is  obtained  ;  and 
next,  if  the  whole  quantity  of  air  necessary  for  combustion  is 
not  introduced  into  the  mixture,  the  pressure  of  gas  required  to 
take  up  the  remainder  is  very  small.  Take,  for  example,  the  case 
of  a  mixture  of  one  volume  of  gas  with  two  volumes  of  air,  or  a 
mass  represented  by  the  figure  5.  This  is  the  (jaantity  of  '•  gas  " 
available  to  take  up  the  residual  8  parts  of  air,  as  compared  with 
I  part  of  pure  gas  required  to  take  up  (say)  12  parts  of  air. 

Again,  any  loss  of  pressure  will  not  alter  the  proportion  of  air 
to  gas.  From  this,  it  would  seem  that  as  regards  regular  and 
perfect  combustion  this  system  of  mixing  the  air  and  gas  in  the 
proportions  to  ensure  complete  combustion  should  give  the  best 
results.  Such  a  mixture,  however,  could  never  be  employed  on 
account  of  its  explosive  properties,  except  under  certain  special 
conditions.  The  gas  is  used  in  admixture  with  three  times 
its  volume  of  air;  and  even  with  this  proportion  certain  precau- 
tions are  necessary.  It  is  better  to  limit  oneself  to  twice  the 
volume  as  the  maximum  proportion  in  which  the  air  is  to  be 
employed.  The  less  the  proportion  of  air,  the  higher  the  pres- 
sure at  which  the  mixture  is  required  to  be  used ;  but  even  with 
the  air  in  the  proportion  necessary  in  practice — namely,  li  times 
that  of  the  gas— the  pressures  are  not  great. 

The  chief  advantages  of  thus  working  with  previously  mixed  air 
and  gas  under  constant  pressure  are  as  follows:  (i)  In  heating 
by  gas  on  the  large  scale,  absolutely  constant  calorific  power  is 
obtained.  (2)  The  maximum  temperature  is  produced  in  conse- 
quence of  the  freedom  from  excess  of  air.  There  is  no  cooling 
of  the  flame,  and  an  excellent  combustion  results  from  the  inti- 
mate mixture  of  air  and  gas.  It  is  for  this  reason  that  the  system 
aflbrdssuch  excellent  results  in  incandescent  lighting— giving  one 
carcel-hour  with  6  litres  (0-21  cubic  foot)  of  gas,  or  even  less. 
The  author  then  proceeded  to  describe  two  forms  of  apparatus 



[July  5.  igi^- 

in  which  the  method  of  the  prior  admixture  of  air  and  gas  is 
adopted.  The  first,  invented  l)y  MM.  Bouvier  and  Collon,  is 
shown  in  fig.  i"  .  It  consists  of  two  pumps  placed  one  above  the 
other;  the  upper  pump  supplying  the  air,  having  three  times  the 
section  of  the  lower  one,  which  is  used  for  the  gas.  lu  order  to 
reduce  the  effect  of  the  strokes  of  the  piston  at  the  outlet  of  the 
pump,  the  air  and  gas  are  taken  separately  into  reservoirs,  after 
traversing  which  they  pass  into  an  attachment  fitted  with  hyd- 
raulic seals  so  as  to  prevent  any  possible  striking-back  of  the  flame, 
and  mix  at  the  entrance  to  the  mains  leading  to  the  burners.  A 
regulator  is  used  to  arrest  the  passage  of  air  or  gas  to  the  reser- 
voirs when  the  consumption  reaches  or  falls  below  the  normal 
supply  of  the  pumps.  This  apparatus,  named  the  "  Calor,"  has 
met  with  useful  application  in  the  heating  of  laundry  irons ;  it 
having  been  found  to  afford  considerable  saving  of  labour  to  the 
laundress  in  comparison  with  the  charcoal  closed  stoves  usually 
employed.  I 

The  second  apparatus,  shown  in  figs.  2  and  3,  is  that  devised 
by  the  Societc  Industrielle  des  Compteurs.  Like  the  one  just 
described,  it  adjusts  the  proportions  of  the  gases,  mixes  them, 
and  subjects  them  to  pressure.  Its  principle,  however,  is  entirely 
different.  An  iron  tank  is  divided  into  two  parts  by  a  partition 
in  the  middle.  In  each  of  these  sections,  or  in  two  separate 
tanks,  is  a  drum  resembling  that  of  a  gas-meter.    Each  drum  can 

*  The  apparatus  has  been  patented  in  England,  and  has  been  described 
in  the  "Journal."    (See  Vol.  XCVIII.,  p.  593,  and  Vol.  CI.,  p.  300.) 

t  This  application  of  the  "Calor"  was  on  view  in  the  vestibule  of  the 
hall  of  the  meeting-place.— Ed.  J.G.L. 


Fig.  I.— The  Bouvier-Collon  Gas  and  Air  Mixer. 

Fig.  2.— The  General  Arrangement  of  a  Second  Form  of  Gas  and  Air  Mixer. 

Pig-  3.— Section  of  tlie  Drum. 

be  rotated  ou  its  axis  by  any  convenient  motive  power — i.e.,  an 
electric  motor,  a  hot-air  engine,  or  else  a  system  of  pulleys  and  a 
windlass,  as  in  the  case  just  described.  The  construction  of  the 
drums  is  as  follows :  The  cylindrical  capacity  of  the  drum  is 
divided  into  two  by  a  division  which  is  formed  of  two  helicoidal 
surfaces  soldered  together.  The  surfaces  are  of  different  pitch — 
that  of  the  second  being  smaller  than  that  of  the  first.  The  drum 
is  closed  by  a  cap,  and  the  compressed  gas  or  air  passes  out  by  a 
syphon.  Compression  of  the  air  or  gas  proceeds  continuously  ; 
the  level  of  the  water  between  the  two  divisions  falling  according 
to  the  pressure  attained  by  the  air  or  the  gas — that  is,  in  propor- 
tion to  the  rotation.  Further,  the  space  in  the  drum  which  con- 
tains the  compressed  air  or  gas  is  limited  by  the  fixed  surfaces 
on  the  one  hand  and  by  the  helicoidal  surface  on  the  other;  so 

that  its  flow  is  constant,  and  does  not  give  rise  to  variation  in  the 
pressure  so  long  as  the  consumption  continues.  If  this  varies,  a 
regulator  placed  at  the  outlet  of  the  mixture  reduces  or  increases 
the  rotation  to  meet  the  requirements  in  the  pipes — the  compo- 
sition of  the  mixture  remaining  unaltered.  The  power  required 
for  the  apparatus  is  very  slight.  It  can  also  be  actuated  by  a 
weight ;  but,  in  order  to  avoid  the  numerous  pulleys  which  have 
usually  to  be  employed,  a  special  device  has  been  constructed, 
consisting  of  two  pulleys  provided  with  grooves,  which  agree  with 
the  diameters  corresponding  in  turn  to  the  speeds  of  displace- 
ment of  the  cord.  The  apparatus  not  only  takes  up  very  little 
room,  but  where  there  are  only  two  axes  to  rotate  they  can  be 
mounted  on  ball-bearings,  with  the  result  that  the  friction  does 
not  amount  to  more  than  5  per  cent,  of  the  power  transmitted. 


Incandescence  Bodies  for  Gas  Lighting. 

BoHM,  C.  R.,  of  Berlin. 
No.  10,400;  May  i,  igog. 

Many  attempts  have  been  made,  the  patentee  remirks,  to  utilize 
artificial  silk  for  the  manufacture  of  incandescence  bodies  for  gas  light- 
ing— for  instance,  by  adding  the  usual  luminiferous  salts  to  a  collodion 
solution  before  it  is  formed  into  filaments.  Another  method  consists 
in  impregnating  with  luminiferous  sails  a  fabric  woven  from  artificial 
silk,  after  which  the  fabric  is  allowed  to  dry,  then  drawn  through  an 
alkaline  bath  (of  ammonia)  for  converting  the  nitrate  into  hydroxides,  j 
and  subsequently  replacing  the  bath  by  a  bath  of  hydrogen  peroxide. 
However,  as  hydrogen  peroxide  converts  only  the  thorium  salt  into  a 
form  insoluble  in  water,  while  leaving  the  cerium  nitrate  unchanged, 
this  defect  is  remedied  by  the  addition  of  organic  acids  or  their  salts. 
It  was  attempted  also  to  produce  the  desired  effect  by  simply  impreg- 
nating the  fabric  woven  from  artificial  silk,  using  first  a  colloidal 
thorium  solution  and  then  a  solution  of  basic  thorium  salts.  The 
"object  of  such  treatment  appears  readily  from  the  fact  that  the  excess 
of  nitric  acid  contained  in  every  normal  thorium  nitrate  has  a  destruc- 
tive effect  on  the  substance  of  the  artificial  silk." 

The  present  invention  starts  from  a  recognition  of  this  fact,  and 
serves  to  simplify  the  manufacture  of  incandescence  bodies  from  arti- 
ficial silk. 

Experiments  have  shown,  it  is  pointed  out,  that  the  substance  of  the 
artificial  silk  is  not  only  left  uninjured,  but  is  affected  favourably,  if 

instead  of  compounds  of  the  luminiferous  salts  with  inorganic  acids 
compounds  of  the  same  with  organic  acids  are  used.  Organic  acids 
are  all  weak  acids,  and  will  not  therefore  destroy  the  artificial  silk  if 
employed  in  excess,  as  is  the  case,  for  instance,  with  nitric  acid.  Even 
insoluble  compounds  of  thorium  with  organic  acids  may  be  employed 
for  the  impregnation  of  incandescence  mantles  of  artificial  silk,  inas- 
much as  they  are  in  most  cases  dissolved  by  a  minute  addition  of  an 
inorganic  acid.  In  this  case  the  inorganic  acid  always  occurs  in  a 
chemically  combined  condition,  and  never  as  a  free  acid,  as  the  stronger 
acid  always  drives  out  the  weaker.  This  is  important,  because,  as  already 
mentioned,  care  must  be  taken  in  the  manufacture  of  this  class  of 
incandescence  bodies  to  avoid  free  inorganic  acids — especially  nitric 

There  are  a  considerable  number  of  solvents  for  sparingly  soluble 
organic  compounds  of  luminiferous  earths.  In  the  majority  of  cases 
they  will  not  be  used,  however,  because  there  exist  also  soluble  salts  of 
the  said  earths,  which  may  be  used  with  advantage  for  the  impregna- 
tion of  incandescence  bodies  from  artificial  silk.  The  woven  fabrics, 
impregnated  with  organic  acid  salts  of  luminiferous  earths,  or  with  a 
mixture  of  organic  and  inorganic  acid  salts  of  luminiferous  earths,  are 
fixed,  preferably,  by  subjecting  them  to  an  alkali  bath  or  treating  them 
with  alkaline  vapours,  such  as  ammonia  vapour. 

If  organic  compounds  are  used  for  impregnating  the  incandescence 
bodies  made  of  artificial  silk,  the  slight  addition  of  cerium  may  be  left 
out  of  consideration  and  used  in  the  form  of  a  nitrate,  as  hitherto. 

As  the  compounds  of  thorium  and  of  the  other  rare  earths  with 
organic  acids  will  rapidly  hydrolize,  this  property  may  be  utilized  advan- 
tageously for  the  fixation  or  solidification  of  the  impregnated  fabric  by 
means  of  peroxide  of  hydrogen.  This  reaction  will,  however,  take  a 
much  more  rapid  course,  if  the  artificial  silk  fabric  is  slightly  impreg- 
nated with  organic  salts,  instead  of  adding  them  to  the  hydrogen  per- 

July  5,  igio-] 



oxide.  In  selecting  the  particular  salt,  account  must  be  taken  of  the 
fact  that  some  organic  compounds  prevent  the  precipitation  by  means 
of  hydrogen  peroxide  or  ammonia. 

Controlling  the  Supply  of  Gas  and  Igniting  Same. 

GiORGi,  A.,  of  Florence,  Italy. 

No.  12,470  ;  May  26,  1909. 

This  invention  relates  to  means  for  controlling  the  supply  of  gas  to 
gas-burners,  and  also  for  igniting  same,  of  the  kind  wherein  an  electro- 
magnet is  provided  with  a  double  armature,  one  part  of  which  actuates 
the  gas-valve,  while  the  other  part  actuates  a  contact  so  as  to  set  up 
sparking  which  ignites  the  gas. 

Qiorgi's  Qas  Controller  and  Igniter. 

A  is  the  hollow  core  of  the  magnet,  and  B  C  the  double  armature — 
B  being  the  fork-shaped  part  pivoted  to  the  lower  end  of  the  hollow 
magnet  core,  while  C  represents  the  hammer  portion,  which  is  mounted 
on  3  spring  secured  to  the  lower  end  of  the  fork-shaped  part.  E  is  a 
socket  or  nozzle  fitted  at  the  upper  end  of  the  magnet  core  ;  being  in- 
sulated from  the  core  by  the  sleeve  D.  F  is  a  spring  rod  of  a  non- 
oxidizable  metal,  extending  through  the  nozzle  E,  and  secured  at  its 
lower  end  to  the  inner  surface  of  the  core  of  the  hollow  magnet,  while 
its  upper  end  (which  projects  beyond  the  upper  end  of  the  nozzle  E)  is 
normally  in  contact  with  the  edge  or  lip  of  the  latter.  G  is  the  winding 
of  the  magnet ;  the  upper  end  of  the  winding  being  connected  to  the 
nozzle  E,  while  the  lower  end  is  connected  to  the  binding  screw  H. 
The  lower  part  of  the  core  A  is  formed  with  a  transverse  passage  J, 
fitted  with  a  bush  K  in  communication  with  the  interior  of  the  casing  L 
(shown  in  broken  lines)  of  the  valve  which  controls  the  supply  of  gas, 
to  the  service-pipe  of  which  it  is  fitted — the  bush  having  mounted 
within  it  a  rod  M  normally  held  in  the  inoperative  position  by  a  spring, 
and  projecting  at  its  outer  end  through  the  magnet  A  and  into  contact 
with  the  lower  end  of  the  part  B  of  the  armature. 

Assuming  that  the  gas  is  cut  off  and  that  it  is  desired  to  ignite  a 
burner,  the  circuit  containing  the  electro-magnet  is  closed  by  a  control- 
ling switch  (not  shown),  whereupon  current  flows  from  the  battery  (also 
not  shown)  to  the  clamp  H,  thence,  through  the  winding  G,  to  the 
nozzle  E,  and  through  the  spring  rod  F  to  the  hollow  core  A,  and 
thence  to  earth.  The  double  armature  B  C  is  thereby  attracted  to- 
wards the  electromagnet;  this  movement  of  the  double  armature 
actuating  the  rod  M  so  as  to  open  the  gas-valve  and  cause  the  gas  to 
pa;  s  to  the  burner,  and  also,  through  the  hollow  core  A,  to  the  nozzle  E. 
The  part  C  of  the  magnet  is  attracted  simultaneously  with  the  part  B  ; 
and  its  upper  end  strikes  the  end  of  the  spring  rod  F,  thereby  pushing 
it  out  of  contact  with  the  nozzle  E  and  breaking  the  circuit  so  that  the 
elastic  armature  C  recoils,  and  permits  the  circuit  to  be  again  com- 
pleted. This  operation  continues  as  long  as  the  controlling  switch  is 
on — thereby  causing  the  armature  C  to  vibrate  and  create  a  rapid  suc- 
cession of  "  mikes  "  and  "  breaks,"  and,  consequently,  a  succession  of 
sparks  between  the  spring  rod  F  and  the  nozzle  E.  This  sparking 
ignites  the  gas  issuing  from  the  socket  E,  and  this  serves  to  ignite  the 
gas  issuing  from  the  main  burner. 

Qas=  Purifiers. 
May,  T.,  of  Richmond,  Surrey. 
No.  16,871  ;  July  20,  igog. 

This  invention  relates  to  purifiers  in  which  horizontal  grids  are 
placed  one  above  another  (at  some  little  distance  apart)  supporting 
purifying  material  ;  the  gas  introduced  under  the  lowest  grid  rising 
through  the  iciterstices  of  successive  grids  and  through  the  purifying 
material.  It  has  been  customary,  the  patentee  points  out,  to  provide 
automatic  or  other  valves  or  bye  pass  arrangements  by  means  of  which, 
when  the  pressure  of  gas  below  any  grid  becomes  excessive  in  con- 
sequence of  the  resistance  of  the  purifying  material,  a  portion  of  it  can 
be  led  into  the  space  above  the  grid  without  passing  through  the 
purifying  material  in  the  usual  way.  The  present  invention  is  designed 
to  provide  a  simple  and  effective  automatic  bye-pass  characterized  by 
the  employment  of  a  water  seal,  through  which  the  gas  can  blow  from 
the  portion  of  the  purifier  below  the  grid  when  a  certain  pressure  is 
reached  or  exceeded. 

The  apparatus  comprises,  firstly,  a  bell  or  cover  provided  with  legs 
or  supports,  and  with  means  whereby  it  can  be  lifted  ;  and,  secondly, 
an  annular  trough  or  flanged  ring  adapted  to  contain  water,  into  which 
the  edges  of  the  cover  dip — the  legs  of  the  cover  resting  upon  the 
bottom  of  the  trough.  The  trough  holds  sufficient"  water  to  resist  a 
pressure  equivalent  to  (say)  4  inches  of  water,  in  which  case  the  rim  of 
the  cover  will  be  immersed  to  a  depth  of  2  inches  ;  the  inner  wall  of  the 
trough  therefore  rising  at  least  2  inches  fliis  the  depth  of  the  legs  of  the 
cover.  The  outer  wall  of  the  trough  may  rise  above  the  cover,  so  as 
to  prevent  the  purifying  material  falling  into  the  water,  or  the  cover 
may  overhang  the  outer  wall.    The  depending  flange  of  the  bell  is 

near  the  outer  wall  of  the  trough,  so  as  to  leave  the  greatest  practicable 
area  of  water  between  the  cover  and  the  inner  wall  of  the  trough.  The 
water  is  not  found  to  evaporate  to  any  appreciable  extent;  but,  if 
necessary,  the  trough  may  be  connected  to  means  for  refilling — such  as 
a  seal  and  tundish. 



■  ^ 


May's  Gas- Purifier  I5ye-Pass. 

Over  the  purifier  grid  shown  is  placed  an  annular  trough  B,  contain- 
ing water.  The  bell  C  has  a  number  of  downward  extensions  resting 
upon  the  bottom  of  the  trough,  two  of  which  legs  are  indicated  in 
dotted  lines.  The  gas  in  the  compartment  below  the  grid  has  free 
access  through  it  and  through  the  open  centre  of  the  trough  to  the 
surface  of  the  water  at  G,  which  surface  is  depressed  by  the  pressure 
of  the  gas  ;  the  level  of  the  water  contained  between  the  outer  wall  of 
the  trough  and  the  flange  H  of  the  cover  being  thereby  raised.  The 
pressure  still  increasing,  the  gas  forces  its  way  through  the  water  seal 
and  escapes,  as  indicated  by  the  arrow  I,  into  the  compartment  of  the 
purifier  next  above  the  grid.  The  wall  J  of  the  purifier  may  be  pierced 
to  admit  water  from  a  pipe  K,  having  a  bend  or  seal  to  prevent  leakage 
of  gas,  and  a  funnel  or  tundish  M  at  the  top,  into  which  water  can  be 
poured.  The  upper  opening  of  the  pipe  K  should  normally  be  plugged 
or  otherwise  closed,  so  as  to  prevent  evaporation. 


Yates,  H.  J.  (John  Wright  and  Co.),  of  Aston,  near  Birmingham. 

No.  i7,g2o  ;  Aug.  3,  igog. 

This  gas-fire  is  of  the"  basket"  type  ;  and  the  invention  comprises 
the  employment  (in  conjunction  with  a  frame  or  grate  containing  the 
refractory  fuel  and  fire-brick  back  or  lining,  and  adapted  to  be  placed 
compactly  within,  and  supported  upon,  the  fire-bars  of  an  ordinary 
coal-fire  grate)  of  an  adjustable  cover-piece  or  fender  capable  of  being 
extended  or  contracted  vertically  for  enclosing  the  space  beneath  the 
gas-fire  frame  or  grate  and,  if  desired,  of  providing  support  to  it. 

Coin  =  Freed  Meters. 

Gibson,  T.  S.  F.,  and  Palmer,  W.  V.,  of  Old  Kent  Road,  S.E. 

No.  ig,i84  ;  Aug.  20,  igog. 

This  invention  has  reference  t,o  coin-freed  gas  and  other  fluid  meters, 
wherein,  by  turning  a  handle  or  by  drawing  down  a  lever  after  the  in- 
sertion of  a  coin,  the  mechanism  is  actuated  through  the  coin  acting  as 
a  gag  or  bridge  piece  between  the  free  handle  and  the  mechanism 
attached  to  the  meter. 

Qibson  and  Palmer's  Coin-Freed  Oas-Meters. 

The  illustration  shows  just  so  much  of  a  gas-meter  as  will  suffice  for 
present  purposes  (the  meter  proper  being  of  the  usual  construction). 
It  gives  front,  plan,  and  end  views  of  the  coin-freed  mechanism  ;  also 
the  operating  disc  or  wheel  in  section. 

The  mechanism  is  contained  in  a  box  fixed  to  the  end  of  the  meter 



[July  5. 1910. 

casing.  B  is  the  usual  meter  shaft  extending  into  the  box  ;  and  on  it 
is  keyed  the  flanged  disc  D,  which  has  on  its  face  dentals  E.  The 
shaft  also  forms  a  spindle  upon  which  turns  the  sleeve  C,  to  which  are 
attached  the  coin-carrier  F  and  the  handle  G.  H  is  a  slot  in  the  top 
of  the  box  as  far  as  may  be  to  the  left  from  the  end  of  the  meter  casing, 
and  out  of  reach  of  the  disc  D.  A  coin  inserted  in  the  slot  falls  into 
the  coin-carrier ;  and  if  it  is  of  the  proper  size,  it  bridges  the  space 
between  the  carrier  and  the  dentals  of  the  disc  and  locks  the  two 
together,  so  that  the  disc  can  be  rotated  to  operate  the  shaft  of  the 
meter  by  means  of  the  handle.  Stops  are  provided  for  limiting  the 
movements  of  the  coin-carrier  in  a  rotary  direction — one  stop  being,  as 
usual,  adjustable. 

So  far  the  mechanism  does  not  differ  from  the  operating  mechanism 
usually  employed  in  prepayment  meters.  It  will  be  observed,  however, 
that  the  form  of  the  disc  D  is  different — without  the  usual  ratchet  and 
pawl  arrangement,  which  prevents  "  pumping  "  the  apparatus  to  obtain 
fraudulently  an  extra  supply  of  gas.  To  prevent  the  movement  of  the 
disc  and  the  parts  connected  with  it  in  a  backward  direction,  there  is  a 
gripping  plate  or  arm  K,  carried  by  a  slotted  post  fixed  to  the  end  of 
the  meter.  The  plate  is  formed  with  a  forked  end,  which  is  passed 
into  the  slot  of  the  post ;  being  held  in  position  by  a  pin  and  plate.  The 
free  end  of  the  plate  is  notched  to  form  jaws,  which  embrace  the  flange 
of  the  disc  D.  The  plate  is  provided  with  means — such  as  the  counter- 
weight M — to  hold  the  plate  normally  in  a  position  so  as  not  to  interfere 
with  the  rotation  of  the  disc  in  the  direction  of  the  arrow.  The  plate, 
however,  is  so  placed  and  adjusted  that  its  jaws  will  immediately  grip 
and  bind  the  flange  of  the  disc  if  the  rotation  of  the  disc  in  a  backward 
direction  is  attempted.  The  binding  action  of  the  plate  is  instanta- 
neous ;  and  when  free,  it  is  perfectly  silent,  and  puts  no  friction  what- 
ever on  the  disc  when  rotating  forwards. 

This  absence  of  friction  is  claimed  to  be  advantageous,  inasmuch  as 
the  shaft  B  and  disc  D  can  rotate  if  the  meter  should  continue  to 
register  beyond  the  predetermined  extent  owing  to  the  non-closing  of 
the  valve  or  other  defect  in  the  mechanism.  This  rotation  is  usually 
prevented  by  the  pressure  of  the  ratchet  mechanism  spring,  with  the 
result  that  the  gearing  is  in  danger  of  being  stripped  by  the  continued 
action  of  the  meter  mechanism  due  to  a  leaky  valve. 

Operating  Gas- Lamp  Valves  from  a  Distance. 

M'Nab,  N.  S.,  of  Caulfield,  Victoria,  and  Link,  J.  S.,  of  Melbourne. 

No.  21,437;  Sept.  20,  igcg.    Date  claimed  under  International  Con- 
vention, Sept.  25,  1908. 

This  mechanism  for  operating  valves  from  a  distance  (and  particu- 
larly intended  for  use  in  lighting  and  extinguishing  gas-lamps)  works 
electrically  or  by  a  temporary  increase  of  fluid  pressure  or  fluid  pulsa- 
tions. In  its  application  to  gas-lamps,  the  mechanism  is  adapted  to 
extinguish  or  light  simultaneously  a  series  of  lamps,  or  a  cluster  of 
burners,  or  to  extinguish  series  of  lamps  or  series  of  burners  of  a  cluster 
before  others  of  the  series. 

M'Nab  and  Link's  Lamp  Lighter  and  Extinguisher. 

The  gas  is  supplied  to  a  pipe  A  provided  with  an  ordinary  or  three- 
way  cock,  which  admits  the  gas  when  opened  into  a  chamber  B  through 
an  opening  in  the  valve  plate  C  of  the  chamber.  The  plate  has  two 
outlet  ports — one  leading  to  the  burner  by  way  of  the  tube  D,  and  the 
other  by  the  tube  E  to  the  pilot  light.  The  valves  controlling  the 
ports  are  connected  by  a  gas-tight  sensitive  diaphragm  F,  and  bellows 
or  some  like  device  in  the  chamber  B  cause  pulsations  of  varying 
pressures  of  the  gas  introduced  into  the  chamber.  In  the  simplest 
form  of  construction  for  extinguishing  or  lighting  all  the  burners  at  the 
same  time,  one  valve  is  mounted  on  a  pivoted  lever  G  and  kept 
normally  closed  by  a  spring,  while  the  other  is  formed  on  a  rod  attached 
to,  and  operated  by,  the  diaphragm.  The  other  valve  is  closed  by  the 
direct  action  of  the  rod  ;  and  the  one  end  of  the  latter  and  the  valve  are 
guided  by  a  sleeve  H,  perforated  to  admit  gas  to  one  outlet  valve, 
while  the  other  end  of  the  rod  slides  on  the  end  of  an  arm  I. 

The  diaphragm  is  under  constant  pressure  by  means  of  a  weight  J, 
which  is  slidably  and  adjustably  secured  to  the  end  of  a  hinged  lever, 
having  an  arm  bearing  against  a  block  K  secured  to  a  rod  outside  the 
chamber  B  and  within  the  casing  of  the  mechanism.  The  rod  is  pro- 
vided with  an  adjustable  trip  collar  near  its  outer  end,  and  has  either 
a  single  or  double  flange,  according  to  the  effect  desired,  while  the  arm 
itself  is  provided  with  a  stop  to  limit  the  outward  movement  of  the 
collar  and  the  rod. 

Adjacent  to  the  trip  collar  is  a  spring  pawl  pivoted  on  a  rigid  frame 
and  adapted  to  engage  with  a  ratchet  toothed  wheel  L  provided  with 
notches  of  different  depths  and  loosely  mounted  on  a  spindle.  The 
ratchet-wheel  is  adapted  to  be  partially  rotated  in  one  direction  only  by 
means  of  a  pawl  lever  operated  by  the  forward  movement  of  the  flanged 
trip  collar.    The  pawl  lever  comprises  a  curved  arm  loosely  mounted 

on  the  spindle  and  provided  with  a  tension  spring  and  a  stop ;  while 
upon  the  arm  is  pivoted  a  spring  pawl  adapted  to  engage  the  teeth  or 
notches  of  the  ratchet-wheel.  The  notches  between  the  teeth  of  the 
ratchet-wheel  vary  according  to  whether  the  mechanism  is  adapted  to 
operate  a  single  lamp  or  groups  of  lamps — such  as  street-lamps  at 
different  times,  or  a  series  of  those  provided  with  a  cluster  of  burners. 

The  ratchet-wheel  shown  is  adapted  to  operate  a  series  of  lamps  each 
having  a  single  burner,  and  all  of  which  lamps  are  to  be  extinguished 
at  the  same  time.  Thus  one  series  of  notches  are  deeper  than  the 
alternating  ones,  and  might  be  termed  respectively  the  "  releasing  "  and 
"  retaining  "  notches.  Thus  when  the  pawl  is  in  engagement  with  a 
shallow  or  retaining  notch  of  the  ratchet-wheel,  it  projects  sufficiently 
to  engage  the  flange  of  the  trip  collar  on  the  rod,  and  prevents  the 
backward  movement  of  the  diaphragm  controlling  the  inlet  valves  ;  but 
when  the  pawl  engages  a  deep  or  releasing  notch  it  is  out  of  the  path 
of  the  flange,  and  so  permits  the  weighted  lever  to  operate  and  force 
the  diaphragm  back. 

Assuming  the  valve  on  the  lever  G  to  be  adapted  to  close  the  burner- 
port  and  the  valve  on  the  rod  of  the  pilot-port,  and  assuming  the 
burner  is  extinguished  but  the  pilot  alight,  the  pressure  of  gas  being 
normal,  the  pawl  will  be  in  engagement  with  a  shallow  notch,  and  will 
retain  the  rod  and  diaphragm  by  projecting  in  the  path  of  the  flange 
of  the  trip  collar — thus  preventing  the  weight  operating  on  the  dia- 
phragm. By  now  momentarily  increasing  the  pressure,  the  flange  will 
first  move  outwardly  and  operate  against  the  arm  of  the  pawl  lever, 
thus  rotating  the  ratchet-wheel  L  to  the  extent  of  one  tooth  ;  so  that 
the  pawl  springs  into  a  deep  or  releasing  notch  and  allows  the  flange 
(which  immediately  returns)  to  pass,  and  the  weight  to  operate  on  the 
rod  and  depress  the  diaphragm  F.  The  effect  of  this  is  that  the 
shoulder  on  the  rod  depresses  the  pivoted  valve  lever  G  against  the 
pressure  of  its  spring  and  opens  the  burner-valve,  and  approximately 
at  the  same  time  the  pilot-light  valve  is  closed.  The  burner  is  extin- 
guished by  another  pulsation  or  momentary  increase  of  gas  pressure 
whereby  the  flange  of  the  trip  collar  again  moves  outwardly  and 
operates  the  pawl  lever ;  thus  turning  the  ratchet-wheel  so  that  the 
pawl  again  engages  a  shallow  notch  and  prevents  the  return  of  the 
diaphragm.  The  pilot-light  valve  is  thus  retained  opened,  while  the 
burner-valve  is  closed  by  the  spring  of  the  pivoted  lever  to  which  it  is 

Inverted  Incandescent  Qas  =  Burners. 

Bland,  C.  W.,  of  Little  Trinity  Lane,  E.G. 
No.  24,095  ;  Oct.  20,  1909. 

This  invention  relates  to  the  air  inlet  chambers  of  inverted  burners 
(both  low  and  high  pressure),  and  is  specially  designed  for  use  in  mills 
and  other  places  where  there  is  a  quantity  of  dust  or  fluff  in  the  air. 
The  air-chamber  is  of  the  type  in  which  the  air  enters  from  below,  and, 
being  closed  on  the  top  (preferably  flat),  has  a  saucer-like  under  case  or 
portion  which  is  of  double  form,  and  with  which  a  shield  outside  the 
air-chamber  may  be  used.  The  under  side  is  provided  with  air  inlet 
holes  in  both  its  inner  and  outer  cases  ;  one  case  being  capable  of 
movement  upon  the  other,  so  as  to  cause  the  holes  to  more  or  less 
register  with  each  other.  The  holes  in  both  the  inner  and  outer  cases 
may  be  of  any  desired  number  ;  but  it  is  preferred  to  use  two  only  in 
the  inner  case,  and  to  arrange  them  diametrically  opposite  to  each 

Bland's  Dust-Proof  Inverted  Burner. 

Fig.  I  shows  the  burner  ;  fig.  2  is  a  plan  with  the  top  plate  removed  ; 
and  fig.  3  is  a  sectional  view  of  fig.  i.  Fig.  4  shows  the  application  of 
a  shield. 

The  under  saucer-shaped  case  A  has  air-holes  B  (shown  closed), 
which  can  be  caused  to  more  or  less  coincide  with  the  apertures  C  in 
the  inner  case  D.  The  case  has  lugs  F,  which  are  bent  round  the  edge 
of  the  top  flat  part  of  the  case,  and  one  of  the  lugs  is  furnished  with  a  set 
screw  E.  The  shield  consists  of  a  plain  ring  of  sheet  metal  I  with  a 
clip  J.  The  finger  piece  G  of  the  gas-regulating  valve  controls  the 
needle  part  H  in  the  usual  manner. 

It  will  be  obvious  that  falling  particles  of  dust  cannot  be  easily  drawn 
through  the  holes  B,  because  they  are  under  the  cover  D  ;  and  when 
the  shield  I  is  used,  the  dust  would  have  to  follow  a  circuitous  direction 
to  reach  the  holes.   

Qas- Meters. 
Morris,  H.  J.,  of  New  Britain,  Conn.,  U.S.A. 
No.  25,867  ;  Nov.  9,  1909. 
The  primary  object  of  this  invention  is  "  the  provision  of  a  gas-meter 
in  which  there  is  no  possibility  of  a  malicious  person  gaining  access  to 

July  5,  1910.] 



the  recording  or  registering  mechanism  within  the  meter  for  the  pur- 
pose of  permitting  a  flow  of  gas  without  being  registered."  In  ihe 
meter  outlet-pipe,  baffls  plates  are  disposed  to  prevent  tampering  with 
the  meter. 

Morris's  Oas-Meter. 

The  registering  mechanism  of  the  meter  (not  shown)  is  adapted  to 
control  a  valve  A,  forming  a  closure  for  a  valve-port,  contained  in  a 
horizontal  partition  B,  within  the  meter.  This  port  lead^  to  a  bye- 
pass  chamber  C  within  the  meter  and  in  communication  with  the  out- 
let pipe  through  a  number  of  openings  formed  in  the  vertical  wall  D 
of  the  meter.  These  openings  are  of  a  size  to  prevent  the  insertion  of 
a  hook  instrument  or  even  a  bent  wire,  although  allowing  the  passage 
of  gas  from  the  meter  to  the  outlet  pipe.  Above  the  openings,  and 
within  the  outlet  pipe,  is  a  "horizontal  foraminous  baflle-plate  "  E, 
the  apertures  in  which  are  of  a  size  to  prevent  the  passing  of  a  wire  or 
other  instrument  through  it  to  the  valve  A,  to  open  it  and  allow  a  flow 
of  gas  from  the  meter  without  being  registered. 

Removing  Tar  from  Hot  Gases. 

Otto  and  Co.,  G.  m.  b.  H.,  of  Dahlhausen  a/Ruhr,  Germany. 

N3.  26,124  ;  Nov.  II,  1909.    Date  claimed  under  International  Con- 
vention, Dec.  22,  1908. 

In  their  complete  speci5cation,  the  patentees  say  :  It  has  been  recog- 
nized that  the  most  economical  method  of  recovering  ammonia  from 
gases  (coking-ovens,  gas-retorts,  or  the  like)  consists  in  obtaining 
ammonium  sulphate  direct  by  passing  the  gases  through  sulphuric  acid 
strong  enough  to  determine  the  separation  of  the  ammonium  sulphate 
as  crystals  as  soon  as  it  is  formed.  For  the  success  of  the  method,  it  is 
essential  that  the  tar  should  be  removed  from  the  gases  as  completely 
as  possible  before  the  gases  pass  through  the  sulphuric  acid,  and  that 
the  temperature  of  the  gases  and  the  sulphuric  acid  should  be  high 
enough  to  prevent  condensation  of  the  aqueous  vapour  in  the  gases,  and 
thereby  the  dilution  of  the  sulphuric  acid.  The  best  mode  of  remov- 
ing the  tar  has  been  shown  to  consist  in  scrubbing  the  gases  with  tar  or 
ammoaiacal  liquor  containing  tar,  or  with  ammoniacal  liquor  alone, 
since  this  speedily  becomes  tarry  ;  and  the  best  mode  of  applying  the 
tar  or  tarry  liquor  is  by  spraying  apparatus,  preferably  an  injector,  as 
described  in  patent  No.  12,809  of  1908.  It  has  been  pointed  out  that 
the  temperature  of  gases  of  this  kind  from  which  tar  is  to  be  separated 
by  a  tar  spray  should  exceed  40°  C.  ;  and  it  has  been  stated  that  the 
higher  the  temperature  above  this  limit  the  better,  when  the  recovery 
of  ammonia  is  in  question — the  best  temperature  being  between  100° 
and  200°  C. 

Now,  according  to  the  present  invention,  for  the  successful  working 
of  the  scrubbing  agent,  the  latter  should  have  a  temperature  not  exceed- 
ing So''  C,  and  not  substantially  below  C.  It  follows  that  the  tem- 
perature should  be  maintained  as  near  81°  C.  as  may  be  without  ex- 
ceeding this  degree.  If  this  temperature  be  adopted,  the  gas  remains 
sufficiently  hot  for  direct  precipitation  of  all  the  ammonia  it  contains. 

There  are  various  modes,  it  is  pointed  out,  of  ensuring  that  the  tem- 
perature shall  not  exceed  the  limit  named.  Thus,  care  may  be  taken 
that  the  temperature  of  the  gases  at  the  time  they  are  scrubbed  with 
the  tar  is  such  that  the  temperature  of  the  latter  cannot  exceed  80°  C, 
although  in  this  case  there  is  some  danger  that  the  content  of  steam  in 
the  gases  may  lead  to  incomplete  precipitation  of  the  ammonia  as  sul- 
phate. Another  mode  is  to  supply  the  scrubbing  agent  in  such  propor- 
tion that  the  temperature  cannot  exceed  the  limit. 


Ofenbau  G.M.B.H.,  of  Munich. 
No.  27,278;    Nov,  23,   1909.    Date  claimed  under  International 
Convention,  Dec.  7,  1908. 

This  invention  relates  to  a  device  for  filling  gasholders  in  the  manu- 
facture of  illuminating  and  water  gas  ;  the  oljject  being  to  obtain  a  gas 
of  as  far  as  possible  uniform  constitution  by  its  being  introduced  at  or 
near  the  top  of  the  holder.  A  telescopically  displaceable  feed  pipe, 
open  at  the  top  and  connected  at  the  bottom  with  the  gas-supply  pipe, 
is  suspended  from  the  top  of  the  bell  of  the  holder,  so  that  the  gas 
introduced  must  flow  along  the  top  of  the  bell  in  any  position  of  the 

The  patentees  here  remark  in  their  specification  :  Now,  if  a  specifi- 
cally heavier  gas  be  periodically  or  temporarily  introduced  into  the 
gasholder,  it  will,  after  escaping  from  the  feed-pipe  opening  at  the  top 
of  the  holder,  be  thoroughly  mixed  with  the  gas  already  contained  in 
it  by  falling  downwards,  whereby  a  uniform  composition  of  the  stored 
gas  is  afforded.  This  thorough  mixing  of  the  gas  may  be  further  facili- 
tated by  the  gas  on  its  exit  from  the  feed-pipe  into  the  holder  being 
distributed  laterally  over  a  large  part  of  the  section  of  the  holder  by 
means  of  a  shield  surrounding  the  upper  mouth  of  the  feed-pipe.  They 

point  out  that  they  are  aware  that  it  has  previously  been  proposed  in 
small  gasholders  for  use  in  connection  with  compressed-gas  consuming 
plants  to  have  a  tube  connected  with  the  dome  of  the  bell  and  slidable 
over  the  central  gas-supply  pipe  ;  the  lower  end  of  the  tube  being 
formed  to  act  as  a  valve  to  regulate  the  admission  of  gas,  and  the  upper 
end  having  outlet  apertures  into  the  bell.  In  this  arrangement,  as  the 
tube  serves  to  carry  the  valve  for  controlling  the  admission  of  gas  it 
has  only  a  very  limited  movement,  and  the  arrangement  is  quiie  in- 
applicable for  the  purposes  of  the  present  invention  to  the  large  gas- 
holders at  gas-works. 

>  1 

SI  H 


.dixin^  Gases  in  Storage  Holders. 

To  the  dome  of  the  single-lift  gasholder  bell  B,  a  downwardly  ex- 
tending pipe  D  is  attached,  preferably  in  the  middle,  by  stay  bolis  or 
other  suitable  means.  The  top  of  the  pipe  is  a  little  below  the  dome, 
and  the  bottom  projects  below  the  mouth  of  the  gas  inlet  pipe  E,  over 
which  the  pipe  D  slides.  The  pipe  D  rises  and  falls  with  the  bell  of 
the  holder,  sliding  up  and  down  over  the  inlet  pipe;  so  that  the  in- 
flawing  gas  must  always  rise  to  the  top  of  the  bell.  If  the  gas  intro- 
duced by  the  feed-pipe  D  at  the  top  is  heavier  than  that  already  con- 
tained in  the  holder,  it  will,  of  course,  sink  downwards,  and  "  thereby 
become  intimately  mixed  with  the  gas  already  accumulated."  In  order 
that  the  gas  thus  introduced  may  not  be  able  to  flow  down  the  sides  of 
the  pipe  D,  a  shield-like  disc  F  is  provided  (at  the  upper  end  of  the 
pipe),  over  which  the  gas  flaws  ;  so  that  it  must  mix  intimately  with 
the  gas  in  the  holder.  For  a  telescopic  holder  with  two  or  more  lifts 
and  so-forlh,  the  gas-supply  pipe  is  made  suitably  telescopic,  as  shown. 


14,242. — KiRKBY,  R.,  "  Valves  for  gas-furnaces."    June  13. 
14,273. — Behringer,  E.  a.,  "  Gas-main  stoppers."    June  13. 
14,304. — SociETK  Fran(,'aise  de  Materiel  A<,ricole  et  Industriel 
.\  ViERZON,  "  Gas-generators."    June  14. 

14,405. — KoppER.s,  H.,  "Gas-furnaces."    June  14. 
14,426. — Ellin.  A.  H.,  and  Atkinson,  D.,  "  Hot  plate."    June  15. 


"  laseriing  valves  in  gas-mains  under 

"  Explosion-sngines."    June  15. 
Switches  for  controlling  gas-burners." 

14  458. — RuscoE,  A. 
pressure."    June  15. 

14,478  g. — Hartmann,  W., 
14,480  — Smallwood,  J., 
June  15. 

14,492. — JuLiu.s  PiNTSCH  Akt.-Ges.,  "  Ignition-devicc  for  inverted 
incandescent  gas-lamps."    June  15. 

14,599 — Knapp,  H.,  "  Acetylene  generator."    June  16. 

14,629. — Batty,  J.,  and  Coates,  F.,  "Gas-ring."    June  17. 

14,681. — RoBSON,  G.,  "Automatically  operating  gas-burners." 
June  17. 

14,686. — Enderson,  S.  J.,  "  Pumps  and  blowers."    June  17. 
14,701. — Bennis,  E.,  and  Bibby,  J.,  "Valves."    June  18. 
14,737. — SouTHEY,  A.  W.,  "  Generating  gas."    June  18. 
14,757. — Knapp,  H.,  "  Purifying  acetylene  gas."    June  18. 
14,768.— Stainer-Hutchins,  T.  \V.,  "  Gas-producer  generators." 
June  20. 

14,809. — Tucker,  T.,  "  Meter  money-boxes."    June  20. 
14,825.  — Rawlings,  J..  "Globe  holder."    June  20. 
14  828. —  Lamplough,  F.,  "  Exhauster  and  blower."    June  20. 
14,839. — Bradley,  G.,  "Pipes."    June  20. 
14,897. — Dor-Delattre,  E.,  "Retort  making."    June  21. 
14,902. — Joseph,  J.  E.,  "Pipe-joints."    June  21. 
14,950.— Julius  Pintsch  Akt.-Ges,  "Incandescent  gas-lamps." 
June  21. 

15,036, — Brougham,  F.  J.,  "  Manufacture  of  ammonium  sulphate." 
A  communication  from  Solvay  et  Cie.    June  22. 

15,081. — Helps,  G.,  "  Gas  lamps  and  burners."    June  23. 

15,196. — Ainley,  L.,  "Anti-vibrator."    June  25. 

15,255.— Brown,  A.  A.,  "  Mantle  boxes."    June  25. 

15,290.  — Cloudslev,  J.  L.,  "  Two-stroke  internal-combuslion  en- 
gines."   June  25. 

At  the  twentieth  annual  meeting  of  Head,  Wrightson,  and  Co., 
Limited,  Sir  Thomas  Wrightson,  who  presided,  said  the  result  of  the 
past  year's  working  was  somewhat  more  favouiaH  e  than  that  of  1908-9, 
when  they  had  to  dip  into  the  reserve  fund.  This  year,  after  paying 
interest  on  debentures  and  preference  shares,  the  amount  carried  for- 
ward was  ^2563,  or  over  /2000  more  than  they  carried  forward  last 
year.  Having  regard  to  the  short  period  that  their  South  African 
branch  had  been  established,  the  turnover  had  been  considerable  ;  and 
a  satisfactory  footing  had  been  obtained  in  this  important  market. 
Taking  the  balance-sheet  as  a  whole,  it  was  an  improvement  upoo 
1909,  though  the  Directors  considered  the  improvement  was  insuflicient 
to  allow  them  to  declare  a  dividend  on  the  ordinary  shares.  Whether 
the  fierce  competition  which  was  crushing  market  prices  below  actual 
costs  was  to  be  mitigated  during  the  current  year  remained  to  be  seen, 



[July  5.  1910. 


[We  are  not  responsible  for  opinions  expressed  by  Correspondents.] 

The  Coalite  Company  and  Their  Process. 

Sir, — I  have  observed  in  your  last  issue  a  letter  in  regard  to  the 
"  Coalite  Process,"  in  vhich  it  is  suggested  that  the  claim  to  the  Coalite 
paient  has  been  knocked  on  the  head  by  an  opposition  brought  by  the 
Coalite  Company  against  a  pending  application  in  the  I'atent  Office. 

As  it  may  possibly  be  a  matter  of  interest,  might  I  point  out  that 
this  could  hardly  be  correct ;  for  under  section  11  of  the  Patents  and 
Designs  Act,  1907,  the  opposition  would  be  made  on  the  ground  that 
the  invention  claimed  had  been  patented  in  this  country  on  an  appli- 
cation of  prior  date. 

I  have  looked  up  the  claims  on  the  application  that  is  apparently 
referred  to,  and  they  read  as  follows  : — 

1.  In  a  process  for  obtaining  a  smokeless  free  burning  fuel  by 
coking  at  a  low  temperature,  subjecting  the  charges  of  coal  con- 
tained in  externally  heated  retorts  to  the  action  of  watery  vapour 
or  steam  introduced  into  the  retorts  during  the  whole  of  the  coking 
process  for  the  purpose  described. 

2.  la  the  process  forming  the  subject-matter  of  the  foregoing 
claim,  the  addition  to  the  coal  to  be  tieated  of  tar  or  other  hydro- 
carbon, as  and  for  the  purposes  set  forth. 

3.  In  the  process  forming  the  subject-matter  of  the  foregoing 
claims,  the  addition  to  the  coal  of  salts  of  alkalis,  such  as  sodium 
or  potassium  nitrate,  chloride,  or  hydrate,  as  and  for  the  purposes 

Unless  the  Coalite  Company  actually  and  expressly  claimed  the  use 
of  steam  throughout  such  a  process,  and  the  use  of  tar,  or  salts  of 
alkalis  in  such  a  process,  or  point  to  patents  covering  this  identical 
subject-matter;  they  could  not  prevent  the  grant  of  a  patent  on  the 
application.  But  if  the  process  claimed  were  used  in  the  Coalite  pro- 
cess, by  anyone  other  than  the  Coalite  Company,  this  is  a  matter  of 
infringement  that  could  only  be  dealt  with  in  the  Law  Courts,  where 
alone  such  a  decision  could  be  given,  if  at  all. 

Further,  in  such  opposition  proceedings,  the  question  whether  the 

claim  on  the  application  involved  good  subject-matter  for  a  patent 

could  not  be  contested  ;  but  the  grant  would  be  allowed  whether  the 

claim  were  good  or  bad,  and  so  long  as  there  were  no  prior  patents  in 

which  the  subject-matter  had  been  actually  and  expressly  claimed. 

TT         r>-  r  George  Ham,  B.Sc.  (Lond.). 

Honiscy  Rise,  N.,  June  2°,  igio.  >     ^    \  1 

High=Pressure  Gas  Systems. 

Sir, — Will  any  brother  gas  manager  kindly  state  through  your 
columns  whether  he  has  found  that  lead  joints  are  satisfactory  for  high- 
pressure  mains  ?  Also,  considering  the  present  and  future  traffic  likely 
to  be  experienced  on  our  highways,  will  this  method  of  jointing  with- 
stand the  vibration  unless  laid  at  abnormal  depths? 

Hoping  some  managers  will  be  good  enough  to  give  their  experience. 

T  Provincial  Gas  Manager. 

June  27,  1910. 

Utilization  of  Waste  Gases. 

The  Lord  Chairman  of  Committees  (Lord  Onslow)  had  before  him 
last  Tuesday  the  Bill  of  the  Little  Hulton  Urban  District  Council, 
which  authorizes  the  transfer  of  so  much  of  the  gas  undertaking  of  the 
Silford  Corporation  as  is  within  the  Council's  area,  and  empowers  the 
Council  to  supply  gas  in  their  district.  It  may  be  remembered  that  it 
is  proposed  to  utilize  for  the  first  time  the  waste  gases  from  coke-ovens 
for  the  purpose  of  a  public  supply  of  gas.  Under  an  agreement  sche- 
duled to  the  Bill,  Lord  EUesmere  contracts  to  supply  the  Council 
annually  with  not  less  than  8  million  cubic  feet  of  gas  from  his  coke- 
ovens,  the  gas  from  which  is  at  present  running  to  waste.  The  agree- 
ment, which  is  for  35  years,  may  be  determined  after  this  period  by 
either  party  giving  five  years'  notice  ;  and  in  this  event,  the  Council 
are  to  have  the  option  of  purchasing  Lord  Ellesraere's  gas  plant.  [The 
proceedings  on  the  Bill  in  the  Lower  House  were  reported  in  the  last 
volume  of  the  "Journal,"  pp.  53,  126.]  His  Lordship  passed  the 
Bill  ;  and  it  was  ordered  to  be  reported.  This  stage  was  subsequently 

Sales  of  Stocks  and  Shares. 

At  the  Mart,  Tokenhouse  Yard,  E.C.,  last  Tuesday,  Messrs.  A.  &  W. 
Richards  offered  for  sale,  by  order  of  Directors,  a  new  issue  of  capital 
of  the  Chigwell,  Loughton,  and  Woodford  Gas  Company.  It  consisted 
of  £2000  of  consolidated  ordinary  stock  and  /looo  of  4  per  cent,  per- 
petual debenture  stock.  The  former  ranked  lor  a  standard  dividend  of 
5  percent,  per  annum,  subject  to  the  sliding-scale ;  but  the  dividend 
on  sim  lar  stock  for  the  four  years  ended  Dec.  31  last  has  been  at  the 
rateof  5^  per  ctot.  per  annum.  It  was  all  sold  at  ;^i25  to  /'i26per  £100  ; 
the  debinture  stock  feii.ti  ng  /102  to  /102J  per  £100.  On  the  same 
occasioa,  Messrs.  Richards  sold  a  few  £^  ••  B  "  shares  in  the  Pinner 
Gas  Company,  Limited,  ranking  for  a  standard  dividend  of  7  per  cent., 
subject  to  the  sliding-scale,  but  carrying  £8  8s.  per  cent.,  at  £g  to 
£g  5s.  each.  New  7  per  cent,  stock  (i88r)  of  the  Brentford  Gas 
Company,  carrying  9^  per  cent,  dividend,  fetched  ;^i88  to  /192  lo"^. 
per  £100.  The  final  lots  offered  consisted  of  3^  per  cent.  "  B  "  stock 
of  thi  Ilford  Gas  Company,  carrying  a  dividend  at  the  rate  of  per 
cent,  pit  annum  ;  and  it  was  sold  at  £116  to  £116  los.  per  £100.  At 
the  Royal  Hotel,  Norwich,  last  Tuesday,  Messrs.  Spelman  sold,  under 
instructions  from  executors,  ten  fully-paid  original  shares  of  £10  each 
in  the  Fikenham  Gis  Cjmpany,  Limited,  for  £7  15s.  apiece. 



The  following  further  progress  has  been  made  with  Bills  : —  | 
Bills  brought  from  the  Commons,  read  the  first  time,  and  referred! 
to  the  Examiners  :  Middlesbrough  Corporation  Bill,  Pontypridd 
and  Rhondda  Joint  Water  Board  Bill,  Shirebrook  and  District 
Gas  Bill. 

Bills  read  a  second  time  and  committed :  Bradford  Corporation 
Bill,  Bristol  Gas  Bill,  Middlesbrough  Corporation  Bill,  Ponty- 
pridd and  Rhondda  Water  Board  Bill,  Slough  Water  Bill. 
Bills  reported,  with  amendments  :  Brighton  and  Hove  Gas  Bill, 
Bristol  Gas  Bill,  East  Grinstead  Gas  and  Water  Bill,  Egremont 
Urban  District  Council  (Gas)  Bill,  Exmouth  Gas  Bill,  Gas 
Orders  Confirmation  Bill  (No.  2),  Exmouth   Urban  District 
Water  Bill,  Little  Hulton  Urban  District  Council  Bill,  Worksop 
Urban  District  Council  Bill. 
The  Bradford  Corporation  Bill,  Gas  Orders  Confirmation  Bills 
(Nos.  I  and  3),  Water  Orders  Confirmation  Bill,  Middlesbrough  Cor- 
poration Bill,  Mountain  Ash  Water  Bill,  Pontypridd  and  Rhondda 
Joint  Water  Board  Bill,  and  Rbondda  Urban  District  Council  Bill, 
nave  been  referred  to  a  Select  Committee,  consisting  of  Viscount 
Hutchinson  (Chairman),  Lord  Sempill,  Lord  Middleton,  Lord  Ellen- 
borough,  and  Lord  Wynford  ;  to  commence  sitting  to-day. 


The  following  further  progress  has  been  made  with  Bills : — 

Lords  Bills  read  a  second  time  and  committed  :  Great  Grimsby 

Gas  Bill,  Havant  Gas  Bill. 
Bills  reported  :   Cambridge  University  and  Town  Water  Bill 
[Lords] ,  Garnant  Gas  Bill  [Lords] ,  Kingswood  Water  Bill 
[preamble  not  proved] ,  South  Lincolnshire  Water  Bill  [Lords] , 
Water  Provisional  Order  (Sutton)  Confirmation  Bill. 
Bills  read  the  third  time  and  passed  :  Bishop's  Stortford,  Harlow, 
and  Epping  Gas  and  Electricity  Bill  [Lords] ,  Pontypridd  and 
Rhondda  Joint  Water  Board  Bill,  Rhondca  Urban  District 
Council  Bill,  Shirebrook  and  District  Gas  Bill,  Southend  Water 
Bill  [Lords],  Thome  and  District  Water  Bill  [Lords],  and  the 
Water  Provisional  Order  Bill. 
The  petitions  of  the  Wealdstone  Urban  District  Council  and  the 
Wolverhampton  Corporation  against  the  Gas  Companies  (Standard 
Burner)  Bills  have  been  withdrawn. 

Last  Wednesday,  Sir  J.  D.  Rees  asked  the  President  of  the  Local 
Government  Board  whether  the  Government  proposed  to  introduce 
legislation  this  session  restricting  the  borrowing  powers  of  local  bodies. 
Mr.  Burns  having  replied  in  the  negative,  Mr.  Bowles  asked  the  right 
honourable  gentleman  if  he  was  aware  that  the  aggregate  debt  of  the 
local  authorities  of  the  United  Kingdom  very  nearly  equalled  the  funded 
National  Debt.  Mr.  Burns  said  he  was  aware  of  the  fact ;  but  he 
added  that  there  were  assets  to  which  he  would  direct  the  attention  of 
the  honourable  member. 

On  Friday,  Mr.  Fell  asked  Mr.  Burns  if  he  had  received  any  com- 
plaints with  regard  to  the  quality  of  the  water  supplied  during  the  past 
year  by  the  Metropolitan  Water  Board  to  consumers  in  the  borough  of 
Wimbledon — that  such  water  contains  an  excessive  amount  of  chalk 
or  lime  ;  and  if  he  would  have  such  water  specially  tested  and  reported 
upon.  Mr.  Burns  replied  that  no  complaints  had  reached  him.  He 
was  aware,  however,  that  the  water  now  supplied  to  certain  parts  of 
Wimbledon  was  obtained  from  wells,  and  that  it  was  harder  than  the 
river  water  which  was  previously  distributed.  In  view  of  the  regular 
analyses  of  the  water  by  Dr,  Houston  for  the  Metropolitan  Water  Board, 
it  did  not  appear  necessary  that  any  farther  ones  should  be  made. 


Consents  Dispensed  with  by  the  Board  of  Trade. 

Three  reports  have  lately  been  presented  to  the  House  of  Commons 
by  the  Board  of  Trade,  pursuant  to  section  4  of  the  Gas  and  Water 
Works  Facilities  Act,  1870,  setting  forth  their  reasons  for  dispensing 
with  the  consents  of  local  authorities  in  the  cases  of  certain  applica- 
tions for  Provisional  Orders  in  the  present  session. 

Rowley  Regis  and  Blacltheath  Gas  Order. 

The  Board  of  Trade  report  that  they  have  made  the  Rowley  Regis 
and  Blackheath  Gas  Provisional  Order,  and  have  dispensed  with  the 
consent  of  the  Cakemore  Parish  Council,  who  are  the  Local  Authority 
within  the  extended  limits  of  supply  to  be  authorized  by  the  Order,  and 
also  with  the  consent  of  the  Halesowen  Rural  District  Council,  who  are 
a  road  authority  within  the  extended  limits. 

The  application  for  the  Order  was  made  by  the  Rowley  Regis  and 
Blackheath  Gas  Company,  who  sought  power  to  supply  gas  in  the 
township  of  Cakemore,  in  the  county  of  Worcester,  and  to  raise  addi- 
tional capital  not  exceeding  /i2,500  by  shares  or  stock,  with  bor- 
rowing powers  not  exceeding  one-third  of  the  authorized  capital  of 
the  Company.  The  promoters  having  failed  to  obtain  the  consent  of 
the  Local  Authority  anii  of  one  of  the  two  road  authorities  concerned, 
the  Board  decided  to  hold  a  local  inquiry  into  the  application  for  the 
Order  and  the  objections  which  had  been  lodged  thereto  ;  and  they 
appointed  Mr.  Raymond  Asquith  as  Commissioner  for  the  purpose. 
The  Parish  Council  were  not  represented  at  the  inquiry  ;  but  it  appeared 
that  their  consent  had  been  refused  on  the  ground  that  the  granting 
of  the  Order  would  invest  the  promoters  with  a  monopoly  of  the  gas 
supply  in  Cakemore.  It  was  stated  that  portions  of  the  parish  are 
supplied  with  gas,  but  not  under  statutory  powers,  by  the  Halesowen 

July  5,  igto.] 



I  Gas  Company  and  the  Oldbury  Urban  District  Council ;  but  neither  of 
these  bodies  objected  to  the  granting  of  the  Order. 

It  appeared  irom  a  petition  praying  that  the  Order  might  be  granted, 
and  signed  by  upwards  of  200  householders,  ratepayers,  and  gas  con- 
sumers of  Cakemore,  that  the  promoters  had  supplied  gas  in  the  parish 
for  over  thirty  years,  and  that  the  Parish  Council  had  entered  into  a 
contract  with  them  for  the  supply  of  gas  to  public  lamps. 

The  Halesowen  Rural  District  Council  urged  two  objections  to  the 
Order :  (i)  That  ttie  Council  hoped  shortly  to  become  an  Urban 
District  Council,  and  might  then  desire  themselves  to  supply  gas  in 
Cakemore.  (2)  That,  as  the  Rowley  Regis  Urban  District  Council 
have  power,  under  the  Rowley  Regis  and  Blackheath  Gas  Act,  1SS6,  to 
purchase  the  undertaking  of  the  promoters,  the  Council  might  acquire 
power  to  supply  gas  in  Cakemore,  and  that  this  fact  might  be  used  to 
further  a  proposal  to  detach  the  parish  from  the  Halesowen  rural 
district  and  attach  it  to  the  Rowley  Regis  urban  district. 

With  regard  to  these  objections,  it  appeared  that  already  two  appli- 
cations for  urban  powers  made  by  the  Halesowen  Rural  District 
Council  have  been  refused  by  the  Worcester  County  Council ;  that 
six  out  of  the  nine  parishes  in  the  district  objected  to  the  application  ; 
and  that  the  township  of  Cakemore  has  applied  to  be  included  in  the 
adjoining  urban  district  of  Oldbury. 

The  Commissioner  reported  that,  in  his  opinion,  having  regard  to 
the  whole  of  the  evidence,  and  especially  to  the  fact  that  no  inhabitant 
of  Cakemore  has  a  right  at  present  to  require  a  supply  of  gas  from  any 
existing  company  or  authority,  the  Order  should  be  granted.  The 
Board  of  Trade  accordingly  decided  to  dispense  with  the  consents  of 
the  two  authorities  concerned,  and  to  grant  the  Order. 

Sutton  District  Water  Order. 

The  Board  of  Trade  have  to  report  that  they  have  made  the  Sutton 
District  Water  Provisional  Order,  and  have  dispensed  with  the  con- 
sents of  the  Kingswood  Parish  Council,  the  Reigate  Rural  District 
Council,  and  tDe  Surrey  County  Council. 
The  application  for  the  Order  was  made  by  the  Sutton  District 
j*  Water  Company  for  power  to  supply  water  in  the  parish  of  Kingswood 
I   in  the  county  of  Surrey,  to  maintain  and  continue  existing  water- 
works, and  to  construct  new  works.    The  promoters  having  failed  to 
obtain  the  consent  of  the  local  and  road  authorities  concerned,  and  objec- 
1    tions  having  been  lodged  by  the  Kingswood  Water  Company,  Limited, 
an  inquiry  into  the  application  for  the  Order  and  the  objections  which 
had  been  lodged  thereto  was  held  on  behalf  of  the  Board  of  Trade. 
'   The  Ivingswood  Water  Company  were  represented,  and  opposed  the 
!   application  on  the  ground  that  they  are  themselves  promoting  a  Bill  in 
i    Parliament  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  statutory  power  to  construct 
,    water-works  and  supply  water  in  the  parish  of  Kingswood.    An  appli- 
cation by  the  Company  for  a  Provisional  Order  to  authorize  them  to 
construct  works  and  supply  water  in  the  parish  of  Kingswood  was 
refused  by  the  Board  of  Trade  in  the  session  of  igcg. 
!       It  appeared  that  the  promoters  are  supplying  water  in  the  northern 
I    part  of  the  parish,  and  that  the  Kingswood  Water  Company  are 
I    serving  the  southern  portion.   Neither  the  promoters  nor  the  Company, 
however,  have  statutory  powers  to  supply  in  the  parish.    The  Kings- 
!    wood  Parish  Council  were  not  represented  at  the  inquiry,  and  appear 
to  have  adopted  a  neutral  attitude  as  regards  the  two  schemes.  The 
I    Reigate  Rural  District  Council  were  represented  by  one  of  their  mem- 
(    bers,  who  gave  evidence  that  the  Council  were  opposed  to  the  granting 
'    of  the  Order.    The  Surrey  County  Council  did  not  express  any  opinion 
as  to  the  merits  of  the  schemes,  but  desired  the  insertion  in  the  Order 
of  a  clause  for  their  protection,  to  which  the  promoters  did  not  agree. 
It  appeared  from  the  evidence  that  the  promoters  of  the  Order  were 
,    in  a  position  to  give  an  adequate  supply  of  water  to  the  whole  of  the 
parish  of  Kingswood. 
In  view  of  all  the  circumstances  of  the  case,  the  Board  of  Trade 
I    decided  to  grant  the  Order,  and  to  dispense  with  the  consent  of  the 
authorities  concerned. 

Swansea  Gas  Order. 

The  Board  of  Trade  have  to  report  that  they  have  made  the  Swansea 
Gas  Provisional  Order,  and  have  dispensed  with  the  consent  of  the 
j  Llansamlet  Parish  Council,  the  Clase  Rural  Parish  Council,  the  Pen- 
derry  Parish  Council,  and  the  Cockett  Rural  Parish  Council,  who  are 
^  Local  Authorities  in  the  extended  limits  of  supply  authorized  by  the 
Order,  and  of  the  Swansea  Rural  District  Council  and  the  Glamorgan 
County  Council,  who  are  road  authorities  in  the  extended  limits. 

The  application  for  the  Order  was  made  by  the  Swansea  Gas  Com- 
pany, who  sought  power  to  extend  their  limits  for  the  supply  of  gas. 
The  promoters  having  failed  to  obtain  the  consent  of  the  local  and 
'    ""f^-r  concerned,  an  inquiry  was  held  on  behalf  of  the  Board 

ot  Trade  into  the  application  for  the  Order  and  the  objections  which 
had  been  lodged  thereto. 

It  was  stated  that  the  Local  Authorities  had  refused  their  consent  to 
A%  ^PP'ication  except  on  the  condition  that  the  price  of  gas  in  the 
added  area  of  supply  should  be  the  same  as  that  charged  in  the  existing 
area.  It  appeared,  however,  that  a  considerable  part  of  the  added 
area  is  sparsely  populated,  and,  being  a  much  undermined  colliery  dis- 
trict. It  was  anticipated  that  there  would  be  considerable  leakage  from 
tne  mains.  In  their  existing  area  outside  the  limits  of  the  borough, 
tne  promoters  are  already  entitled  to  charge,  and  in  some  parts  thereof 
00  in  tact  charge,  a  higher  price  than  within  the  borough.  In  these 
circumstances,  the  Board  of  Trade  decided  to  allow  a  maximum  price 
in  the  added  area  higher  by  4d.  per  1000  cubic  feet  than  the  price 
ctiarged  for  gas  within  the  borough  of  Swansea. 

The  Swansea  Rural  District  Council  also  asked  for  the  insertion  of 
fh'^R"^^/^']"-!.""^  promoters  to  lay  certain  specified  mains;  but 
tne  Board  of  Trade  did  not  consider  it  desirable  to  insert  it.  The  Gla- 
morgan County  Council,  who  were  not  represented  at  the  inquiry 
were  understood  to  desire  the  insertion  of  a  clause  for  their  protection  ; 
Dut  tollowing  the  usual  practice  of  the  Department,  the  Board  decided 
not  to  insert  the  clause  in  the  absence  of  agreement  between  the  parties 
w^^b  ,-V°°  already  afforded  to  road  authorities  under  the  Gas- 

vvorus  Glauses  Acts,  which  are  incorporated  with  the  Order. 

waving  regard  to  all  the  circumstances  of  the  case,  the  Board  of 
sent  nfT^  Of  opinion  that  the  Order  should  be  granted,  and  the  con- 
sent ot  the  authorities  concerned  dispensed  with. 


House  of  Lords  Committee.— Monday,  June  27. 

(Before  the  Duke  of  Bedford,  Chairman,  the  Marquis  of  Bristol, 
Lord  Basing,  Lord  Digby,  and  the  Earl  of  Westmoreland.) 

This  Bill,  which  provides  for  the  consolidation  of  the  (Glasgow  Gas 
Acts  from  1869  to  1909  ;  for  the  reduction  of  the  illuminating  power  of 
the  gas  supplied  by  the  Corporation  to  14  candles;  and  for  other 
purposes,  came  up  for  consideration  to-day. 

Mr.  Balfour  Browne,  K.C,  Mr.  Honoratus  Llovd,  K.C,  and 
Mr.  H.  Beveridge  appeared  for  the  promoters.  The  petitioners 
against  the  Bill  were:  Baillieston  Gaslight  Company,  represented 
by  Mr.  Blenneriiassett,  K.C.  ;  Thomas  Clement  and  Andrew 
Clement,  by  Mr.  Craig  Henderson  ;  Mr.  Wm.  C.  S.  Stuart,  by  Mr. 
Craig  Henderson  ;  Mr.  Alexander  Crum  MacUe  and  the  Trustees 
of  the  deceased  John  Miller,  by  Mr.  Craig  Henderson  ;  the  Lanark 
County  Council,  by  Lord  Robert  Cecil,  K.C,  Mr.  J.  Wilson.  K.C, 
and  Mr.  J.  E.  King  ;  the  Town  Councils  of  Go  van.  Panick,  Rutherglen, 
and  Pollokshaw.s.  by  the  Hon.  J.  D.  Fitzgerald,  K.C,  Mr.  Freeman, 
K C,  and  Mr.  W.  B.  Clode  ;  the  Caledonian,  Glasgow  and  S  juth 
Western,  and  North  British  Railway  Companies,  by  Mr.  Forises 
Lankester,  K.C,  and  Mr.  Craig  Henderson;  ihe  Glasgow  House 
Owners  Association  and  others,  by  Mr.  Vesey  Knox,  K.C,  and  Mr. 
W.  SzLUMPER  ;  manufacturers,  engineers,  and  others  within  the  gas 
supply  area  of  the  Glasgow  Corporation,  by  Mr.  Lewis  Coward,  K.C, 
and  the  Hon.  E.  Charteris.  There  were  petitions  with  regard  to 
which  Counsel  was  reserved  from  the  County  Council  of  Renfrew,  and 
the  Dumbarton,  Milngavie,  and  Clydebank  Town  Councils. 

Mr.  Balfour  Browne,  in  opening  the  case  for  the  Bill,  said  that 
the  Acts  ttiey  were  seeking  to  consolidate  were  some  ig  or  20  in  number  ; 
and  certain  amendments  were  to  be  made,  most  of  which  were  un- 
opposed. Going  back  to  the  year  iS6g,  the  Corporation  had  long  felt 
that  the  supply  of  gas  should  be  in  their  hands;  and  in  that  year, 
the  two  gas  undertakings  in  the  Glasgow  district  were  transferred  to 
them.  Since  then,  the  supply  had  been  in  the  hands  of  the  Corpora- 
tion. As  a  condition  of  the  purchase,  Glasgow  was  bound  to  supply 
the  whole  area  with  gas,  and  to  every  person  within  50  feet  of  the 
mains  who  wished  to  have  a  supply.  They  were  under  tnis  obligation 
to-day.  Under  the  Purchase  Act,  they  had  to  pay  annuities  of  ^27,000 
to  one  Company,  and  £'j'](>2  to  the  other ;  and  the  Corporation  also 
took  over  the  mortgage  debt  of  the  two  Companies,  which  amounted  to 
^192,000.  The  Corporation  had  to  be  liable  for  the  whole  risks  of  the 
undertaking  ;  and  they  became  liable  to  a  guarantee  rate  of  6d.  in  the 
pound  if  the  revenues  from  the  gas  undertaking  were  insufficient.  This 
guarantee  rate  fell  upon  the  City  of  Glasgow,  and  net  upon  the  area  of 
supply.  New  works  were  erected,  and  still  the  demand  went  on  in- 
creasing. At  the  present  time,  the  capital  expenditure  of  the  works 
was  ^3,841,282,  exclusive,  of  course,  of  the  annuities  of  ^34,762.  By 
their  Act  of  1869,  the  price  to  be  charged  was  4s.  7d.  per  1000  cubic 
feet ;  and  the  quality  of  the  gas  was  25  candles.  In  1882,  the  candle 
power  was  reduced  to  20  candles,  and  later  to  16  candles,  at  which  it 
stood  to-day.  In  1869,  the  amount  of  gas  manufactured  was  1206 
million  cubic  feet ;  it  was  now  6S20  millions.  The  price  of  gas  had 
been  gradually  reduced  until  it  was  now  2s.  per  1000  cubic  feet.  They 
had  the  right  to  apply  the  surplus  of  their  gas  profits  to  the  general 
purposes  of  the  Corporation,  which  was  not  at  all  an  uncommon  thing. 
Birmingham  were  making  out  of  their  gas  undertaking  /71.000  a  year, 
which  was  applied  to  the  reduction  of  the  charges  on  the  ratepayers. 
But  Glasgow  had  carried  very  little  indeed  to  the  relief  of  the  rates. 
During  the  whole  period  the  Corporation  had  had  the  works,  only 
/2i,ooo  had  been  transferred  to  the  general  fund.  In  1871,  the  Partick, 
Hillhead,  and  Maryhill  Gas  Company  were  started,  and  supplied  one 
part  of  tbe  area  given  to  Glasgow  in  18G9.  The  Corporation  resented 
the  unfair  competition  of  the  Company,  which  was  not  a  statutory  con- 
cern ;  and  when  they  came  to  Parliament  for  powers  in  1873,  their  Bill 
was  rejected  on  opposition  by  Glasgow.  In  iSgo,  the  Company  again 
sought  parliamentary  powers — meanwhile  having  purchased  another 
Company  for  a  sum  of  /  This  Bill  was  also  rejected  on  the 
opposition  of  the  Corporation  of  Glasgow.  In  iSgi,  Glasgow  promoted 
a  Bill  to  include  within  its  municipal  area  Maryhill  and  some  other 
districts.  In  the  same  year  the  Maryhill  Company  again  promoted  a 
Bill  for  statutory  powers  ;  but  Glasgow  agreed  to  purchase  their  under- 
taking for  /202,5oo.  The  Corporation  also  purchased  the  Milngavie 
Company  and  otner  gas  companies.  To-day,  their  district  covered  o3 
tquare  miles.  From  east  to  west  it  extended  15!  miles,  and  from  norih 
to  south  11.^  miles.  There  were  new  provisions  in  the  present  Bill,  to 
give  certain  discounts,  to  reduce  the  quality  of  the  gas  to  14  candles, 
the  fittings  were  not  to  be  subjected  to  distress,  and  to  give  the  use  of 
anti  fluctuators.  With  regard  to  these  matters,  however,  he  did  not 
think  there  was  any  opposition.  They  were  proposing  to  define  their 
limits  of  supply,  and  divide  the  limits  into  two  districts — tbe  City 
supply  and  the  supplementary  supply.  It  was  proposed  at  first  that 
Milngavie  should  not  be  in  the  City  supply  ;  but  in  the  Lower  House  it 
was  decided  that  it  should  be,  and  no  point  now  arose  upon  this.  With 
regard  to  clause  2,  which  incorporated  the  General  Acts,  the  opposition 
was  mainly,  if  not  entirely,  confined  to  the  county  of  Linark,  who  said 
the  General  Law  was  not  sufficient,  and  asked  for  special  clauses  to  be 
put  upon  the  Corporation.  But  he  would  point  out  that  there  was  no 
case  in  which  the  general  law  had  been  varied,  except  by  agreement. 
Clause  6  defined  the  City  supply  district,  and  the  only  part,  so  far  as  he 
knew,  where  it  was  not  absolutely  limited  was  in  the  parish  of  Gadder. 
There  was  a  Company  who  had  not  got  mains  in  either  Mearns  or 
Carmunnock  who  opposed  them  in  the  other  House  with  a  view  to 
compelling  the  Corporation  to  buy  their  whole  undertaking.  The  Cor- 
poration refused  to  purchase  ;  but  desired  then  and  now  to  continue  the 
supply  they  were  giving  in  the  two  parishes.  The  House  of  Commons 
Committee,  however,  decided  that  the  Corporation  should  not  go  on 
supplying  there  unless  they  purchased  the  Busby  Gas  Company  ;  and 
therefore  these  parishes  were  left  out.  However,  there  were  people 
petitioning  against  the  Bill  and  saying  that  they  wanted  a  supply  of 
gas  from  Glasgow.  But  he  must  fully  atcjuiesce  in  the  decision  of  the 
House  of  Commons;  and  it  was  for  the  present  Committee  to  say 



[July  5,  1910. 

whether  Glasgow  was  to  go  on  supplying  these  districts  or  not.  Be- 
fore the  Bill  went  into  the  other  House,  the  Corporation  entered  into 
negotiations  with  the  Baillieston  Gas  Company,  in  the  parish  of  Old 
Monkland,  and  agreed  that,  if  they  were  put  in  the  supplementary  sup- 
ply area,  where  the  Corporation  could  charge  a  higher  price  than  in  the 
City  area,  they  would  purchase  their  works  for  ;^io,ooo.  It  was  de- 
cided, however,  by  the  Committee  that  they  were  to  be  in  the  City  sup- 
ply area ;  and  the  bargain  was  therefore  cfT.  He  was  quite  content 
either  that  it  should  be  where  it  was  before,  in  the  supplementary  area, 
or  to  have  it  struck  out  altogether.  It  did  not  matter  to  the  Corpora- 
lion  which  took  place.  Clause  2G  had  reference  to  the  price  of  gas.  In 
the  Hou^e  of  Commons,  as  they  brought  up  the  Bill  before  the  Com- 
mittee, the  price  to  be  charged  by  the  Corporation  was  not  to  exceed 
the  maximum  of  4s.  yd.  They  might  charge  a  differential  rate  as 
between  gas  supplied  and  used  for  private  lighting  purposes  and  that 
employed  for  other  purposes  ;  and  in  the  case  of  gas  supplied  for  such 
other  purposes,  the  rate  to  be  charged  was  not  to  exceed  that  charged 
for  private  lighting,  but  might  be  such  as  should  be  agreed  upon.  In 
the  supplementary  supply  district,  the  Corporation  might  charge  rates 
higher  than  those  charged  within  the  City  area.  These  rates  might 
vary  in  different  parts  of  the  supplementary  supply  area,  but  should 
not  at  any  time  exceed  the  maximum.  As  the  clause  was  introduced 
into  the  Lower  House,  it  gave  the  Corporation  power  to  vary  the  price 
to  consumers  under  different  circumstances — ihey  were  only  to  charge 
the  same  under  like  circumstances.  But  the  House  of  Commons  Com- 
mittee, after  hearing  a  number  of  witnesses,  came  to  the  conclusion  that 
a  ffat-rate  should  be  charged,  and  the  price  was  not  to  exceed  the 
maximum  of  4s.  yd.  They  must  treat  every  consumer  for  trade  pur- 
poses exactly  the  same,  even  although  the  circumstances  might  be 
entirely  different.  The  Committee  seemed  to  think  that  if  the  Corpora- 
tion were  to  trade,  they  were  not  to  trade  for  any  profit,  and  that  they 
were  not  to  differentiate  between  one  customer  and  another.  He  must 
acquiesce  in  the  clause  ;  but  he  found  that  several  of  the  opponents  of 
the  Bill  were  now  there  to  insist  that  this  was  not  a  fair  clause,  and  he 
would  take  no  part  whatever  in  the  discussion.  He  brought  up  the 
clause  as  it  left  the  Lower  House.  He  thought  the  Bill  as  it  now  stood 
was  a  better  one  for  the  Corporation  than  the  existing  legislation  ;  and 
if  the  Committee  passed  it  as  it  left  the  House  of  Commons,  he  would 
be  content.  At  the  present  time,  in  consequence  of  section  9  of  the 
Glasgow  Corporation  Act,  1SS2,  which  it  was  proposed  to  repeal  (read 
in  connection  with  the  Glasgow  Corporation  Act  of  1859),  there  was  a 
flit-rate  to  all  consumers  of  gas  supplied  by  the  Corporation  ;  there  was 
the  same  rate  for  public  lamps  ;  and  there  was  no  differentiation  of  gas 
for  industrial  purposes.  As  the  Bill  stood,  there  was  a  flat-rate  within 
the  City  district  for  gas  supplied  by  the  Corporation  ;  a  flat-rate  for 
public  lamps,  which  need  not  be  the  same  as  the  flat-rate  for  the  gas 
supplied  by  meter  ;  a  lower  rate  for  gas  supplied  for  trade  purposes, 
and  a  different  rate  according  to  the  purpose  for  which  the  supply  was 
required  ;  and  higher  rates  in  the  supplementary  supply  district  than 
those  charged  in  the  City  supply  district.  This  was  as  the  Bill  left  the 
House  of  Commons  ;  and  he  was  perfectly  willing  to  acquiesce  in  it. 
He  thought  the  Corporation  would  be  in  a  belter  position  if  the  manu- 
facturers and  others  succeeded  in  modifying  the  clause  so  as  to  enable 
the  Corporation  to  reduce  the  price  of  their  gas  to  large  consumers. 
The  only  other  clause  in  the  Bill  to  which  any  objection  was  taken  was 
clause  50.  It  was  urged  that  the  lamps  along  the  canal  towing-path 
should  be  put  on  the  same  basis  as  public  lamps.  This  the  Corpora- 
tion absolutely  refused  to  do,  because  they  were  private  lamps  belong- 
ing to  the  Railway  Company.  The  clause  provided  that  the  Corpora- 
tion were  to  apply  all  moneys  from  time  to  time  received  by  ihem 
under  the  powers  of  this  Act. 

(i)  In  payment  of  the  expenses  of,  and  incidental  to,  the  raising,  levying, 
and  recovering  the  rents,  ciiarges,  and  revenues,  and  the  borrowing  of 
moneys  for  the  purposes  of  this  Act;  (2),  in  payment  of  the  expenses  of 
managing  and  maintaining  the  gas  undertaking;  (3),  in  payment  of  the 
annuities  and  interest  on  money  borrowed  for  the  purposes  of  this  Act  ; 

(4)  ,  in  carrying  the  several  powers  and  provisions  of  this  Act  into  execution, 
including  any  improvement  and  extension  of  the  gas-works  and  mains  ; 

(5)  ,  in  providing  the  sum  necessary  to  meet  depreciation  at  not  exceeding 
the  following  rates — on  gas-works,  at  li  per  cent,  per  annum  ;  on  pipes,  at 
2  per  cent,  per  annum  ;  on  meters,  at  6  per  cent,  per  annum  ;  on  stoves,  at 
10  per  cent,  per  annum  ;  and  on  premium,  at  2*  per  cent.,  which  rates 
were  to  be  calculated  on  the  book  values  of  the  respective  assets  on  May  31, 
igo6,  together  with  the  net  additions  to  such  assets  subsequent  to  that  date, 
and  any  balance  remaining  should  be  carried  forward  to  the  revenue  account 
of  the  gas  undertaking  for  the  next  succeeding  year,  and  should,  whenever 
there  should  be  an  amount  sufficient  for  the  purpose,  be  applied  to  the 
reduction  of  the  gas  charges  equally  throughout  the  limits  of  supply. 

The  effects  of  this  section  was  to  prevent  them  making  any  profit  what- 
ever out  of  their  gas  undertaking.  They  were  the  owners  of  it,  and 
bad  taken  all  the  risks  in  regard  to  it ;  but  the  Committee  of  Parlia- 
ment had  said,  notwithstanding  this,  that  they  were  to  conduct  it,  in 
the  words  of  the  Socialist,  "  not  for  profit,  but  merely  for  use."  He 
must  take  the  Bill  if  their  Lordships  passed  it ;  but  there  were  a  large 
number  of  opponents  there  who  said  that  this  was  entirely  wrong. 
If  the  Corporation  were  to  make  a  dead  loss  on  their  undertaking,  as 
was  quite  possible,  who  was  to  pay  ?  Not  the  people  in  the  outlying 
districts,  but  the  citizens  of  Glasgow.  They  stood  the  whole  racket. 
There  was  a  guarantee  rate  of  6d.  in  the  pound  which  fell  on  them  ; 
and  the  whole  idea  when  the  concern  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Cor- 
poration was  that,  if  they  made  a  profit,  it  might  be  done  by  carrying 
a  certain  amount  of  the  profit  to  the  relief  of  the  rates,  or  it  might  be 
done  by  a  differential  rate.  If  they  had  the  power  to  charge  the  people 
outside  Glasgow  a  differential  rate,  then  there  might  be  no  reason  for 
carrying  any  surplus  profits  to  the  relief  of  the  rates.  But  they  had 
not ;  they  were  within  the  City  supply  district.  In  forty  years  the 
Corporation  of  Glasgow  had  only  carried  ;f2i,ooo  to  the  relief  of  the 
rates;  but  the  Committee  of  the  House  of  Commons  had  said  that  all 
the  money  was  to  be  applied  in  the  reduction  of  the  price  of  gas.  He 
must  take  the  Bill,  considering  that  it  would  be  an  advantage  to  the 
inhabitants  of  Glasgow  ;  bat  there  was  a  large  number  of  people  who 
said  they  were  ratepayers  in  Glasgow,  and  if  they  could  not  get  the 
profit  in  Glasgow  then  the  Corporation  might  come  down  on  them. 
There  was  a  number  of  petitions  against  alterations,  and  others  wanted 
the  Bill  as  it  left  the  House  of  CorooJOD?.    The  Gla'gow  House 

Owners  Association  did  not  object  to  the  Bill  when  it  was  before  the 
House  of  Commons.  He  thought  the  measure  was  open  to  serious 
criticism  at  the  hands  of  the  people  of  Mearns  and  Carmunnock,  and 
people  in  the  Company's  area  with  regard  to  finance  ;  but  he  must 
leave  it  to  the  Committee  to  say  whether  they  were  right  or  wrong. 
Evidence  was  first  given  by, 

Mr.  M.  IV.  Montgomery,  Chairman  of  the  Glasgow  Gas  Committee. 
He  said  the  consumers  numbered  260,000,  the  quantity  of  gas  made 
annually  6000  million  cubic  feet,  and  the  price  charged  2s.  per  1000 
cubic  feet  for  lighting  and  domestic  purposes.  There  had  been  a  less 
charge  for  gas  for  motive  power.  In  the  supplementary  supply  area, 
the  price  was  is.  per  1000  cubic  feet  extra.  The  area  of  supply  was 
98  square  miles,  and  included  several  counties.  The  length  of  mains 
was  over  1000  miles. 

Tuesday,  June  28. 

When  the  hearing  was  resumed  this  morning,  a  question  of  pro- 
cedure arose. 

Mr.  J.  D.  Fitzgerald,  who  represented  various  boroughs  who  were 
petitioning  against  alterations,  said  these  were  boroughs  on  whose  peti- 
tions the  Bill  was  altered  in  the  other  House.  He  objected  to  the  locus 
of  Mr.  Vesey  Knox,  who  appeared  for  the  Glasgow  House  Owners  Asso- 
ciation and  others. 

Mr.  Vesey  Knox  said  that  if  Counsel  for  the  Bill  objected  to  his 
locus,  he  was  willing  to  deal  with  it. 

Mr.  Fitzgerald  contended  that  the  Glasgow  ratepayers,  as  repre- 
sented by  Mr.  Vesey  Knox,  were  not  entitled  to  be  heard  at  all.  If 
they  had  presented  a  petition  against  the  original  Bill,  they  would  not 
have  been  entitled  to  be  heard,  because  they  would  have  been  petition- 
ing against  their  own  Corporation.  They  now  came  before  the  Com- 
mittee in  the  guise  of  opponents,  to  ask  that  the  Bill,  as  originally 
brought  into  the  other  House,  should  be  passed. 

Lord  Ror.ERT  Cecil  supported  Mr.  Fitzgerald  in  his  contention.  : 

The  Chairman  at  this  point  called  upon  the  promoters'  Counsel  to 
resume  examination  of 

Mr.  Montgomery,  who  said  that,  in  relation  to  clause  26,  dealing  with 
the  price  of  gas,  the  price  was  governed  by  certain  sections  in  their 
existing  Acts,  among  which  was  section  9  of  their  Gas  Act  of  1882. 
The  result  of  the  operation  of  this  section  was  that  there  was  to-day, 
firstly,  a  flat-rate  to  all  consumers  of  gas  supplied  by  meter  ;  secondly,  j 
a  lower  flat-rate  for  gas  supplied  for  trade  purposes ;  a  flat-rate,  again, 
for  public  lamps  ;  and  there  was  at  present  a  differentiation  between 
gas  for  industrial  purposes.    The  Corporation  were  allowed  to  supply 
non-illumination  gas  for  other  purposes.    It  was  essential  for  trade 
uses  to  sell  gas  at  a  price  lower  than  that  at  which  it  was  supplied 
for  lighting.    As  brought  into  the  House  of  Commons,  the  Bill  con- 
tained proposals  which  were  set  out  in  the  petition  now  presented  by 
Mr.  Vesey  Knox ;  and  the  Glasgow  Corporation  were  desirous  of  [ 
obtaining,  if  they  could,  legislation  upon  these  lines.     But  in  the  [ 
course  of  the  hearing  in  the  other  House,  the  clause  was  altered  to  the  i 
form  in  which  it  now  stood  in  the  Bill.    Under  the  clause  there  was 
a  flat-rate  for  public  lamps,  and  higher  rates  in  the  supplementary  I 
supply  district  to  those  charged  in  the  City  area.    Nowadays,  gas  for 
industrial  purposes  had  to  compete  with  electric  current ;  and  it  was 
becoming  the  common  practice  to  enable  gas  companies  to  supply  at  a 
lower  rate  for  certain  purposes.    In  his  view,  it  was  fair  and  just  that 
the  Corporation  should  be  entitled  to  charge  an  additional  sum  in 
respect  of  the  outside  area.    The  charges  for  distribution  would  be 
greater.    In  the  supplementary  district  they  were  not  liable  to  any  rate 
or  charge  in  case  of  deficiency  ;  and  they  took  no  risk.    The  Railway  I 
Companies  were  asking  that  they  should  have  the  same  charges  in  |  ' 
respect  of  the  lighting  of  lamps  along  the  canal  as  were  given  to  local 
authorities  ;  but  these  were  the  private  property  of  the  Companies,  and 
he  could  not  agree  to  their  suggestion.    The  canal  was  within  the  City 

Mr.  Lankester,  who  appeared  for  the  Railway  Companies,  said  he 
would  not  press  the  point. 

Mr.  Blennerhassett,  on  behalf  of  the  Baillieston  Gas  Company, 
at  this  point  asked  the  Committee  to  deal  with  clause  6  of  the  Bill, 
regarding  the  limits  of  supply. 

This  course  being  accepted  by  the  Committee, 

Mr.  Montgomery  also  gave  evidence  upon  this  point.    He  said  the 
Corporation  had  powers  to  supply  in  the  Baillieston  Gas  Company's 
district ;  but  they  had  not  exercised  these  powers.    Since  1862,  the  I 
Baillieston  Company  had  given  a  supply,  and  the  Corporation  had  not  j 
intervened.    But  when  this  Bill  was  promoted,  the  Baillieston  Com- 
pany approached  the  Corporation  ;  and  an  agreement  was  entered  into  i 
that  if  the  Baillieston  Company's  district  was  put  in  the  supplementary  j 
area,  the  Corporation  would  purchase  the  undertaking  for  ;tio.oco. 
The  Committee  of  the  Lower  House,  however,  held  that  the  district 
should  be  in  the  City  supply  area  ;  and  the  agreement  thus  came  to  an  I 
end.    As  matters  now  stood,  the  Corporation  were  willing  to  exclude 
the  district  and  not  give  a  supply  of  gas.    The  Coatbridge  Company 
also  had  powers  to  supply  this  particular  district,  but  had  never  exer- 
cised them.    It  would  be  detrimental  to  the  interests  of  the  district  if 
competition  were  allowed,  and  prevented  the  Baillieston  Company  from 
putting  their  undertaking  in  a  satisfactory  position. 

Mr.  Craig  Henderson  then  examined  witness  on  behalf  of  the  pro- 
prietors of  various  estates  in  Mearns  and  Carmunnock.  He  said  there 
was  a  small  estate  in  the  parish  of  Mearns  within  2  miles  of  the  Busby 
Gas-Works  ;  but  it  would  be  unprofitable  for  that  Company  to  give  a 
supply.  The  Corporation  gave  a  supply  to  the  estats  ;  the  charge 
being  is.  per  1000  cubic  feet  above  that  in  the  Glasgow  city  area.  In 
Carmunnock,  there  were  two  estates  which  were  supplied  by  the  Corpora- 
tion under  their  powers  of  "  places  adjacent  thereto."  The  Baillieston 
Company  were  prepared  to  supply  on  condition  that  they  obtained, 
something  like  what  they  asked  for  in  the  House  of  Commons. 

In  reply  to  Mr.  Beveridge,  for  the  promoters,  witness  said  the  posi- 
tion of  the  Baillieston  Company  was  in  no  way  altered  by  the  Bill,  and 
there  was  no  reason  why  they  should  be  put  in  a  different  position  to 
that  which  they  had  held  for  some  fifty  years.  The  Glasgow  Corpora- 
tion were  quite  prepared  to  supply  certain  parts  of  the  parishes  ofi  ' 
Mearns  and  Carmunnock  if  required,  to  the  extent  of  130  acres  in  (ha 
former  parish  and  500  acres  in  the  latter*  i 

July  5,  igio.] 




I  Mr.  Alex.  IVilson,  Gas  Engineer  and  Manager  to  (he  Glasgow  Corpo- 
^  ration,  said  their  area  of  supply  was  not  increased  by  this  clause  ;  and 
,  he  denied  that  the  limits  were  vague.  The  only  really  undefined  area 
'  was  in  the  parish  of  Gadder  and  in  Baldernock. 

In  reply  to  Lord  Romert  Cecil,  who  appeared  for  the  Lanark  County 
Council,  witness  said  the  Corparation  desired  to  define  the  supple- 
mentary area.  They  had  power  to  charge  a  50  per  cent,  higher  rate  in 
<  the  supplementary  area;  and  it  might  be  more  expensive  for  them  to 
deal  with  areas  such  as  Carmunnock.  Tbey  were  content  to  deliver 
gas  on  the  boundary  at  2S.  per  1000  cubic  feet  ;  but  it  was  thought 
that  the  supply  of  the  suggested  500  acres  in  Carmunnock  might  not 
be  a  profitable  business. 

Mr.  John  Wilson,  for  the  Busby  Gas  Company,  remarked  that,  in 
consequence  of  what  Mr.  Balfour  Browne  had  said  in  opening  the  Bill, 
that  tbe  Corporation  of  Glasgow  were  desirous  of  continuing  the  supply 
to  the  people  on  the  Netherton  Estate  and  the  estates  in  the  parish  of 
Carmunnock,  the  Busby  Company  recognized  the  reasonableness  of 
allowing  the  continuance  of  that  supply,  and  they  thought  this  would 
have  ended  the  matter.  But  it  had  since  been  indicated,  to  his  surprise, 
that  the  Corporation  were  inclined  to  go  back  upon  it,  and  desired  not 
only  to  continue  the  supply,  but  to  take  up  500  acres  in  the  parish  of 

Mr.  Beveridge  said  the  Corporation  agreed  to  supply  in  Carmunnock 
on  one  side  of  an  imaginary  line  which  had  been  suggested,  and  in  the 
pirish  of  Mearns  a  triangular  piece  in  which  was  contained  the  Nether- 
ton Estate. 

Mr.  Sneddon,  the  Chairman  of  the  Baillieston  Gas  Company,  then 
gave  evidence  on  clause  6.  He  said  that  in  1857  the  Glasgow  Gas 
Company  were  authorized  to  supply  Baillieston  ;  and  when,  in  1862, 
a  demand  arose  for  a  supply  of  gas,  the  Baillieston  Company  was 
formed,  because  the  demand  was  not  then  sufficiently  remunerative 
for  the  Glasgow  Gaslight  Company  to  give  a  supply.  The  original 
capital  of  the  Baillieston  Company  was  £1200  ;  and  it  had  now  been 
increased  to  /4549.  The  price  charged  for  gas  was  3s.  i^d.  When 
the  tramway  system  was  extended  to  Baillieston,  the  Glasgow  Cor- 
1  poration  extended  their  mains  in  order  to  serve  the  new  buildings  that 
'  sprang  up.  When  the  Corporation  came  for  their  Bill,  his  Company 
thought  it  a  good  opportunity  to  assert  theirposition  for  fair  treatment. 
If  the  Company  were  saved  from  the  competition  of  the  Corporation, 
they  were  content  to  go  on  in  the  ordinary  way.  But  the  Corporation 
retained  the  power  to  supply  the  Baillieston  district  ;  and  with  the 
fear  of  the  competition  hanging  over  their  heads,  they  would  be  un- 
willing to  undertake  the  necessary  expenditure  of  putting  the  plant 
into  a  satisfactory  condition.  He  did  not  see  what  right  the  Lanarkshire 
County  Council  had  to  interfere  in  the  matter. 

Replying  to  Mr.  Beveridge,  witness  said  his  Company  had  not 
obtained  statutory  powers.  The  area  in  question  had  been  within  the 
area  of  the  Glasgow  Corporation  since  i86g.  He  agreed  that  the  Cor- 
poration had  never  endeavoured  to  compete  with  them. 

Mr.  Blennerhassett,  in  addressing  the  Committee  on  the  clause, 
agreed  that  in  the  legal  position  of  the  Baillieston  Company  there  was 
no  change.  All  they  asked  was  that  in  the  district  they  supplied  the 
Corporation  should  not  be  allowed  to  supply.  If  the  Corporation 
■wished  to  purchase  the  Company's  undertaking,  they  would  be  happy 
to  meet  them. 

Mr.  Alex.  IVilson  said  that  the  Baillieston  Company  were  content  to 
supply  as  a  non-statutory  Company  in  a  portion  of  the  area  of  the 
Glasgow  Corporation.  But  Glasgow  did  not  see  that  it  was  to  their 
interest  to  go  into  the  district;  and  the  Company  might  continue  to 
supply  in  the  future  as  in  the  past.  He  asked  that  the  decision  of  the 
Committee  of  the  Lower  House  should  not  be  altered. 

Mr.  Craig  Henderson  said  the  Corporation  had  power  to  supply 
gas  in  the  various  burghs  and  "places  adjacent  thereto;  "  and  it  now 
appeared  that  they  gave  a  supply  to  Netherton  because  they  were 
hoping  to  gradually  extend  their  mains  further  afield.  But  it  would 
be  unheard  of  to  say  that,  because  a  gas  authority  went  into  one  area 
to  use  that  as  a  stepping-stone  to  get  into  further  areas,  and  finding 
itself  baulked  by  Parliament,  it  was  thereupon  to  be  entitled  to  say  it 
was  going  back  and  would  not  supply  the  area  at  all.  In  the  fight  as 
to  what  should  be  supplied,  the  position  of  actual  consumers  in  these 
areas  was  overlooked  altogether,  and  they  were  left  out.  He  asked 
that  the  Corporation,  having  applied  for  more  than  they  were  entitled 
to  in  the  other  House,  and  having  been  refused,  should  be  compelled 
to  continue  their  supply  to  the  Netherton  Estate.  The  Busby  Com- 
pany were  prepared  to  say  that  a  line  might  be  drawn  in  the  parish  of 
Carmunnock,  and  it  would  relieve  the  question  as  to  what  was  to  be 
the  price  of  gas  in  that  area  by  putting  it  in  the  City  supply  district. 

Mr.  John  Wilson  concurred  entirely  with  this  request. 

Mr.  Beveridge  announced  later  that,  with  regard  to  the  opposition 
of  the  County  Council,  certain  words  had  been  agreed  with  the  pro- 
moters. With  regard  to  Baillieston,  the  Corporation  would  accept 
whatever  the  Committee  saw  fit  to  decide. 

The  Chairman  announced  that  the  Committee's  decision  on  the 
clause  would  be  given  later  on. 

Clause  26  was  then  considered. 

Mr.  Montgomery,  having  given  his  evidence  in  chief  on  the  clause, 
was  examined  by  Mr.  Lewis  Coward,  on  behalf  of  the  manufacturers, 
engineers,  and  other  consumers  of  gas.  Witness  quite  agreed  that  the 
petitioners  represented  a  consumption  of  250,500,000  cubic  feet  of 
gas,  and  the  total  valuation  of  the  premises  they  occupied  was  about 
^160,000  a  year.  When  the  Bill  was  introduced  into  the  Lower 
House,  it  contained  a  clause  allowing  the  Corporation  to  charge  a 
differential  rate  to  large  consumers.  It  was  a  good  principle  to  encour- 
age dillerential  rates  to  large  consumers.  He  could  not  see  why  the 
Bill  should  be  an  exception.  The  burghs  of  Govan  and  Partick  had 
their  own  electricity  undertakings,  and  gave  large  discounts  to  power 
and  lighting  consumers. 

By  Mr.  Lankester  :  The  Railway  Companies  ranked  very  high 
among  the  large  gas  consumers.  He  did  not  think  that  any  injury 
would  be  done  to  the  small  consumers  by  this  proposal.  He  thought 
It  would  benefit  all  consumers,  as  it  enabled  them  to  lower  the  price 
all  round.  There  was  no  intention  to  allow  discounts  to  large  con- 
sumers in  Glasgow  that  would  not  be  allowed  to  large  consumers  in 
other  districts. 

When  Mr.  Sxlumi'er  rose  to  question  witness  on  behalf  of  the  Glas- 
gow House  Owners  Association  and  others. 

Lord  Robert  Cecil  remarked  that  they  ought  not  to  be  heard. 

Mr.  S/.LUMi'ER  contended  that  it  was  not  for  Lord  Robert  Cecil,  as  a 
petitioner,  but  for  the  promoters  to  object  to  his  laeiis. 

The  Committee  decided  that  it  was  tor  the  promoters  alone  to  object. 

Mr.  Beveriix.e,  representing  the  promoters,  remarked  that  he  did 
not  object,  because  he  thought  they  had  most  excellent  locus.  They 
were  consumers  of  gas. 

Mr.  SzLUMi'ER  then  resumed  his  examination  of  witness,  who  said 
that  the  Bill  as  assented  to  by  the  ratepayers  was  a  very  different  one 
from  that  which  was  now  brought  forward.  With  regard  to  the  dif- 
ferential rate  to  large  consumers,  which  was  in  the  original  Bill,  he 
said  they  were  now  debarred  from  giving  consideration  of  this  kind, 
and  it  would  react  to  some  extent  to  the  detriment  of  small  consumers. 
There  was  no  doubt  that  of  late  years  competition  with  electric  lighting 
had  become  very  seriously  felt ;  and  if  the  Corporation  could  not  give 
considerations  of  this  kind  to  large  consumers,  there  was  the  possibility 
that  they  would  make  their  own  gas  or  take  electricity,  because  the 
electrical  authorities  had  power  to  give  very  large  concessions  in  this 
respect.  They  were  not  asking  to  give  advantage  to  the  consumers  in 
Glasgow  alone,  but  to  all  consumers  alike  on  the  basis  of  consumption. 
Under  the  present  clause  26,  they  would  be  unable,  however  large  a 
consumer  might  be,  to  give  him  the  slightest  concession. 

In  reply  to  Mr.  John  Wilson,  representing  the  Lanark  County 
Council,  witness  saia  the  petition  was  signed  by  the  owners  of  property, 
or  a  factor  for  an  owner.  The  factors  represented  those  who  paid  for 
the  gas. 

Mr.  Wilson  :  Supposing  the  Corporation  had  power  to  give  a  reduc- 
tion in  price  to  large  consumers,  the  Corporation  would  get  the  most 
benefit,  would  it  not  ? 

iVitiiess :  1  think  not. 

Supposing  a  large  crnsumer  paid  £1003  a  year  for  his  gas,  and  you 
pay  him  ^100  off  under  the  power  you  desire,  who  would  have  to  con- 
tribute this  £100  ? — It  would  come  from  the  increased  earnings  of  the 

But  it  would  be  contributed  to  by  the  poor  consumers  ? — By  all  the 

In  reply  to  further  questions,  witness  said  he  did  not  agree  that 
because  the  Corporation  owned  the  electrical  undertaking  as  well  as  the 
gas  undertaking  that  whoever  had  the  benefit  it  would  come  to  the  same 
thing.  The  Bill  gave  them  power  to  differentiate  between  theCity  limits 
of  supply  and  the  supplementary  area,  and  they  were  entitled  to  charge 
50  per  cent,  more  in  the  latter  area,  which  was  the  maximum.  In  the 
City  area,  the  maximum  was  4s.  yd.  ;  but  they  were  only  charging  2s., 
and  in  the  supplementary  area  3s.  He  did  not  know  any  company  in 
Scotland  with  so  high  a  charge  in  the  outside  area.  Asked  why  they 
should  want  to  charge  3s.  in  the  Baillieston  district,  just  over  the  line, 
and  23.  to  consumers  on  the  other  side,  witness  said  they  must  draw 
the  line  somewhere. 

Replying  to  Mr.  Clode,  who  appeared  for  the  boroughs  of  Partick, 
Govan,  Rutherglen,  and  Carmunnock,  witness  agreed  that  these 
boroughs  could  not  start  gas  undertakings  at  all ;  they  could  not  compete 
with  the  Corporation.  He  would  express  no  opinion  now  upon  the 
differential  rate ;  but  he  did  uphold  it  before  the  House  of  Commons 
Committee,  and  was  still  of  the  same  opinion.  If  the  differential  charge 
were  allowed,  it  would  be  an  advantage  to  the  manufacturers  of  Govan, 
Partick,  and  other  places,  as  well  as  to  those  in  Glasgow.  The  total 
number  of  consumers  was  259,727  ;  and  the  large  consumers  num- 
bered 821. 

In  answer  to  Mr.  John  Wilson,  witness  said  50  per  cent,  was  none 
too  high  a  difference  in  the  supplementary  area  ;  and  if  they  had  to 
supply  a  great  distance  outside,  in  some  cases  it  would  not  be  sufficient. 
At  this  point,  with  the  permission  of  the  Committee, 
Mr.  IV.  Doig  Gibb,  the  Chief  Engineer  of  the  South  Metropolitan  Gas 
Company,  was  called  by  Mr.  Lewis  Coward,  in  support  of  the  petition 
of  the  manufacturers,  engineers,  and  other  consumers  of  gas.  Having 
referred  to  his  connection  with  the  Newcastle  and  Gateshead  Gas  Com- 
pany, witness  said  their  output  last  year  was  3350  million  cubic  feet, 
and  their  capital  was  about  2J  millions.  The  present  price  of  gas 
ranged  from  is.  iid.  to  is.  yd.  per  1000  cubic  feet ;  the  present  gross 
price  being  2s.  2d.  They  recognized  the  principle  that  large  consumers 
should  have  a  rebate  ;  and  their  scale  of  discounts  ranged  up  to  25 
per  cent.  Newcastle  was  very  similar  to  Glasgow,  in  that  it  depended 
largely  upon  the  engineering  trade ;  and  it  was  necessary  in  an  in- 
dustrial town  that  large  consumers  of  gas  should  have  a  discount 
unless  the  town  was  to  be  handicapped  in  competition.  The  large 
consumer  of  gas  was  very  seriously  handicapped  if  he  did  not  get 
these  discounts.  The  discounts  reduced  the  price  of  gas  to  the  small 
consumers  as  well  as  to  the  large  ones.  L  had  been  the  practice 
in  Glasgow  hitherto  that  they  should  be  allowed  ;  and  their  with- 
drawal would  tend  to  lead  to  the  scrapping  of  plant,  and  electricity 
being  used  instead  of  gas.  The  principle  had  been  recognized  by 
Parliament  in  numerous  Acts  ;  and  there  was  a  Model  Clause  on  the 
subject.  It  was  the  same  with  electricity  and  water  ;  and  it  was  the 
case  in  all  trades  that  the  large  consumer  was  allowed  a  discount. 
The  only  argument  that  might  be  used  against  a  scale  of  discounts 
would  be  that  it  told  hardly  on  the  consumer  ;  but  so  far  from  this  being 
the  case,  his  experience  was  that  the  small  consumer  was  benefited.  In 
Newcastle,  the  scale  was  10  per  cent,  to  small  consumers,  and  an  addi- 
tional 15  per  cent,  to  the  larger  ones.  Nevertheless,  the  larger  con- 
sumer was  the  more  profitable  to  the  Company.  It  followed  that,  with 
the  small  consumers,  for  every  1000  cubic  feet  distributed,  the  cost  of 
distribution,  leakage,  the  collection  of  small  amounts,  and  so  on,  was 
very  much  greater  than  with  the  large  consumers.  These  were  ele- 
ments which  should  be  taken  into  consideration  in  fixing  the  price  of 
gas  to  large  consumers.  Turning  to  the  South  Metropolitan  Company, 
witness  said  that  last  year  they  manufactured  13,000  million  cubic  feet 
of  gas;  and  the  present  gross  price  was  23.  2d.  per  1000  cubic  feet. 
They  had  a  scale  of  discounts  which  varied  from  month  to  month. 
This  showed  the  elasticity  required  in  these  matters.  The  result  of 
giving  these  discounts  was  that  in  iQcg  it  was  recorded  to  him  that 
44  consumers,  with  an  average  consumption  of  z\  million  cubic  feet 
each,  were  retained  as  gas  consumers.    They  were  absolutely  kept  from 



[July  5,  1910. 

taking  power  gas  by  the  large  discounts  the  Company  offered.  Alto- 
gether, their  department  had  traced,  as  the  immediate  result  of  the 
larger  discounts,  an  increased  consumption  of  gas  during  the  year  of 
523  million  cubic  feet.  It  was  the  fact  that,  as  the  result  of  the  larger 
consumption  of  gas  due  to  the  discounts,  they  were  able  to  reduce  the 
price  all  over  the  district  to  their  consumers  by  id.  per  loco  cubic 
feet,  which  represented,  roughly,  /52,oao.  "  I  consider,"  witness  said, 
"  that,  both  for  the  producer  and  the  consumer,  it  is  of  ihe  utmost  im- 
portance that  there  should  be  a  certain  amount  of  elasticity  allowed  to 
gas  companies  in  giving  reductions  to  large  consumers." 

Mr.  Fitzgerald  :  Is  it  not  a  reasonable  thing  that  the  profits  made 
in  a  gas  undertaking,  after  all  charges  have  been  met,  should  go  to  a 
rednrtion  of  the  price  of  gas  ? 

Witness  :  Yes. 

It  would  not  be  fair  to  the  gas  consumer  to  increase  the  price  of  gas 
at  the  expense  of  the  electric  undertaking,  or  to  reduce  the  price  of 
electricity  at  the  expense  of  the  gas  undertaking  ? — No. 

Wednesday,  June  29. 

When  the  public  were  admitted  to  the  Committee  room  this  morning. 

The  Chairman  announced  that  the  Committee  had  been  considering 
the  question  of  area.  With  regard  to  the  triangle  in  the  parish  of 
Mearns,  they  were  of  opinion  that  it  ought  to  be  included  in  the  sup- 
plementary area.  They  considered  also  that  Baillieston  should  be  in- 
cluded in  the  suppl  ementary  area. 

Tde  Marquis  of  Bristol  asked  whether  it  was  understood  that  in 
the  City  area  there  was  a  flit-rate  for  lighting  and  another  flit-rate  for 
poA'er,  and  whether  in  the  supplementary  area,  the  Corporation  might 
charge  any  sum  up  to  50  per  cent,  more  than  the  City  rate.  It  was 
not  quite  clear  to  the  Committee  whether  in  the  supplementary  area 
there  was  a  flit-rate  or  whether  the  Corporation  had  the  power,  up  to 
50  per  cent.,  of  charging  to  any  particular  area  what  they  liked. 

Mr.  Balfour  Browne  said  he  thought  there  was  no  flat-rate  in  the 
supplementary  area.  At  the  present  time,  although  they  were  seeking 
to  have  a  50  per  cent,  maximum  in  the  supplementary  supply  area,  they 
did  not  mean  to  charge  everybody  alike  in  that  area — it  depended  on 
circumstances.  In  a  portion  of  Mearns,  they  had  charged  35. ;  while 
in  Carmannock  the  people  laid  their  own  pipes  at  great  expense,  and 
the  Corporation  had  charged  them  2s.,  although  they  were  both  iB 
the  supplementary  supply  area.  The  Corporation  desired  to  have  this 
power  m  future,  even  if  the  flat-rate  should  continue  in  the  City  of 
Glasgow.  The  Act  provided  that  :  "  The  Corporation  may,  within  the 
supplementary  supply  district,  or  any  part  thereof,  charge  rates  for  gas 
higher  than  those  charged  within  the  City  supply  district,  and  such 
higher  rates  may  vary  in  different  parts  of  the  supplementary  supply 
district,  but  shall  not  at  any  time  exceed  the  rates  charged  for  any 
similar  purpose  within  the  City  supply  district  by  more  than  50  per 
cent,  of  the  rate  charged  for  private  lighting  purposes  within  the  City 
supply  district,  and  shall  not  in  any  case  exceed  the  said  maximum 
price."  Therefore  they  had  power  to  vary  the  charge  in  the  supple- 
mentary supply  area. 

The  Chairman  said  that,  with  regard  to  Carmunnock,  they  thought 
that  the  portion  of  the  parish  above  the  imaginary  line  which  had  been 
referred  to  should  be  taken  into  the  supplementary  supply  area. 

Mr.  Blennerhassett  said  that,  with  regard  to  Baillies  oa,  he  sup- 
posed the  decision  of  the  Committee  meant  that  the  agreement  between 
the  Corporation  and  the  Company  should  be  carried  out. 

Mr.  Balfour  Browne  :  We  cannot  do  that. 

Mr.  Blennerhas.sett  asked  the  Committee  to  say  that,  until  the 
Baillieston  Company  were  purchased  by  the  Corporation,  there  should 
be  no  power  on  the  part  of  the  Corporation  to  supply  gas  in  the 
Baillieston  Company's  area. 

Mr.  Balfour  Browne  :  We  are  not  going  to  purchase.  It  is  a  non- 
statutory Company. 

The  Committee  decided  that  they  could  not  agree  with  Mr.  Bienner- 
hassett's  suggestion. 

Mr.  Balfour  Browne  pointed  out  that  Baillieston  was  at  present 
within  the  City  supply  area  ;  so  that  the  consumers  were  entitled  to  a 
supply  at  25.  The  decision  of  the  Committee  put  them  in  the  supple- 
mentary area  ;  and  the  Corporation  could  now  charge  them  50  per 
cent.  more. 

Mr.  Blennerhassett  said  that  if  the  other  House  had  put  Baillieston 
in  the  supplementary  supply  district  the  Corporation  would  have  been 
bound  to  purchase  their  undertaking  ;  and  he  asked  that,  now  they  had 
been  put  in,  the  Corporation  should  be  called  upon  to  purchase. 

Mr.  Balfour  Browne  pointed  out  that  the  agreement  between  the 
Corporation  and  the  Biilliestoa  Compiny  was  absolutely  dead. 

The  Chairman  said  the  Committee's  decision  was  to  include  Baillie- 
ston in  the  supplementary  area  without  any  further  provisions. 

Mr.  Craig  Henderson,  with  regard  to  the  parish  of  Carmunnock, 
pointed  out  that  the  line  to  be  drawn  across  the  parish  had  been  agreed, 
and  would  be  placed  before  the  Committee  later  on. 

Mr.  Ah'X.  ]Vilso}i,  who  gave  his  evidence  in  chief  on  the  previous 
day,  was  then  examined  by  Mr.  Lankester,  on  behalf  of  the  Railway 
Companies.  He  said  it  was  the  common  practice  of  gas  companies  to 
allow  discounts ;  and  they  found  it  to  their  advantage  to  do  so.  It 
was  in  the  interests  of  lowering  the  price  generally.  He  was  in  favour 
of  a  reduction  in  price  to  large  consumers.  It  was  in  the  inierpsts  of 
all  the  consumers.  He  could  not  understand  why  the  manufacturers 
in  the  boroughs  of  Govan  and  I'artick  should  be  placed  in  any  different 
position  in  regard  to  the  competition  they  had  to  meet  from  other 
places.  Afked  if  the  Corporation  were  anxious  to  reduce  the  price  of 
gas  to  the  Railway  Companies,  witness  said  they  wished  to  reduce  the 
price  to  everybody.  As  ttie  Manager  of  the  Gas  Department,  he  would 
like  the  Bill  amended. 

Replying  to  Lord  Robert  Cecil,  witness  said  there  was  a  modern 
case  of  a  differential  rate  being  allowed  in  Edinburgh,  where  the  charge 
was  3s.  6d.  and  3s. ;  but  in  the  case  of  Glasgow,  if  they  were  not  given 
the  50  per  cent.,  it  was  possible  that  it  would  be  unremunerative  to 
them  to  give  a  supply. 

Mr.  Corbet  Woodall,  the  Governor  of  the  Gaslight  and  Coke  Com- 
pany, next  gave  evidence.  He  agreed  that,  under  the  circumstances, 
it  was  fair  and  reasonable  that  there  should  be  an  extra  charge  of 

50  per  cent,  as  a  maximum.  If  there  were  many  places  where  they 
might  supply  without  great  extra  cost,  there  might  be  no  reason  for 
making  an  extra  charge  ;  but  there  were  a  great  many  undertakings 
where  as  much  as  is.  per  1000  cubic  feet  extra  was  allowed  in  the 
outlying  districts.  There  was  a  long  list  of  cases  where  a  differential 
rate  had  been  given,  and  the  amount  of  this  differential  rate  would 
diminish  as  the  years  went  on.  In  this  case,  the  supplementary  dis- 
trict was  fairly  treated. 

Replying  to  Mr.  Lewis  Coward,  witness  agreed  tD  a  differential 
rate  to  large  consumers. 

In  answer  to  Mr.  Lankester,  witness  said  it  was  not  true,  as  had 
been  suggested,  that  there  was  no  power  to  give  discounts  in  London. 
The  matter  had  become  more  and  more  acute  since  the  introduction 
of  electric  competition.  Electrical  corporations  and  companies  were 
allowed  to  make  special  terms  ;  and  the  difficulty  of  gas  manufacturers 
was  very  great  indeed  when  large  manufacturers  asked  for  a  lower 
price  and  fney  were  unable  to  give  it.  It  was  not  unusual  for  railway 
companies  to  pay  /4000  or  /5000  to  gas  companies  annually  ;  and  if 
they  were  lost  to  a  gas  company  because  they  were  unable  to  offer  a 
lower  price,  it  would  be  a  very  serious  matter. 

Replying  t)  Mr.  Vesev  Knox,  witness  said  that,  in  accordance  with 
the  general  law,  gas  companies  could  not  merely  differentiate  between 
large  and  small  consumers,  but  they  could  make  any  special  bargains 
they  liked.  He  knew  of  no  other  case  where  a  gas  undertaking  had 
been  placed  under  such  restrictions  that  they  were  compelled  to  give  a 
flat-rate.  It  was  quite  novel,  and  he  did  not  know  of  any  case  where 
a  gas  undertaking  had  been  compelled  to  give  the  same  terms  to  all 
consumers,  apart  from  the  amount  of  their  consumption. 

Replying  to  Mr.  Freeman,  he  agreed  that  by  section  g  of  the  Glasgow 
Act  of  i<SS2  all  consumers  were  to  be  treated  on  the  same  basis. 

Mr.  Freeman  :  You  are  going  to  charge  on  the  small  consumer 
what  you  lose  on  the  big  one  ? 

Witness  :  We  do  not  lose  on  the  big  consumer. 

You  are  in  favour  of  altering  the  law  which  has  worked  very  well  for 
a  number  of  years  past,  and  therefore  the  onus  is  on  you  to  prove  that 
it  will  not  be  a  hardship  ?  —It  is  only  by  supplying  the  large  consumers 
that  we  are  able  to  keep  the  small  ones. 

Continuing,  witness  denied  that  the  outlying  places  would  be  injured 
in  any  way.  There  were  precedents  for  what  they  were  asking  ;  but 
he  agreed  that  they  were  of  very  old  date.  The  tendency  had  not 
been  to  abolish  differential  rates.  He  did  not  agree  that  the  practice 
of  Parliament  had  been  to  say  ihat  gas  companies  were  not  to  milk  the 
outside  district  to  the  benefit  of  the  inside  area.  There  were  certainly 
a  great  many  places  where  no  geographical  differential  rates  had  been 
allowed  ;  but  he  would  be  very  much  surprised  to  hear  that  there  were 
200  cases  in  England  without  a  differential  rate,  against  30  with.  He 
agreed  that  in  Scotland  there  were  53  cases  without  a  differential  rate, 
as  against  8  with.  With  regard  to  Baillieston,  he  thought  this  area 
could  be  supplied  by  the  Coatbridge  Company.  Their  price  for  gas 
was  2S.  ;  but  he  did  not  know  whether  they  would  be  able  to  supply  the 
district  at  the  same  rate. 

Ke-examined  by  Mr.  Beveridge,  witness  said  it  was  the  working 
charges  that  made  the  outside  districts  so  costly.  There  were  longer 
service  pipes  and  many  things  to  be  considered.  Fifty  per  cent,  was  a 
just  amount  to  be  allowed. 

This  closed  the  evidence  on  behalf  of  the  Corporation  upon  clauses 
26  and  27. 

Mr.  Coward  then  addressed  the  Committee  on  behalf  of  the  maru- 
facturers,  engineers,  and  other  consumers  in  Glasgow  and  Govan.  He 
said  that  with  the  provisions  of  the  Bill  as  it  was  introduced  in  the 
other  House,  the  manufacturers  were  quite  content  ;  and  they  hoped 
it  would  become  law.  Unfortunately,  in  the  absence  of  any  evidence 
from  the  large  consumers  of  gas,  it  had  emerged,  a  mutilated  Bill.  It 
was  most  unreasonable  that  the  differential  rates  allowed  in  respect  of 
the  gas  supplied  in  other  industrial  communities  should  be  denied  to 
the  manufacturers  of  Glasgow.  When  section  g  was  inserted  in  the 
Glasgow  Act  of  1SS2,  prohibiting  differential  rates,  the  gas  industry  was 
in  a  very  different  position  to  what  it  was  now. 

Mr.  David  M'Ausland,  representing  the  Felix  Tube  Works,  Glasgow, 
said  they  paid  /1516  a  year  for  gas  for  lighting  purposes.  They  had 
also  a  supply  of  electricity  from  the  Clyde  Valley  Company,  by  whom 
they  were  allowed  a  reduction  according  to  the  quantity  consumed. 
Gas  ought  to  be  put  on  the  same  footing.  Competition  was  very  keen  ; 
and  the  Bill  would  put  them  in  an  unfair  position. 

Mr.  Vesey  Knox,  on  behalf  of  the  Glasgow  House-Owners  Associa- 
tion, said  that  every  recent  gas  company  had  had  to  incorporate  pro- 
visions which,  by  implication,  empowered  them  to  give  discounts  for 
large  quantities.  It  was  the  general  law,  both  in  this  country  and  in 
Scotland.  The  provision  prohibiting  a  gas  company  from  giving  such 
a  discount  was  an  antiquated  and  altogether  absurd  restriction.  If 
this  very  stringent  provision  were  applied  to  this  Bill,  the  effect  would 
be  that  the  Glasgow  gas  undertaking  must  one  by  one  lose  the  large 
consumers.  They  would  either  make  power  gas  or  take  electricity  ; 
and  the  consequence  would  be  disastrous  in  the  first  instance  to  the 
small  consumers,  and  in  the  second  instance  to  the  ratepayers.  He 
did  not  think  it  would  be  possible  for  those  who  wished  to  keep  the 
I^ill  in  its  present  form  to  call  evidence  from  anyone  who  had  experi- 
ence of  managing  gas  undertakings  who  would  say  that  the  restriction 
in  the  Bill  was  reasonable. 

Mr.  W.  R.  Hen-iu^,  the  Chief  Engineer  to  the  Edinburgh  and  Leith 
Corporation  gas  undertaking,  said  they  had  been  al'owing  discounts 
in  Edinburgh  of  2J  per  cent,  for  between  £so  and  /loo,  and  going 
up  to  10  per  cent,  for  /800  and  upwards.  Tnese  discounts  were  based 
on  the  total  amount  of  any  individual  account.  It  was  not  the  fact,  as 
had  been  suggested,  that,  if  they  allowed  a  discount  to  a  large  con- 
sumer, the  loss  of  revenue  represented  by  the  discount  must  be  made 
good  by  the  small  consumer.  There  was  a  gain  by  giving  discounts  ; 
and  the  large  consumer  cost  less  to  supply. 

Mr.  H.  E.  Junes  said  the  Railway  Companies,  who  were  large  con- 
sumers, should  certainly  have  discounts  and  every  encouragement  to 
use  gas.  By  these  means  the  price  would  be  reduced  to  the  smallest 
consumer.  It  was  the  universal  practice  of  all  gas  companies  ;  and 
they  had  a  sliding-scale,  by  which,  if  they  could  cheapen  the  gas,  they 
got  larger  dividends.     It  was  the  practice  of  his  Company  (the 

July  5,  1910.] 



Commercial)  to  give  discounts  up  to  25  and  30  per  cent.  They  kept 
the  price  down  to  the  working  man  consumer  with  a  view  of  develop- 
ing the  use  of  gas  for  fuel.  There  was  a  saving  to  the  producer  in 
supplying  in  bulk  to  the  large  consumer;  and  if  they  did  not  charge 
him  less  than  the  smaller  consumer,  they  were  being  compelled  10 
charge  him  more  than  they  really  ought  to.  He  knew  of  no  case  ex- 
cept this  where  the  general  practice  had  been  departed  from.  If  he 
were  in  charge  of  the  Bill  he  could  not  accept  it,  because  it  would 
hamper  him  and  prevent  him  from  seeing  to  the  best  interests  of  the 
shareholders  and  consumers.  He  would  refuse  the  Bill.  He  believed 
it  was  the  general  law  in  Scotland  that  when  a  gas  undertaking  was  in 
the  hands  of  the  local  authority  the  profits  must  be  applied  in  the  re- 
duction of  the  price  of  gas.  He  would  not  describe  this  rule  as  Social- 
istic. The  price  of  is.  lod.  per  1000  cubic  feet  which  his  Company 
charged  was  due  to  the  fact  that  they  gave  discounts  to  all  the  large 

Thursday,  June  30. 

Mr.  Lankester  addressed  the  Committee  this  morning  on  behalf  of 
the  Railway  Companies,  and  contended  that  they,  being  among  the 
largest  consumers,  should  be  encouraged  to  take  as  much  gas  as  possible, 
whether  for  illumination  or  power  purposes.  They  challenged  the 
promoters  of  the  Bill  to  produce  a  precedent  which  prevented  anything 
like  a  discount  or  consideration  being  given  in  regard  to  the  quantity 
of  gas  taken.  What  they  asked  was  that  the  clause  should  be  altered 
so  as  to  provide  that  the  price  to  be  charged  for  gas  consumed  by  meter 
should  at  all  times  be  charged  equally  "under  like  circumstances  "  to 
all  consumers  in  the  City  supply  district.  Upon  clause  27,  dealing 
with  discounts,  he  asked  the  Committee  to  follow  the  practice  of  all 
modern  undertakings  and  introduce  the  Model  form,  which  provided 
for  discount  for  prompt  cash  payments,  and  allows  for  discounts  or 
rebates  to  large  consumers  not  exceeding  in  any  case  15  per  cent.  They 
wished  the  Glasgow  undertaking  to  be  put  on  a  reasonably  sound  and 
commercial  basis,  not  only  in  the  interests  of  the  producer,  but  in  the 
interest  of  the  consumer.  All  the  trouble  had  arisen  from  the  un- 
fortunate fact  that  a  clause  had  been  drawn  to  protect  the  burgh  of 
Govan  and  the  outside  areas  from  preferential  treatment  to  Glasgow. 
It  was  this  unfortunate  clause  which  prohibited  the  giving  of  discounts. 
The  only  objectors  to  what  they  were  asking,  and  who  would  rather 
that  the  Corporation's  undertaking  should  not  be  carried  on  in  the 
most  modern  way,  were  the  burghs  of  Govan  and  Partick,  who  had 
electric  lighting  undertakings  of  their  own,  which  they  were  anxious  to 
push  in  preference  to  gas. 

Lord  Robert  Cecil  then  addressed  the  Committee  on  behalf  of  the 
County  Council  of  Lanark.  What  he  was  asking  was  a  modification 
of  the  section  of  the  Bill  which  gave  the  Corporation  the  right  to  charge 
within  the  supplementary  supply  district  50  per  cent,  more  than  the 
rate  charged  lor  lighting  purposes  within  the  City  district.  It  was  said 
that  it  was  Glasgow's  duty  to  its  own  constituents  to  make  as  much  as 
they  could  out  of  the  outside  areas ;  but  he  contended  that  the  outside 
areas  should  be  protected,  and  have  a  supply  given  to  them  on  reason- 
able and  proper  terms — 20  per  cent,  would  be  an  extreme  figure.  He 
referred  to  Chryston,  in  the  parish  of  Cadder,  where  the  Corporation 
had  entered  into  an  agreement  to  supply  at  3s.  per  1000  cubic  teet. 

Mr.  E.  H.  Stevenson  gave  evidence.  He  said  that  it  was  a  most  un- 
usual provision  to  make  the  additional  price  in  a  supplementary  district 
a  percentage  upon  the  price  charged  inside.  The  percentage,  of  course, 
had  varied  with  the  price  of  gas  inside;  but  the  cost  of  supplying  the 
gas  outside  the  district  would  not  vary.  The  capital  charges  would  be 
the  same,  as  also  would  the  charges  for  repairs  and  maintenance.  The 
chief  fluctuation  in  the  price  of  gas  would  depend  upon  the  cost  of 
coal — that  was  to  say,  the  price  in  the  supplementary  area  would  be 
affected  by  a  general  rise  in  the  price  of  coal  more  than  anything  else. 
The  general  way  was  to  fix  a  definite  amount  which  might  be  charged 
in  relation  to  the  sum  charged  inside ;  and  this  should  be,  as  nearly  as 
possible,  the  extra  cost  of  supplying  the  district.  There  were  several 
precedents.  In  Birmingham,  when  the  Corporation  took  over  the  gas 
undertaking,  there  was  a  difference  of  is.  per  1000  cubic  feet  on  the 
differential  rate;  and  in  1878,  the  outside  districts  brought  a  Bill  in 
Parliament  to  do  away  with  the  differential  price,  and  Parliament 
passed  the  Bill.  At  present,  in  Birmingham  there  was  a  differential 
rate  over  the  whole  area.  In  the  case  of  Salford,  the  differential  rate 
was  doiie  away  with  in  the  outside  districts.  In  Manchester,  there  was 
an  outside  district ;  but  it  was  not  a  wide  one,  because  there  were  so 
many  gas  undertakings  in  the  immediate  neighbourhood.  Manchester 
charged  2s.  3d.  in  the  city,  and  3d.  extra  outside.  In  Leeds,  there  was 
a  flat-rate;  in  Oldham  and  district,  there  was  no  additional  charge 
outside  ;  and  in  Nottingham,  there  was  a  flat-rate— -in  that  case,  there 
was  a  large  outside  area. 

Mr.  Vesey  Knox  :  But  there  are  discounts  allowed  ? 

Witness  agreed.  But  so  far  as  he  knew,  there  was  no  example  in 
England  of  so  large  a  differential  rate  as  50  per  cent.  He  thought  it 
was  a  wrong  principle  to  put  a  percentage  into  a  Bill.  Assuming  there 
was  to  be  a  differential  rate,  he  would  limit  the  price  by  ascertaining 
what  would  be  the  additional  cost ;  and  in  this  case,  he  did  not  think 
anybody  could  prove  more  than  6d.  per  1000  cubic  feet  as  the  outside 
maximum.  He  thought  it  was  the  general  rule  either  to  have  a  low 
price  fixed  by  Act  or  a  single  price  fixed  as  a  maximum.  In  Scotland, 
including  Edinburgh  and  Glasgow,  there  were  only  eight  corporations 
who  were  charging  a  differential  territorial  rate.  In  the  conditions  of 
the  Glasgow  undertaking,  he  could  not  see  anything  to  make  it  reason- 
able that  they  should  be  allowed  to  charge  in  Baillieston  is.  over  the 
lighting  charge  made  in  the  City.  Glasgow  had  all  the  favourable  con- 
ditions for  the  cheap  manufacture  of  gas.  Carmunnock,  Baillieston,  and 
Cadder  were  all  within  such  distances  that  they  could  be  easily  and 
inexpensively  supplied.  It  was  not  a  widely-extended  area;  and  the 
cost  of  mains  would  be  very  small. 

Mr.  Balfour  Browne  ;  If  we  have  ascertained  that  is.  in  addition 
to  the  2s.  will  not  pay,  then  we  are  entitled  to  charge  is.  extra  ? 

Witness  :  There  is  no  question  of  doubt  in  my  mind  that  any  part  of 
these  three  additional  places  can  be  supplied  at  less  than  is.  extra. 
Continuing,  witness  said  that  in  Baillieston  all  that  would  have  to  be 
done  would  be  to  extend  the  existing  mains  which  were  within  200 
yards  of  the  boundary. 

Mr.  Fitzgerald,  on  behalf  of  the  burghs  of  Partick,  (iovan,  Kuther- 
glen,  and  Pollokshaws,  said  that  it  was  especially  for  the  protection  of 
the  gas  consumers  of  the  outside  burghs  that  they  got  from  Parliament 
a  statutory  prohibition  preventing  the  City  of  (ilafgow  Irom  charging 
higher  rates  outside  the  Ciiy  than  they  were  charging  inside.  This 
principle  was  adopted  in  1882.  When  the  present  Bill  came  to  be  con- 
sidered in  the  House  of  Commons,  the  position  in  Glasgow  was  that 
they  were  bound  to  charge  for  private  lightirg  the  same  price  to  every- 
one ;  and  they  were,  in  fact,  charging  for  trade  supplies  a  lower  price. 
As  originally  introduced,  the  effect  of  the  Bill  on  the  outside  districts 
would  have  been  most  serious,  and,  accordingly,  for  the  purpose  of 
preserving  the  stutns  quo,  the  decision  given  in  1882  should  be  preserved  ; 
and  in  future  every  person  within  the  City  supply  district  should  be 
entitled  to  get  gas  at  the  same  price  for  lighting,  and  every  local  autho- 
rity should  be  entitled  to  gas  for  public  lighting  at  the  same  price. 
With  regard  to  trade  supply,  all  they  atked  was  that  the  rate  charged 
should  be  the  same  to  all  consumers. 

Mr.  Balfour  Browne,  on  behalf  of  the  promoters,  said  they  were 
content  with  the  Bill  as  it  passed  the  House  of  Commons  ;  and  it  was 
for  the  Committee  to  judge  between  the  two  sets  of  opponents  where 
the  truth  lay.  He  would  be  perfectly  neutral,  but  asked  that  part  5  of 
clause  26  might  be  retained,  giving  the  Corporation  power  to  charge 
the  50  per  cent. 

The  Chairman,  after  a  deliberation  in  private,  announced  the  de- 
cision of  the  Committee  on  clause  26.  The  effect  of  the  decision  was 
that  the  price  to  be  charged  for  gas  consumed  by  meter  shall  at  all 
times  be  charged  equally  underlike  circumstances  to  all  consumers  within 
the  City  supply  district.  The  Corporation  may  supply  gas  for  heating, 
cooking,  or  motive  power,  warming,  ventilating,  and  for  the  particular 
requirements  of  any  trade,  &c.,  provided  that  the  rate  charged  for  the 
gas  supplied  shall  be  the  same  under  like  circumstances  to  all  persons. 
Sub-section  4  of  the  clause,  relating  to  the  price  to  be  charged  for  public 
lamps,  and  sub  section  5,  relating  to  the  price  to  be  charged  in  the 
supplementary  supply  district,  were  passed  without  any  amendment. 
Clause  27,  giving  power  to  the  Corporation  to  allow  discounts  of  5  per 
cent,  to  consumers  in  consideration  of  prompt  payment,  was  struck  out, 
and  the  following  clause,  from  the  Model  Bill,  inserted  : 

The  Corporation  may,  if  they  think  fit,  allow  discounts  or  rebates  to  con- 
sumers of  gas  in  consideration  of  prompt  payment  of  gas  charges,  not  ex- 
ceeding in  any  case  10  per  cent,  per  annum,  and,  in  addition  thereto,  or 
irrespective  thereof,  they  may,  if  they  think  lit,  allow  discounts  or  rebates 
to  large  consumers  not  exceeding  in  any  case  15  per  cent.  ;  Provided  that 
all  discounts  or  rebates  shall  be  of  equal  amount  under  like  circumstances 
to  all  consumers  :  Provided,  also,  that  notice  to  the  effect  of  this  enactment 
shall  be  endorsed  on  every  demand  note  for  gas  charges. 

Consideration  was  then  given  to  clause  50,  with  regard  to  the  appli- 
cation of  revenue. 

Mr.  Walter  Nelson,  the  Chairman  of  the  Gas  Committee,  gave  evi- 
dence. He  said  the  clause  was  struck  out  in  the  other  House  ;  but  the 
views  he  gave  when  the  Bill  was  before  the  Commons  Committee  in 
its  favour,  he  still  held.  The  important  part  of  the  clause  was  that 
which  empowered  the  Corporation  to  carry  any  balance  from  the  under- 
taking to  the  credit  of  the  Corporation  for  their  general  purposes. 
The  Corporation  wished  to  retain  this  power.  Altogether,  they  had 
allocated  ^21,000  to  public  purposes.  Their  present  indebtedness  on 
the  gas  account  was  about  half  the  capital  which  was  put  into  the 

Replying  to  Mr.  Freeman,  witness  agreed  that  the  raising  of  the 
price  of  gas  by  id.  per  1000  cubic  feet  would  bring  in  £2^,000. 

Friday,  July  1. 

Mr.  Vesey  Kno.x,  on  behalf  of  the  House  Owners'  Association,  was 
this  morning  permitted  to  call,  in  support  of  their  petition, 

Mr.  Corbet  Woodall,  who  said  he  attended  before  the  Committee  under 
an  Order  of  the  House.  It  was  his  opinion  that  a  reserve  fund  should 
be  established  to  meet  extraordinary  claims  and  demands.  As  an  in- 
stance, he  said  that  in  this  particular  case  the  gasholders  were  blown 
up,  and  the  undertaking  suffered  a  loss  of  ^44,000.  It  was  also  desir- 
able to  avoid  fluctuations  in  the  price  of  gas  as  far  as  pcssible.  In 
the  case  of  gas  companies,  any  alteration  in  the  price  would  mean 
an  alteration  in  the  dividend  in  the  majority  of  instances ;  and 
this  was  undesirable  from  the  shareholders'  point  of  view.  With 
regard  to  undertakings  such  as  this,  if  the  price  went  up  there  was 
almost  inevitably  a  check  on  the  rate  of  increase  in  the  under- 
taking. People  were  discontented,  and  asked  for  other  sources  of 
supply.  A  regular  price  and  a  regular  dividend  were  of  very  great 
importance  to  gas  undertakings.  The  accumulation  of  the  reserve 
fund  was  a  matter  involving  a  comparatively  small  sum  which  was  not 
felt  by  the  consumer  ;  but  the  raising  of  the  price  of  gas,  even  by  id., 
was  a  serious  thing.  There  was  a  sum  allowed  for  depreciation  under 
the  clause  ;  but  ttiis  was  not  available  for  the  purposes  of  reserve. 
In  the  other  House,  he  calculated  that  the  allowance  for  depreciation, 
when  added  to  the  cost  of  repairs,  was  yd.  per  loco  cubic  feet.  In  the 
case  of  the  Tottenham  Company,  it  was  lod.  ;  and  with  the  Gaslight 
and  Coke  Company,  it  was  8d.  In  regard  to  the  establishment  of  a 
reserve  fund,  and  having  in  addition  a  sum  available  for  the  "  Common 
Good  "  not  to  exceed  i  per  cent,  per  annum  on  the  amount  of  the  out- 
standing capital  charges,  not  to  be  paid  in  any  year  in  which  the  price 
to  ordinary  consumers  exceeds  2S.,  his  opinion  was  that  where  the 
municipality  was  supplied  at  an  even  rale  over  a  large  area,  part  of 
which  was  within  its  own  area  and  part  not,  they  ought  to  have  either 
a  differential  rate  or  power  to  take  a  certain  amount  of  profits  in  aid 
of  the  rates.  If  a  differential  rate  was  charged  as  against  the  outside 
burghs,  then  he  had  no  sympathy  with  the  idea  of  making  further 
profit.  The  consumers  within  the  area  would  be  sufficiently  benefited 
by  a  differential  rate,  and  would  not  need  the  protection  of  a  sum 
taken  in  aid'of  the  rates.  In  the  Salford  case,  i  per  cent,  was  allowed 
for  what  was  called  "  brains  and  risk  ;  "  and  he  thought  this  a  fair  limi- 
tation. It  would  be  a  great  injustice  if  the  loss  of  one  year  had  to 
be  made  good  and  the  profits  of  another  year  could  not  be  applied 
to  make  that  loss  good.  In  the  case  of  Glasgow,  the  gas  supplied  was 
of  an  illuminating  power  of  over  19  candles  ;  and  under  these  circum- 
stances, be  did  not  know  of  an  instance  wheie  a  lower  rate  than  is.  ic^d. 



[July  5,  1910. 

had  been  charged.  If  the  outside  consumers  were  assured  that  no  prclit 
should  be  put  to  the  "  Common  Good  "  unless  the  present  low  price  was 
maintained,  there  would  be  no  injustice  to  the  outside  consumer. 

la  reply  jlr.  J.  D.  Fitzcerald,  witness  said  he  did  not  at  all  re- 
present that  1-  j  was  appearing  there  as  an  unwilling  witness. 

Mr.  Fitzgerald  :  You  could  not  come  without  the  leave  of  the  Cor- 
poration of  Glasgow,  because  you  have  been  already  retained  to  give 
evidence  for  them  ? 

Witness  :  You  may  put  any  interpretation  you  like  on  it. 

Of  course,  a  witness  cannot  appear  for  a  Bill  and  against  it,  and 
that  was  your  position  ? — I  think  the  Committee  have  already  found 
there  is  a  mixture  somewhat  between  the  promoters  and  the  opponents 
here.  I  may  say  that  I  should  not  have  been  here  this  morning  had 
not  it  been  for  the  Order  of  the  House. 

I  hope  you  do  not  think  I  am  making  any  personal  imputation  upon 
you  at  all  ? — Not  at  all. 

Replying  to  further  questions  by  Mr.  Imtzgeralo,  witness  agreed 
that  the  burghs  of  Govan  and  Partick  were  quite  capable  themselves 
of  supporting  profitable  gas-works,  and  from  these  burghs  there  must 
be  a  considerable  profit  made  on  the  supply.  These  places  had  the 
advantage  of  the  capital  raised  by  Glasgow,  they  had  the  advantage  of 
the  management  of  the  Glasgow  Corporation,  and  they  had  the  security 
from  any  loss  resulting  from  accident  or  what  not.  In  Glasgow,  the 
maximum  price  was  4s.  yd.,  and  the  present  actual  price  2s.  ;  and  it  was 
almost  inconceivable  that  they  would  want  to  go  beyond  the  maximum 
price.  It  was  sometimes  the  case  that  if  any  unusual  demand  came 
upon  a  gas  undertaking  it  had  to  be  met  out  of  revenue;  and  if  the 
revenue  of  the  year  was  not  sufficient,  it  was  carried  to  a  suspense 
account.  In  the  same  way,  if  there  was  a  deficit  in  one  year,  it  was 
usually  met  out  of  the  profits  of  the  next  year. 

In  answer  to  Lord  Robert  Cecil,  witness  agreed  that  the  reserve 
fund  was  to  be  a  very  considerable  sum — /^  per  annum.  This 
was  not  quite  equal  to  id.  per  icoo  cubic  feet  on  the  price  of  gas. 

Mr.  Vesev  Knox  said  he  intended  to  place  before  the  Committee  a 
clause  with  regard  to  the  reserve  fund  ;  and  he  proposed  that  it  should 
be  the  same  as  in  the  Salford  case  — i  per  cent,  per  annum,  and  a 
maximum  of  10  per  cent,  on  the  outstanding  capital.  In  round  figures 
it  would  be  ;^ii,ooo  a  year,  and  a  maximum  of  ^220,000. 

Mr.  Nt'lsoii  then  resumed  his  evidence.  Replying  to  Lord  Robert 
Cecil,  witness  said  that  where  they  were  trading  in  an  area  outside 
the  City  boundaries,  he  thought  it  right  to  lax  the  consumer  of  gas  and 
place  the  profits  to  the  relief  of  the  rates.  He  would  tax  those  outside 
for  the  benefit  of  those  inside  ;  and  the  more  profit  that  could  be  made 
out  of  them  the  better.    But  there  were  limitations. 

Mr.  Thomas  Stuai  t,  a  solicitor,  then  gave  evidence  on  behalf  of  the 
House  Ofiaets'  Association.  He  said  that  there  was  a  gas  guarantee 
rate  of  6d.  in  the  pound,  whicli  might  be  levied  in  the  event  of  any 
deficiency  in  the  payment  of  the  gas  annuities.  There  was  a  liability 
on  the  owners  and  occupiers  of  a  capital  debt  exceeding  /^2, 000, 000, 
for  which  the  entire  obligation  was  upon  the  City  of  Glasgow  itself — 
it  was  not  shared  by  the  outside  areas.  He  agreed  that  the  best  way 
to  keep  the  charge  for  gas  down  was  to  devote  the  profits  of  the  gas 
undertaking  to  the  reduction  of  the  price  of  ^as.  If  there  was  a  loss  on 
the  gas  undertaking  it  was  not  always  advisable  to  raise  the  price  of 
gas  in  order  to  meet  it.  There  was  a  strong  feeling  that  the  borrowing 
powers  asked  for  by  gas  authorities  should  absolutely  prohibit  the  per- 
nicious practice  of  selling  dear  gas  to  relieve  the  rates  ;  but  he  disagreed 
that  establishing  a  reserve  fund  would  make  the  gas  dear. 

Mr.  //.  E.  Jones  said  the  reserve  fund  was  only  spreading  over  a  num- 
ber of  years,  in  the  shape  of  a  small  composition  of  J  per  cent,  per 
annum,  a  sum  which  would  equalize  the  price  of  gas  over  a  long  period  ; 
and  whether  they  charged  a  higher  price  in  some  year  after  making 
a  loss  (which  meant  a  large  contribution  from  the  gas  consumers),  or 
whether  they  took  a  small  contribution  from  him  for  a  number  of  years 
until  there  was  10  per  cent,  accumulated  and  then  took  nothing  mere 
from  him,  was  really  a  matter  of  indifference,  except  that  the  reserve 
fund  made  the  undertakers  more  safe  in  surviving  fluctuations  of  the 
coal  market  and  such  like  things.  The  Glasgow  Corporation  had  not  a 
reserve  fund  ;  but  they  had  power  to  carry  any  surplus  to  the  "  Common 
Good,"  and  they  had  been  singularly  self-denying  in  exercising  it.  A 
corporation  trading  outside  its  own  limits  might  be  regarded  as  a  com- 
pany taking  a  risk  and  carrying  on  a  trade  for  the  benefit  of  outsiders. 
In  this  case,  the  outer  areas  would  have  to  depend,  and  did  depend,  on 
very  expensive  supplies  of  gas,  and  very  small  gas  undertakings  which 
could  not  possibly  manufacture  cheaply.  This  was  a  consideration 
which  not  only  justified  an  extra  price  of  gas  in  these  cases,  but  even  in 
the  cases  within  the  Metropolitan  limits;  so  that  the  consumer  got 
the  advantage  in  his  neighbourhood  of  a  large  and  a  very  successful 
gas  undertaking.  He  did  not  think  these  people  ought  to  expect  the 
ratepayers  in  Glasgow  proper  to  take  any  risk  on  their  shoulders  in  re- 
spect of  what  might  happen  in  the  case  of  some  great  invention  super- 
seding gas  altogether.  In  the  Salford  case,  Lord  Donoughmore,  the 
Chairman  of  the  Committee,  laid  down  lines  which  he  (witness)  was 
bound  to  admit  the  Salford  Corporation  would  not  accept  ;  but  10  his 
mind,  they  were  fairly  clear  and  reasonable  conditions  to  lay  down. 
Lord  Donoughmore  made  provision  not  only  for  the  reserve  fund,  but 
for  what  he  called  brains  and  risk.  But  he  clearly  did  not  mean  so 
much  brains  as  risk,  because  he  limited  it  to  i  per  cent,  upon  whatever 
the  capital  outstanding  on  the  undertaking  might  be  ;  and  clearly,  with 
an  undertaking  that  was  redeeming  its  capital,  this  balance  diminished 
while  the  concern  probably  grew  and  extended,  so  that  his  measure- 
ment of  the  brains  could  not  have  been  in  proportion  to  the  scale  of  the 
undertaking.  He  must  have  had  in  his  mind  the  risk,  because  he  re- 
mitted it  to  the  diminished  amount  of  the  outstanding  capital  :  and  that 
seemed  reasonable.  Witness  considered  it  fair,  in  the  circumstances 
of  Glasgow,  that  this  should  be  allowed,  inasmuch  as  they  had  power 
to  carry  sums  to  the  "  Common  Good."  This  was  part  of  the  statutory 
bargain  between  the  owners  and  the  ratepayers  of  Glasgow  and  all 
others  concerned  at  the  time  that  the  undertakings  were  purchased 
from  the  Companies.  This  power  had  not  in  any  respect  been 
abu'^ed  ;  and  the  only  amount  now  standing  to  the  credit  of  the  gas 
undertaking  in  this  respect  was  about  ;^2r,ooo  over  a  period  of  forty 
years.  He  distinctly  disapproved  of  tbe  large  sums  carried  to  the 
rates  in  many  cases.    There  was  no  reason  why  Glasgow  should  be 

deprived  entirely  of  the  powers  they  had  had  without  abusing  tbera 
for  41  years  ;  and  they  ought  to  have  a  sum  which  would  go  towards 
diminishing  the  risk  to  the  house  owners  in  case  of  some  sudden  in- 
vention which  might  convert  the  whole  thing  into  a  total  loss. 

Mr.  Fitzgerald  ;  I  am  sure  you  do  not  want  to  retract  in  any  way 
what  you  told  the  Committee  the  day  before  yesterday  ? 

Witness  No  ;  not  in  the  least.  But  you  then  put  it  to  me  that  all 
the  profits  should  go  in  the  reduction  of  the  price  of  gas.  My  answer 
was  intended  to  mean  that  profits  should  go  in  the  direction  of  a  reduc- 
tion in  the  price  of  gas — that  is  to  say,  that  they  should  mainly  go  in 
the  reduction  of  the  price. 

Mr.  Vesev  Kno.x  then  addressed  the  Committee  on  behalf  of  the 
House  Owners'  Association.  He  said  that  when  the  Corporation  took 
over  the  gas  supply  on  terms  set  forth  in  their  Act  of  1SG9,  one  of  the 
terms  was  that  a  surplus  might  be  carried  to  the  general  purposes  of 
the  Corporation,  and  he  now  asked  that  a  reserve  fund  be  established. 
He  asked  the  Committee  to  accept  the  following  additions  to  clause  50, 
with  regard  to  the  application  of  revenue. 

Eighthly:  In  providing,  if  the  Corporation  think  fit,  a  reserve  fund,  by 
setting  apart  a  yearly  sum  not  exceeding  ten  shillings  per  cent,  upon  so 
much  as  is  outstanding  for  the  time  being  of  the  moneys  borrowed  or  re- 
borrowed for  the  purpose  of  such  undertaking,  and  investing  the  same,  and 
the  resulting  income  thereof,  in  statutory  securities,  and  accumulating  the 
same  at  compound  interest  until  such  fund  amounts  to  a  sum  equal  to  ten 
per  cent,  of  the  moneys  so  outstanding,  and  whenever  the  said  fund  amounts 
to  that  sum  the  income  therefrom  shall  be  applied  in  the  same  manner  as 
moneys  received  by  the  Corporation  by  way  of  fevenue  in  respect  of  the  said 
undertaking  :  Provided  that  if  and  whenever  the  said  reserve  fund  shall  fall 
below  the  said  last  mentioned  sum  the  Corporation  may  set  apart  such 
yearly  sum  as  aforesaid  until  the  said  reserve  fund  shall  amount  to  such 
last-mentioned  sum. 

Ninthly  :  In  any  year  when  the  price  charged  to  ordinary  consumers 
within  the  City  supply  district  does  not  exceed  2S.  per  1000  cubic  feet  of  gas, 
in  setting  apart  a  yearly  sum  not  exceeding  one  pound  per  cent,  upon  xhrt 
amount  of  moneys  borrowed  or  re-borrowed  in  respect  of  the  undertaking, 
and  for  the  time  being  outstanding,  and  upon  the  amount  of  the  estimated 
capitalized  value  of  the  annuities  as  on  the  31st  day  of  May,  1909,  after 
deducting  all  sums  repaid  and  all  sums  outstanding  to  the  credit  of  the 
sinking  fund,  which  sum  shall  be  carried  to  the  credit  of  the  Corporation 
for  their  general  purposes. 

Counsel  went  on  to  say  that  i  per  cent,  would  amount  to  ^'22,000  a 
year.  This  was  a  very  modest  profit  for  the  people  who  had  found  the 
whole  of  the  capital  and  had  run  all  the  risk.  If  the  Committee 
followed  the  decision  given  in  the  Salford  case,  justice  would  be  done 
to  the  ratepayers. 

Lord  Ror.ERT  Cecil  said  that  the  application  of  the  profits  of  the 
undertaking  in  the  past  had  been  in  payment  of  capital  charges.  This 
had  been  contributed  to  by  all,  and  had  been  to  the  benefit  of  Glasgow, 
because  it  was  a  repayment  of  the  loan  they  had  raised.  The  outside 
districts  were  all  quite  ready  to  share  in  the  remote  possibility  of  raising 
a  guarantee  fund.  They  did  not  desire  to  resist  the  Corporation  in 
creating  a  reserve  fund  if  it  were  thought  a  desirable  course.  He  asked 
the  Committee  to  give  the  Corporation  the  reserve  fund,  but  not  the 
right  to  apply  any  profits  to  the  relief  of  the  rates.  If  the  Committee 
thought  tlie  Corporation  ought  to  have  the  right  to  apply  profits  to  the 
relief  of  the  rates,  however,  he  asked  that  it  should  be  madeconditional 
upon  their  charging  no  more  than  2S.  per  1000  cubic  feet  all  through 
their  area. 

Mr.  Iliuislon,  the  Town  Clerk  of  Govan,  giving  evidence  in  support 
of  this  position,  said  the  burgh  were  absolutely  tied  to  the  Corporation 
for  their  supply  of  gas  ;  and  the  profits  from  the  undertaking  ought  to 
go  to  the  benefit  of  the  consumers.  With  regard  to  the  House  Owners' 
Association,  he  said  the  guarantee  rate  was  levied  on  the  occupiers, 
and  did  not  fall  on  the  owners  at  all.  Moreover,  he  did  not  think  there 
was  any  chance  of  this  rate  being  called  for.  If  the  burghs  were 
allowed  to  set  up  gas-works  of  their  own,  they  could  supply  themselves 
as  cheaply  as  they  got  it  from  Glasgow. 

Mr.  Fitzgerald  said  the  question  of  principle  really  was,  where 
they  had  a  gas  undertaking  vested  in  a  municipal  body,  an  undertaking 
by  which  not  only  the  constituents  were  supplied  but  large  districts 
were  supplied  who  were  not  constituents,  whether  the  proper  applica- 
tion of  the  fund  resulting  as  profits  from  carrying  on  the  undertaking 
was  the  reduction  of  the  rates  of  the  inside  district  or  the  reduction 
of  the  price  of  gas  to  the  consumers  throughout  the  district.  If  the 
second  method  were  adopted,  the  result  was  that  the  p refit  made  from 
all  the  consumers  of  gas  was  returned  to  all  the  consumers  equally 
by  means  of  a  reduction  in  the  price  of  gas.  If,  on  the  other  hand,  it 
were  applied  in  the  relief  of  the  rates  of  the  central  town,  it  was 
applied  only  in  relief  of  the  ratepayers  of  that  town,  many  of 
whom  were  not  consumers  of  gas,  and  did  not  contribute  to  the  profit 
at  all.  The  great  majority  of  Engl  sh  towns  had  the  right  to  apply 
profits  in  relief  of  their  own  rates.  The  power  had  been  considerably 
abused,  and,  in  consequence,  there  was  a  strong  tendency  to  do  away 
with  the  practice.  But  in  Scotland,  since  the  year  1856,  it  had  been 
the  rule  to  apply  the  profits  in  the  reduction  of  the  price  of  gas.  In 
this  case,  of  the  /22,ooo,  something  over  /5000  a  year  would  be  paid 
by  the  outside  burghs,  which  would  be  most  inequitable. 

The  Committee,  after  a  brief  deliberation  in  private,  decided  that 
provision  should  be  made  for  the  creation  of  a  reserve  fund  ;  bat  that 
there  should  be  no  relief  of  the  rates  by  the  profits  from  the  gas  under- 

Mr.  Balfour  Browne  said  he  understood  that  in  Mr.  Vesey  Knox's 
clause  "  Eighthly"  would  stand,  and  "  Ninthly  "  would  be  struck  out. 
This  was  agreed. 

The  clauses  were  finally  adjusted  yesterday  (Monday). 

Prepayment  Gas-Meter  Charges  at  Bolton. — The  ugenda  for  to- 

rnorrow's  meeting  of  the  Bolton  Town  Council  includes  the  following 
special  motion  standing  in  the  name  of  Mr.  France  :  "  That  it  be  an 
instruction  from  this  Council  to  the  Gas  and  Lighting  Committee  that 
the  charge  for  gas  supplied  through  the  prepayment  meters  be  fixed  at 
the  rate  of  id.  per  30  cubic  feet,  instead  of  id.  per  25  cubic  feet  as  at 
present ;  and  that  such  reduced  charge  take  effect  as  from  the  30th  day 
of  September  next." 

^  July  5,  1910.] 





'i  House  of  Lords  Committee.— Monday,  June  27. 

i  3t'foi-e  the  Duke  of  Bedford,  Chairman,  the  Marquis  of  Bristol,  the 
<         Earl  of  Westmoreland,  Lord  Basing,  and  Lord  Digby.) 
The  consideration  of  the  clauses  of  this  Bill  (the  opening  proceedings 

a  which  appeared  in  the  "  Journal  "  last  week,  p.  967)  was  resumed 


Mr.  Brown  (representing  Messrs.  Dyson  and  Co.,  Parliamentary 
Vgents),  on  behalf  of  the  County  Councils  of  East  and  West  Sussex, 

.;tated  that  the  remaining  points  in  the  Bill  to  which  they  took 
)bjection  were  such  as  not  to  justify  their  further  occupying  the  Com- 

i  nittee's  time. 

Mr.  Talbot  (representing  the  Brighton  Corporation),  remarked  that 
I  here  were  two  clauses  to  which  they  took  exception  ;  but  on  one  of 
hese  they  had  practically  arrived  at  a  settlement  with  the  Gas  Com- 
'jany.    On  the  other,  which  dealt  with  the  terms  under  which  the 
i  Company  were  to  provide  gas  for  public  lighting,  he  said  the  substitu- 
'  ;ion  of  the  incandescent  mantle  for  the  old  form  of  gas-burner  had  re- 
ieved  the  Corporation  of  the  necessity  which  they  were  under,  under 
ihe  existing  law,  either  of  burning  more  gas  than  they  wanted  or  of  pay- 
ing for  more  than  they  burned.    They  were  asking  now  to  be  obliged 
^nly  to  take  and  pay  for  the  gas  which  was  actually  wanted  for  the 
itreet-lamps.  Section  31  of  the  Act  of  1866  provided  that  the  Company 
were  to  supply  not  less  than  5  cubic  feet  of  gas  per  lamp  per  hour,  and 
in  the  Act  of  1873,  instead  of  the  provisions  in  the  Act  of  1866  it  was 
provided  that  it  should  be  5  cubic  feet  per  lamp  per  hour  ;  and  there 
,  was  a  provision  of  15,000  feet  for  each  lamp  each  year,  which  worked 
!  out  at  about  4  feet  per  lamp.    These  provisions  were  with  reference 
>';o  the  then  type  of  burner— the  old  flat-flame  burner.    In  igo8,  the 
[  Corporation  and  the  Company  came  to  an  agreement — the  Company 
meeting  them  most  fairly  and  properly  ;  and  they  agreed  to  convert  the 
"576  street  burners  into  incandescent  burners.    The  Borough  Surveyor 
,  reported  to  the  Corporation  that,  by  the  substitution  of  3-feet  burners 
for  4-feet  burners,  there  would  be  a  considerable  saving.    When  ap- 
proached on  the  matter,  the  Company  pointed  out  that  they  had  just 
.made  a  conversion,  and  had  based  their  estimate  upon  a  contract  of 
;  seven  years  ;  so  the  Corporation  agreed  that  nothing  should  be  done 
\  during  the  existence  of  the  contract.    They  asked  to  be  allowed  to  take 
i  3  feet  per  lamp  instead  of  4  feet. 

Mr.  Hugo  Talbot,  the  Town  Clerk  of  Brighton,  said  the  proposal 
would  have  the  effect  of  repealing  certain  parts  of  the  Company's 
Acts  of  1866  and  1873  in  regard  to  street  lighting,  the  latter  of  which 
prescribed  a  minimum  of  15,000  cubic  feet  per  lamp  to  be  taken  in  each 
I  year.    If  they  took  this  quantity,  it  worked  out  at  4  feet  per  lamp  per 

■  hour.  In  i8gi,  the  Corporation  established  an  electric  lighting  under- 
taking;  and  the  bulk  of  the  streets  were  now  lighted  with  electricity. 
The  use  of  4  feet  of  gas  in  an  incandescent  burner  gave  an  undue  amount 
of  light ;  and  they  were  advised  that  a  3-feet  burner  would  give  75-candle 

j'  power,  which  would  be  sufficient  for  the  purpose  of  their  ordinary 
,  streets,  and  would  give  a  better  light  than  any  of  the  electric  incan- 
descent lamps.    They  were  seeking  to  preserve  the  contract  between 
the  Corporation  and  the  Company  until  1915. 
In  reply  to  Mr,  Balfour  Browne,  who  appeared  for  the  Company, 
!'  witness  said  that  if  their  clause  was  accepted  it  would  remove  a  con- 
I  tract  which  had  been  sanctioned  by  Parliament ;  but  there  was  now 
'.  a  difference  in  the  burner.    The  Corporation  were  the  manufacturers 
and  sellers  of  electricity.    All  the  principal  streets  were  lighted  by  elec- 
,.  tricity.    It  was  competent  for  the  Corporation,  at  the  end  of  this  agree- 
ment with  the  Company,  to  give  up  the  use  of  gas  altogether.  Reply- 
I  ing  further  to  Counsel,  who  asked  :  "  Supposing  4  feet  per  hour  is  just 
.  sufficient  to  give  a  really  good  light,  why  should  it  be  reduced,"  witness 
'  said  that  at  the  present  moment  it  was  the  Sanitary  Authority,  under 
|f  the  Public  Health  Act,  who  had  the  duty  of  providing  street  lighting; 
^  and  they  were  the  proper  judges  of  what  light  was  sufiicient  or  not. 

I  He  could  not  agree  that  3  feet  burners  would  give  a  bad  light.  Such 
'i  light  ought  to  be  given  as  the  Local  Authority  considered  to  be  a  good 
1'  one  ;  and  so  far  as  his  observation  went,  the  75-candle  power  which 
f  was  obtained  from  the  3-feet  burner  was  a  far  brighter  light,  and  com- 
il  pared  most  favourably  with  ordinary  incandescent  electric  lamps. 

r     Mr.  Talbot  :  At  the  end  of  this  period  of  seven  years,  you  are  at 

^  liberty  to  discontinue  the  taking  of  gas  altogether  ? 

r     Witness:  Yes  ;  but  we  do  not  want  to  do  that  if  we  can  help  it.  We 

II  shall  continue  it  if  we  can  do  so  on  a  business-like  footing  ;  but  we  do 

■  not  want  to  burn  more  gas  than  we  require,  or  pay  for  more  than  we 

V  Mr.  Ram,  on  behalf  of  the  Corporation  of  Hove,  remarked  that  their 
Y,  position  was  almost  identical  with  that  of  Brighton.  But  at  Hove 
•i  there  was  no  agreement  with  regard  to  public  lighting  such  as  there 
«  was  in  Brighton. 

I  Mr.  A.  M.  Paddon,  the  Chairman  of  the  Company,  gave  evidence. 
I  He  stated  that  Hove  took  as  much  or  as  little  gas  as  they  wanted,  and 
f'  it  had  no  effect  on  them  at  all.  With  regard  to  Brighton,  he  said  the 
I  electric  competition  was  one  of  the  keenest  in  the  kingdom. 

Mr.  Balfour  Browne  :  In  order  to  compete  with  the  electricity, 
•  even  by  means  of  incandescent  mantles,  you  want  to  give  a  really  good 
i;  and  effective  light  ? 

Witness :  We  do,  and  we  have  done  so.  The  Corporation  have  taken 
^  all  the  more  favourable  public  lighting  for  themselves,  and  have  left  us 
_  with  the  less  profitable  portion. 

Would  3  feet  an  hour  give  an  effective  and  efficient  light  ? — It  would 
i  not.  It  would  seriously  impair  us  in  the  contest  we  are  carrying  on  with 
'4  the  electric  light. 

[  Replying  to  Mr.  Talbot,  witness  said  the  Corporation  were  at  present 
^  pledged  to  burn  4  feet ;  but  that  was  by  agreement,  and  wholly  to  the 
J  advantage  of  the  Corporation.  It  was  no  hardship  on  them  to  burn 
^  4  feet.  He  was  not  willing  that  the  question  as  between  4  feet  and 
j.  3  feet  should  be  submitted  to  arbitration. 

I  Mr.  Balfour  Browne  (to  witness)  :  In  Hove  they  are  using  just 
;  about  4  feet  per  hour  ? 

Witness :  Yes  ;  because  that  is  the  amount  necessary  to  give  a  good 

Mr.  Joseph  Cash,  the  General  Manager  of  the  Company,  said  they 
wanted  to  give  a  better  light  than  the  incandescent  electric  lamps  ;  and 
if  they  burnt  less  than  4  feet  of  gas  per  hour  in  a  public  lamp,  they 
would  have  a  half-filled  mantle.  It  would  be  a  dismal  failure.  The 
Company  wanted  to  have  sufficient  gas  burnt  to  give  a  good  light, 
and  one  that  would  compete  with  electricity,  in  order  that  gas  could 
hold  its  own. 

In  reply  to  Mr.  Talbot,  witness  said  that,  with  the  old  fishtail 
burner,  they  got  2  candles  per  cubic  foot — about  lo-candle  power. 
They  could  now  get  Ga-candle  power  with  a  3-feet  burner.  The  illu- 
minating power  of  the  electric  lights  was  about  25  candles.  The  Cor- 
poration were  trying  to  drive  the  Company  to  the  3  feet ;  so  that  they 
could  compare  their  electric  light  more  favourably  with  gas. 

Mr.  Balfour  Browne,  in  addressing  the  Committee  on  the  point, 
remarked  that  in  Hove,  where  they  were  absolutely  free  to  burn  as 
much  gas  as  they  pleased,  they  used  4  cubic  feet  an  hour,  because  they 
thought  it  necessary  lo  have  a  really  good  light.  The  Brighton  Cor- 
poration were  asking  for  the  3-feet  burner,  because  they  had  the  elec- 
tricity supply  in  their  own  hands  ;  and  if  the  light  they  proposed  were 
given,  it  would  be  a  dismal  failure  in  the  Company's  lamps,  and  the 
people  would  say  they  would  not  have  gas,  but  electricity. 

The  Committee  declined  to  amend  the  clause  in  the  Bill. 

The  Chairman  of  the  Company  having  formally  proved  the  pre- 
amble, and  the  clauses  having  been  adjusted,  the  Bill  was  ordered  to 
be  reported. 


Gas  Companies  and  the  Smoke  Nuisance. 

The  Local  Legislation  Committee  of  the  House  of  Commons,  presided 
over  by  Sir  Francis  Layland-Barratt,  concluded  their  consideration 
last  week  of  Part  IV.  of  the  above  Bill. 

The  Chairman  intimated  that,  with  regard  to  the  amendment  of  the 
meaning  of  the  word  "chimney,"  there  were  only  two  cases,  so  far  as 
he  understood,  which  it  would  directly  affect.  One  was  the  railway 
companies  steaming-up  engines,  and  the  other  ihe  gas  companies  dis- 
charging their  retorts.  The  Committee,  he  said,  had  had  no  evidence 
brought  before  them  by  the  promoters  as  to  the  existence  of  the  nuis- 
ance, and  it  was  very  difficult  for  the  Committee  to  give  the  extension 
of  power  in  the  absence  of  such  evidence. 

Mr.  Fitzgerald  remarked  that,  following  the  expression  of  opinion 
given  by  the  Committee,  they  did  not  now  ask  to  have  included  in  the 
Bill  any  definition  of  the  word  "  chimney."  The  only  point  for  discus- 
sion was  in  regard  to  the  elimination  of  the  word  "  black  ;  "  so  that  in 
the  future  what  would  have  to  be  determined  by  the  magistrate  would 
be  simply  whether  a  nuisance  had  or  had  not  been  created  by  the 
emission  of  smoke  from  a  chimney.  What  the  petitioners  were  really 
complaining  of  was  that  the  emission  of  black  smoke  should  be  treated 
as  a  nuisance  at  all,  forgetting  the  fact  that  it  had  been  the  law  for 
fifty  years.  It  was  because  the  sanitary  authorities  had  enforced  this 
law  that  the  petitioners  were  setting  up  a  grievance.  A  loophole  of 
escape  had  been  found  which  had  prevented  the  law  from  being  effec- 
tive in  one  case,  and  which  certainly  would  prevent  its  being  effective 
in  other  cases  ;  and  the  petitioners  against  the  Bill  asked  that  the  loop- 
hole should  be  left  open,  so  that  they  might  escape  through  it. 

The  Chairman  :  Then  we  may  take  it  that  the  County  Council  are 
absolutely  opposed  to  the  suggestion  made  by  Mr.  Balfour  Browne  ? 

Mr.  Fitzgerald  replied  in  the  affirmative.  Continuing,  he  said 
that  for  the  last  forty  years  or  longer  gas  companies  had  been  placed 
by  Parliament  in  the  position  that  they  were  not  excused  under  any 
circumstances  at  all  if  they  created  a  nuisance.  It  was  not  a  question 
of  doing  their  best  or  not  being  negligent,  or  using  the  best  appliances, 
or  anything  of  that  sort.  It  was  found  that  the  South  Metropolitan 
Gas  Company  had  never  during  the  last  forty  years  been  proceeeded 
against  at  all,  or  been  the  subject  of  complaint.  In  regard  to  the 
Gaslight  and  Coke  Company,  they  had  not  been  proceeded  against  for 
a  number  of  years.  Of  course,  there  was  a  time  when  the  Company 
did  not  enjoy  so  high  a  reputation  as  it  did  at  present.  Rather  than 
have  the  law  weakened,  the  County  Council  would  sooner  have  the 
clause  struck  out  altogether.  There  was  the  alternative  way  of  sub- 
stituting the  word  "dense"  for  the  word  "black";  but  the  much 
simpler  method  of  dealing  with  the  matter  was  to  strike  out  the  word 
"  black  "  altogether.  If  the  word  "dense  "  were  inserted,  they  got  rid 
of  the  question  of  colour.  But  the  smoke  had  to  be  dense  and  create  a 
nuisance  ;  and  if  these  two  conditions  were  satisfied,  the  person  emitting 
Ihe  smoke  would  be  convicted.  He  agreed  that  by  striking  out  "  black," 
and  inserting  "  dense,"  the  Committee  would  be  strengthening  and  not 
weakening  the  law,  because  they  would  get  rid  of  the  difficulty  created 
by  the  Lots  Road  decision,  and  by  the  terms  of  the  Act  of  1891. 
Something  had  been  said  by  opponents  of  the  Bill  about  the  nuisance 
created  by  the  chimneys  of  private  houses  ;  but  he  did  not  see  what 
bearing  it  had  upon  the  question  at  all.  Parliament  had  enacted  in  all 
the  Acts  that  these  provisions  were  not  to  apply  to  smoke  coming  from 
chimneys  of  private  houses.  All  the  local  authorities  in  London  were 
in  agreement  that  the  word  "  black  "  should  be  omitted. 

The  Committee  considered  their  decision  in  private  ;  and  when  the 
parties  were  again  called  in. 

The  said  that  they  bad  given  the  proposal  a  considerable 
amount  of  attention,  and  they  noted  particularly,  in  the  course  of  Mr. 
Fitzgerald's  speech,  that  the  County  Council  repudiated  the  suggestion 
of  a  clause  on  the  lines  which  were  proposed  by  Mr.  Balfour  Browne. 
He  was  not  talking  of  the  terms  of  the  words  ;  but  the  Committee  had 
given  the  matter  the  most  careful  consideration,  and  had  come  to  the 
conclusion  that  they  had  had  no  evidence  before  them  which  would 
justify  them  in  assenting  to  the  omission  of  the  word  "  black  "  from 
the  clause.  It  would  have  been  of  very  considerable  assistance  to  the 
Committee  if  some  evidence  had  been  produced  as  to  the  effect  on  the 
working  of  the  omission  of  the  word  "  black  "  in  Scotland.  The  unani- 
mous decision  of  the  Committee  was  that  the  word  "  black  "  be  not 
omitted  ;  and  therefore  clause  20  would  be  struck  out  of  the  Bill. 



[July  5,  igio. 


The  Joint  Committee  of  the  House  of  Lords  and  the  House  of  Com- 
mons who  have  been  charged  with  the  consideration  of  the  above  Bill 
(see  Vol.  ex.,  p.  879)  met  again  on  Thursday,  the  i6th  ult. — Lord  Mac- 
DoNNELL  presiding.    When  the  proceedings  were  resumed, 

Dr.  Henry  N.  Dickson  was  examined.  As  regarded  the  provisions 
of  the  Bill,  his  view  was  that,  as  the  law  at  present  stood,  it  was  not 
adapted  to  modern  natural  conditions,  which  were  now  so  modified  by 
artificial  conditions  as  to  cause  serious  injury.  Suppose  a  large  town 
required  a  considerable  quantity  of  water,  and  that  the  supply  had  to 
be  obtained  without  going  to  a  distance,  it  must  then  be  had  from  an 
artesian  basin  which  caused  injury  in  two  ways.  H  water  circulated 
easily  within  the  basin,  the  basin  as  a  whole  became  depleted  through 
the  extraction  from  underground  exceeding  the  supply  to  the  basin 
from  the  surface.  Under  these  conditions,  the  injury  was  probably 
not  apparent  near  the  point  or  points  of  abstraction  so  much  as  in  the 
more  distant  parts  of  the  collecting  area,  because  the  water  flowed 
towards  the  wells  almost  as  fast  as  it  was  pumped.  The  second  in- 
stance was  that  if  water  did  not  circulate  freely  the  level  of  the  under- 
ground water  was  lowered,  temporarily  or  permanently,  near  the  point 
of  abstraction,  and  little  or  no  effect  was  produced  at  a  distance.  With 
regard  to  the  first  case,  the  example  best  known  to  him  was  that  of  the 
effect  of  extensive  pumping  by  the  Metropolitan  Water  Board  (and 
their  predecessors,  the  New  River  Compmy  and  the  East  London 
Water  Company)  in  the  valley  of  the  River  Lee  before  Hereford,  on  the 
area  lying  to  the  noith  of  Hertfordshire.  From  examination  of  the 
water  conditions  of  Hertfordshire,  and  comparison  with  those  in  sur- 
rounding counties  in  which  circumstances  were  similar,  he  had  ascer- 
tained that  in  parts  of  Hertfordshire  the  flow  of  the  rivers  and  springs 
were  clearly  affected  by  something  abnormal  and  outside  natural 
seasonal  variations. 

Lord  Desdorougii  asked  witness's  opinion  as  to  the  expression 
"protected  area"  in  the  Bill. 

Dr.  Dickson  replied  that  it  meant  an  area  within  a  radius  of  two- 
and-a-half  miles  from  the  works.  It  seemed  to  him  a  reasonable  one, 
on  the  ground  that  the  influence  of  a  large  extraction  of  wa'er  from  a 
central  point  in  a  water-bearing  formation  of  this  kind  was  two-fold — 
a  local  "cone  of  depression"  was  formed,  and  the  gradients  determin- 
ing the  flow  of  undtrgrouod  water  in  the  vicinity  of  the  well  were 
altered  in  directness  and  steepness.  The  formation  of  the  local  cone 
of  depression  was  universally  admitted.  The  disturbance  due  to  altera- 
tion of  gradients  arose  primarily  from  the  influence  of  the  local  cone  ; 
and  damage  done  by  one  well  or  supply  to  another  in  either  case  could 
be  described  as  the  result  of  "  mutual  interference."  In  witness's  opin- 
ion, the  passing  of  the  Bill  would  be  advantageous  to  those  who  could 
not  afford  to  fight  Water  Bills  before  Parliamentary  Committees. 

Mr.  Thomas  Hannell  was  the  next  witness.  He  gave  evidence  to 
the  effect  that  long  years  of  experience  had  convinced  him  that  the 
water  supplies  of  the  inhabitants  of  areas  which  were  suitable,  and 
which  were  now  largely  and  every  day  more  and  more  called  upon 
to  supply  water,  were  not  sufficiently  protected.  Pumpirg  from  wells 
in  the  porous  strata  of  these  districts  injured  the  private  supplies  ;  and 
under  the  existing  law,  no  compensation  could  be  obtained  for  such 
injuries.  He  supported  the  plea  for  the  general  necessity  for  protec- 
tion being  afforded,  giving  as  instances  his  experiences  in  regard  to 
wells  that  had  been  pumped  dry,  but  which  became  serviceable  after 
pumping  had  been  discontinued  for  some  time. 

Tde  Chairman  said  that  the  Committee  were  satisfied  with  the  evi- 
dence on  the  points  to  which  it  related  up  to  the  present.  They  had 
not,  of  course,  made  up  their  minds  ;  bat  he  suggested  that  the  points 
already  discussed  had  been  sufficiently  dealt  with  by  evidence. 

Mr.  G.  ].  Grii  i-itiis,  the  Engineer  to  the  Thames  Conservancy, 
gave  the  result  of  his  experiences  in  connection  with  the  work  of  the 
Conservancy.  The  water  of  the  Thames  was  considerably  affected  by 
pumping  operations  in  the  neighbourhood.  This  was  proved  when 
new  locks  were  being  put  in  place. 

Replying  to  Lord  Desborodgh,  Mr.  Griffiths  said  it  was  most  im- 
portant to  the  Thames  Conservancy  to  protect  the  river  by  protecting 
its  neighbourhood.  If  pumping  was  allowed  without  restraint,  it  would 
very  seriously  affect  the  interests  of  the  Thames  Conservancy. 

The  Chairman  :  As  I  understand  your  evidence,  in  order  to  enable 
the  Conservancy  to  efficiently  perform  their  duties,  it  is  necessary 
that  they  should  have  full  means  to  estimate  the  effect  of  any  wells 
sunk  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Thames  ? 

Mr.  Griffiths  :  That  is  so.  We  have  not  that  power  now  ;  but  the 
present  Bill  would  give  us  the  necessary  authority. 

At  this  point. 

The  Chairman  said  the  Committee  did  not  desire  to  take  further 
evidence  in  regard  to  the  affirmative  proposition — that  the  Bill  should 
be  reported  to  the  House.  They  desired  to  hear  evidence  against  the 
measure.     He  understood  there  were  several  interests  in  question. 

Some  of  the  Parliamentary  Agents  present  asked  for  time  for  con- 
sultation before  calling  evidence  ;  and  the  Chairman  acceded  to  this. 

When  the  proceedings  were  resumed  on  the  21st  ult., 
Mr.  Alfred  Blackburn,  the  Resident  Engineer  and  Manager  of  the 
Sunderland  and  South  Shields  Water-Works,  stated  that  the  effect  of 
clause  3  would  be  to  prevent  the  construction  of  new  works  and  the 
extension  of  existing  authorized  works  without  further  parliamentary 
sanction.  This  clause  should  not  apply  to  any  land  already  authorized 
by  Parliament  for  the  purposes  of  new  works.  All  that  could  reason- 
ably be  required  in  future  applications  was  a  statement  as  to  the  land 
proposed  to  be  acquired,  and  the  purposes  for  which  it  was  wanted. 
Undertakers  should  not  be  required  to  give  details  as  to  their  works. 
Clause  3  would  operate  oppressively,  because,  under  it,  if  suppliers 
wished  (say)  to  deepen  a  well,  make  a  borehole,  or  lengthen  a  drift, 
they  would  have  to  apply  to  Parliament  for  authority.  If  any  great 
development  of  an  original  project,  amounting  practically  to  the  con- 
struction of  new  works,  were  contemplated,  there  would  be  much  to  be 
said  for  a  proposal  that  an  application  to  Parliament  should  be  neces- 
sary ;  but  a  general  measure,  such  as  the  one  now  before  the  Committee, 

should  not  apply  to  existing  undertakings.  Where  it  could  be  proved 
that  lowering  of  the  water  level  had  produced  actual  damage,  and  that 
it  was  du2  to  the  operations  of  ths  water  authority,  the  principle  of 
compsnsation  should  be  admitted.  The  shifting  of  tne  burden  of  proof 
proposed  by  the  Bill  would  not  hi  fair.  There  was  great  difficulty  in 
fi.iing  a  limit  to  the  area  of  compensation,  because  theconditions  varied 
so  much  in  each  case.  The  limit  depended  almost  entirely  upon  the 
geological  conditions.  Eich  case  should  be  dealt  with  on  its  merits, 
without  limitation  of  diitance.  He  did  not  think  they  could  fix  on  a 
distance  limit  which  would  not  do  inj  astice  in  a  great  many  cases.  Iq 
eq  jity,  whoever  did  damage  by  depleting  water  in  a  neighbourhood 
should  compensate;  but  the  damage  should  be  proved.  With  regard 
to  water  in  transit,  he  did  not  think  intermediate  authorities  should 
have  an  absolute  right  to  demand  a  supply.  Each  case  should  be  dealt 
with  when  the  Bill  providing  for  the  taking  of  the  water  was  before 
Parliament.  The  matter  should  not  be  left  to  the  Local  Government 
Board.  There  were  peculiar  conditions  in  the  north-eastern  portion  of 
the  county  of  Durham  which  constituted  a  strong  case  why  the  Bill 
should  not  go  through  in  its  present  form.  His  authority  had  a  number 
of  pumpiog-stations  there ;  and  there  were  several  collieries  whose 
shafts  went  through  the  water-bearing  strata.  Under  clause  4,  pump- 
ing from  the  collieries  would  be  just  as  likely  to  give  rise  to  a  claim  for 
compensation  as  pumping  from  thewater  authority's  wells.  To  put  on 
the  water  authority  the  onus  of  proving  that  they  were  not  responsible, 
when  the  cause  might  just  as  probably  be  the  sinking  of  the  collieries 
through  the  water  bearing  strata,  would  be  inequitable.  Any  Bill  for  the 
protection  of  water  supplies  should  provide  for  remedying  aoy  bond  fidt 
injuiry  to  a  water  supply,  whether  caused  by  the  works  of  authorized 
water  suppliers  or  by  those  of  private  undertakings.  The  owners  of 
private  supplies — collieries,  breweries,  railway  companies,  and  other 
industrial  undertakings — should  not  be  specially  favoured  by  being 
exempted,  as  they  would  be  by  the  Bill,  from  any  such  claim.  When 
mine  shafts  were  being  sunk  in  the  district,  pumping  was  enormous  ; 
and  it  might  continue  for  months,  and  even,  in  some  cases,  for  two  or 
three  years.  It  would  not  be  fair  to  compel  authorized  undertakers  to 
give  corapensaiion  in  the  absence  of  registration  of  private  supplies. 
All  private  water  supplies  ought  to  be  registered  ;  so  that  water  under- 
takers would  know  before  they  entered  on  new  work  what  private 
supplies  they  were  likely  to  interfere  with.  The  term  private  water 
supply  should  be  limited  to  effective  supplies.  He  did  not  agree  that 
at  present  there  was  any  property  in  underground  water.  la  his 
authoiity's  statutory  area,  there  were  twelve  collieries,  six  private 
water  supplies,  and  22  wells  sunk  for  industrial  purposes.  All  drew 
water  in  varying  quantities.  It  would  be  impossible,  therefore,  fairly 
to  make  a  claim  against  his  authority  unless  the  extent  of  the  depletion 
by  these  other  wells  and  shafts  was  ascertainec"  Yet  under  the  Bill 
the  authority  would  be  the  only  body  against  whom  a  claim  could  be 
made.  Water  given  as  compensation  should  be  given  at  such  cost  as 
the  owner  or  user  of  the  private  supply  was  put  to  before.  Under  the 
Bill  as  it  stood,  however,  it  wculd  be  possible  for  the  owner  of  a  private 
water  supply  to  claim  a  free  supply.  In  the  county  of  Durham,  little 
or  no  water  was  obtained  until  a  depth  of  200  feet  was  reached,  and 
frequently  water  was  pumped  from  a  depth  of  300  or  450  feet.  It  seemed 
improbable,  therefore,  that  the  surface  wells  above  the  clay  would  be 
affectel.  Yet  it  would  be  difficult  for  an  authorized  undertaker  to 
prove  that  injury  was  not  caused  by  his  woi  ks.  There  was  probability 
of  the  flow  ot  water  to  private  water  supplies  being  diverted  and  so  in- 
jured or  diminished  in  consequence  of  disturbance  of  the  strata  by 
colliery  operations.  For  years  the  coal  companies  in  bis  district  had 
been  endeavouring  to  shift  the  liability  for  subsidence  to  the  water 
companies  ;  and  they  would  take  advantage  of  the  Bill  to  evade  their 
liability  for  draining  wells  by  disturbance  of  the  strata  by  mining  and 
by  their  pumping  operations.  The  principle  of  protecting  both  public 
and  private  interests  had  been  recognized  by  Parliament,  and  should 
be  extended  ;  but  he  was  strongly  of  opinion  that  a  partial  and  one- 
sided revision  of  the  water-works  law,  as  provided  in  this  Bill,  would 
cause  confusion,  and  involve  authorized  undertakers  in  great  expense 
and  costly  arbitrations,  and  that  a  comprehensive  inquiry  into  tie 
whole  question  of  the  national  water  supply  ought  to  precede  any 
general  revision  of  water-works  law.  Valuable  information  for  the 
purposes  of  such  an  inquiry  would  be  furnished  if  the  registration  of 
all  water  supplies,  botn  public  and  private,  and  a  record  of  their  con- 
dition from  time  to  time  were  made  compulsory.  A  central  or  controlling 
authority  would  be  necessary  to  obtain  a  thorough  knowledge  of  all  the 
facts  relating  to  the  conservation  and  allocation  of  water  areas  ;  and 
this  central  authority,  having  the  knowledge,  could  advice  Parliamen- 
tary Committees  on  any  scheme  put  forward,  with  a  view  to  serving 
the  best  interests  of  the  community  and  ensuring  that  no  injustice 
should  be  done  to  any  interests  unable  to  protect  themselves. 

By  Lord  Desborougii  :  It  would  not  be  fair  that  local  authorities  on 
the  route  of  a  supply  which  was  beirg  brought  from  a  distance  should 
have  a  right  to  a  share  of  the  water.  These  authorities  might  be 
supplied  from  the  surplus  (if  any)  by  agreement  as  a  matter  of  business. 
The  authorities  on  the  watershed  from  which  the  water  was  drawn  had 
a  right  to  a  supply. 

Sir  ALEX.\NriER  Binnie,  formerly  the  Chief  Engineer  to  the  London 
County  Council,  expressed  the  opinion  that  the  Bill  would  be  improved 
if  it  were  modified  so  as  to  be  one  merely  for  the  protection  of  private 
persons  and  others  interested  in  the  preservation  of  underground  water. 
The  principles  adopted  by  Parliament  with  regard  to  supplies  derived 
from  surface  sources  were  so  just  and  so  well  understood  that  such 
supplies  should  be  excluded  from  the  purview  of  the  Bill.  Although 
the  Bill  was  called  the  Water  Supplies  Protection  Bill,  it  contained 
no  provision  for  the  protection  of  wells  from  pollution.  While  clause  3 
followed  in  general  terms  the  wording  of  Lord  Onslow's  Model  Clause, 
it  appeared  to  have  a  retrospective  character.  It  would  be  improved 
if  it  were  amended  so  as  to  become  operative  only  in  the  future.  Some 
provision,  such  as  clause  3,  was  necessary  so  that,  before  any  powers 
for  sinking  wells  were  granted,  there  should  be  a  general  public  inquiry 
into  all  the  local  circumstances.  With  regard  to  clause  4,  and  the 
definition  of  "protected  area  "  in  clause  7,  he  considered  that  an  arbi- 
trary radius  of  miles  stereotyped  in  a  Public  Act  of  Pdrliament 
would  be  inconsistent  with  the  public  interest.  The  proposal  to  shift 
the  onus  of  proof  with  regard  to  alleged  ir  jury  10  the  water  undertfke's 
was  most  unjust.    It  would  upset  the  whule  law  of  the  country  10  :>i<ir' 


^    July  5.  1910.] 



vviih  the  assumplion  that  a  certain  party  was  prima  facie  guiliy,  and 
<  then  throw  on  him  the  onus  of  proving  that  he  was  not.    A  person 
'  accusing  a  water  company  should  prove  bis  case  as  every  other  person 
i  making  an  accusation  had  to  do.    Questioned  as  to  whether  a  farmer 
*  or  a  small  landed  proprietor  would  have  facilities  for  proving  damage 
I  equal  to  those  of  a  great  water  company  capable  of  maintaining  accu- 
!  rate  gauges  for  proving  that  the  damage  was  not  caused  by  them,  Sir 
^  Alexander  Binnie  said,  of  course,  the  poorer  man  would  not  be  able  to 
^  compete  with  the  richer  body;  but  it  was  just  the  small  man  who 
)  would  always,  if  the  Bill  passed,  hang  on  the  skirts  of  the  undertaker. 
I  Legalized  blackmailing  would  go  on  round  the  skirts  of  all  water  under- 
I-  takings  in  the  country.    The  expense  of  collecting  evidence  would  not 
'•  be  so  great  as  to  be  prohibitory  in  the  case  of  private  individuals, 
5  because  if  a  water  company  pumped  excessively  the  effect  would  bs 
;  felt  not  by  any  one  individual  alone,  but  by  the  whole  of  the  com- 
'  raunity;  and  the  community  would  be  well  able  to  defend  them- 
,   selves.    Compensation  should  be  paid  by  a  water  company  if  it  was 
proved  that  it  was  doing  damage.   Referring  to  clause  4  of  the  Bill,  he 
said  it  was  only  with  the  greatest  possible  difficulty  that  the  surface 
area  from  which  a  well  derived  its  supply  could  be  defined.  In 
'  some  cases,  wells  might  affect  the  underground  flow  of  water  at  a 
■  distance  of  five  or  six  miles ;  while  in  other  cases,  owing  to  geological 
'    faults  or  the  dip  of  the  strata,  they  might  not  affect  other  supplies  within 
"  a  few  hundred  yards.    It  was  so  difficult  to  define  the  course  of  under- 
.•  ground  water  that  the  law  must  remain  as  it  was,  or  the  subject  must  be 
i  dealt  with  by  the  most  careful  local  inquiry.    With  regard  to  the  por- 
n  tion  of  clause  4  which  dealt  with  possible  injury  by  the  subsequent 
jC  enlargement  of  authorized  works,  while  it  was  conceivable  that  damage 
I  might  be  done  by  undertakers  enlarging  or  deepening  their  wells,  sink- 
:  iog  boreholes,  or  driving  adits  so  as  to  obtain  a  larger  quantity  of  water 
than  was  originally  contemplated,  no  obstruction  should  be  placed  in 
f   the  way  of  a  public  body  charged  with  the  obligation  of  supplying  water 
j"  increasing  the  quantity  they  pumped  as  necessity  might  require.  The 
quantity  of  water  that  could  be  obtained  from  a  well  was  often  very 
j'  uncertain  until  the  well  was  actually  sunk.    It  would  be  absurd,  there- 
j    fore,  to  say  that  the  undertakers  must  obtain  a  certain  quantity  from 
-   any  particular  well.  A  well,  when  sunk,  however,  might  prove  far  more 
!i  prolific  than  was  originally  contemplated  ;  and  there  was  no  reason  why 
the  undertakers  should  not  avail  themselves  of  this  abundant  supply  for 
-.   the  benefit  of  their  district,  so  long  as  they  caused  no  injury  to  other 
i   persons.    The  whole  of  clause  4  appeared  to  aim  at  preserving  the  right 
to  sink  wells  to  any  extent  by  private  individuals,  while  depriving 
!'   public  bodies  and  companies  of  their  statutory  rights  as  landowners — • 
i"    of  course,  governed  by  the  provisions  introduced  by  Parliament  when 
I    granting  the  powers — to  sink  wells  in  the  first  instance.    His  only  sug- 
gestion  on  this  subject  was  that  when  Parliament  or  the  Local  Govern- 
l;    raent  Board  were  sanctioning,  after  careful  inquiry,  the  sinking  of  any 
^-    well,  the  undertakers  should  be  limited  to  pumping  only  such  quantity 
^    as  was  necessary  for  the  supply  of  their  district  with  such  reasonable 
h    development  as,  after  inquiry,  might  be  considered  proper  under  the 
|2    circumstances.    He  considered  that  the  time  had  arrived  for  a  general 
[I    inquiry  into  the  whole  water  supply  of  the  United  Kingdom  by  either 
i    a  Royal  Commission  or  some  other  competent  body.    Year  by  year  the 
available  sources  of  supply  were  gradually  being  absorbed,  often  to  the 
F    prevention  of  the  adoption  of  a  well-digested  scheme.  Such  an  inquiry 
>i    would  first  of  all  have  to  undertake  consideration  of  the  rainfall  of  the 
United  Kingdom.    Many  water  areas  were  being  absorbed  piecemeal 
without  being  utilized  to  their  full  advantage  ;  and  so  parliamentary 
rights  were  being  acquired,  not  so  much  to  the  exclusion  of  other  bodies 
[!    as  to  the  spoiling  of  what,  if  properly  and  comprehensively  dealt  with, 
p     might  yield  better  results. 

t  Mr.  JosEni  Parry,  Engineer-in-Chief  to  the  Liverpool  Water-Works, 
?  said  the  Liverpool  water  supply  was  derived  from  three  different 
)  sources — wells  sunk  in  the  new  red  sandstone  in  and  around  Liverpool, 
a  gathering  ground  of  acres  in  Lancashire,  and  the  River 
^  Vjrnwy.  At  present  L'verpool  had  power  to  enlarge  and  improve  its 
"    sandstone  wells  under  statutory  provisions  ;  and  they  objected  to  these 

*  provisions  being  interfered  with  in  any  way,  as  they  would  be  if  the 

1  Bill  became  law.    Same  years  ago  an  unexpected  drought  occurred, 

♦  with  the  result  that  the  water  supply  to  Liverpool  had  to  be  greatly 
I'  curtailed.  One  of  the  first  things  done  was  to  deepen  the  existing 
t  bore-holes  and  make  new  ones.  This  was  done  without  application 
f  to  Parliament.  These  works,  however,  which  were  essential  for  the 
'  safety  of  the  town,  would  have  been  prevented  if  the  Bill  had  been  in 
f  operation.  Frequently  towns  like  Liverpool  and  Manchester  had  to 
'  resort  to  temporary  sources  of  supply  when  there  was  an  unexpected 
^     drought,  or  pending  the  completion  of  works  authorized  by  Parliament. 

In  either  case  the  demand  for  water  might  greatly  exceed  the  yield 
from  the  resources.    In  such  circumstances,  arrangements  were  often 

^  made  with  riparian  owners  whereby  a  certain  proportion  of  the  water 
discharged  into  rivers  as  compensation  water  was  retained.  Such  an 
arrangement  would  also  be  prevented  by  the  Bill.    With  regard  to 

»,  clause  4,  there  were  a  great  number  of  private  wells  in  and  around 
Liverpool  drawing  water  from  the  red  sandstone  ;  and  it  would  be 
exceedingly  difficult  to  prove  that  a  particular  private  well  was  affected 
by  the  sinking  of,  or  the  pumping  from,  a  public  well.  If  a  public 
authority  was  to  be  liable  to  give  compensation,  it  was  only  fair  that 
other  persons  whose  operations  affected  private  wells  should  be  placed 
in  a  similar  position.  Water  companies  were  becoming  fewer  every 
jear  ;  so  that  what  the  Committee  had  to  deal  with  was  local  authori- 

'      ties.    Most  of  the  draining  of  wells,  in  consequence  of  the  sinking  of 

2  wcl's  in  the  red  sandstone,  related  to  shallow  wells — wells  not  exceeding 
30  feet  in  depth,  which  were,  almost  without  exception,  polluted  and 

'  not  desirable  .'or  domestic  purposes.  If  a  public  authority  gave  a 
supply  to  a  district,  it  was  a  good  thing  that  these  shallow  wells  should 
be  drained,  ant"  that  the  authority  should  distribute  water  from  a 
central  station.  With  regard  to  the  question  of  supplyirg  water  to 
districts  on  the  route  of  a  line  of  pipes,  Liverpool  should  not  be  in  the 
position  of  having  its  valuable  supply  reduced  in  quantity  by  claims 
from  places  along  ninety  miles  of  aqueduct.  The  question  of  com- 
pensation for  injury  was  very  difficult  when  considered  in  relation  to  a 

I  water  undertaking.  Speaking  broadly,  when  a  person  was  injured,  he 
ought  to  have  a  remedy  ;  but  in  connection  with  water-works  and 

,  public  undertakings  of  this  character,  they  had  to  consider  many  ques- 
tions.   At  present  a  water  company  knew  what  their  obligations  and 

iiskb  were;  but  with  a  clause  such  as  clause  4  of  the  Bill,  the  risks 
attaching  to  the  sinking  of  a  well  would  be  very  serious,  and  might 
prevent  authorities  from  carrying  out  desirable  schemes.  He  em- 
phatically objected  to  leaving  it  to  the  Local  Government  Board  to 
decide  whether  or  not  water  should  be  supplied  en  route.  This  matter 
was  one  which  Parliament  should  decide  in  each  case. 

When  the  proceedings  were  resumed  on  the  23rd  ult. 

Lord  Belter,  the  Chairman  of  the  County  Councils'  Association, 
detailed  the  circumstances  connected  with  various  water  supplies  in 
Nottinghamshire.  He  pointed  out  that  the  underground  system  there 
covered  a  considerable  area,  and  asserted  that  pumping  from  one 
district  was  bound  signally  to  deplete  the  water  supplies  even  at  a  con- 
siderable distance.  When  colliery  shafts  were  sunk  through  the  water- 
bearing strata,  large  quantities  of  water  were  pumped  to  waste.  A 
simple  remedy  for  such  waste  would  be  provided  if  those  sinking  shafts 
were  placed  under  obligation  to  bank-back  the  water.  Hydrographical 
maps  of  the  whole  country,  showing  the  water-bearing  strata,  would  be 
of  great  use.  The  Nottingham  County  Council  had  found  it  essential 
to  have  such  maps  of  the  county  in  order  to  protect  their  own  district. 
He  approved  of  the  suggestion  that  the  country  should  be  divided  into 
catchment  areas,  which  would  follow  the  courses  of  the  main  rivers 
and  their  tributaries,  with  local  boards  or  committees  appointed  with 
the  object  of  conserving  the  water  in  each  catchment  area.  In  fact,  the 
County  Councils'  Association,  after  full  inquiry,  drafted  a  Bill  some 
years  ago  for  the  purpose  of  constituting  water  authorities  with  powers 
f'or  the  protection  of  water  supplies  in  their  areas.  The  principle  that 
a  district  had  first  claim  to  the  water  in  it  might  be  embodied  in  a  Bill, 
and  then  it  could  be  left  to  Parliament,  in  individual  cases,  to  apply  it. 
It  was  very  bad  policy  to  allow  the  water  for  which  collieries  were 
responsible  to  run  to  waste.  Generally  speaking,  he  was  in  favour  of 
the  Bill.  There  should  be  public  control  over  the  water  supply  of  a 
district.  No  one  should  be  at  liberty  to  take  water  without  regard  to 
other  people. 

Mr.  J.  H.  Lewis  :  I  understood  you  to  say  that  an  individual  ought 
to  be  compensated  for  loss  clearly  sustained  by  the  sinking  of  a  well 
and  the  artificial  depletion  of  his  water  supply.  On  the  other  hand,  if 
a  public  authority  were  to  sustain  loss  by  the  sinking  of  a  private  well, 
should  the  public  authority  have  an  equal  right  to  compensation? 

Lord  Belper  said  he  would  not  like  to  express  a  very  definite  opinion 
with  regard  to  equal  rights.  He  had  great  sympathy  with  a  private 
individual,  and  he  thought  it  was  quite  as  important  to  protect  his 
rights  as  it  was  to  protect  the  rights  of  anybody  else.  He  did  not  think 
the  common-law  right  of  pumping  water  was  intended  to  enable  a  man 
to  obtain  water  and  sell  it.  Water  obtained  in  this  way  should  be 
limited  to  what  the  person  required  for  his  own  use.  There  was  great 
danger  of  undertakers  acquiring  land  for  the  purpose  of  pumping  with- 
out applying  to  Parliament  or  to  the  Local  Government  Board.  He 
did  not  see  how  they  could  give  the  Bill  retrospective  effect  unless  they 
compensated  undertakers  for  the  cost  to  which  they  would  thereby  t3e 
put.  Regarding  clause  4,  particularly  from  the  point  of  view  of  Not- 
tinghamshire underground  water,  his  opinion  was  that  it  was  absolutely 
impracticable.  It  was  impossible  to  say  whether  a  lowering  of  the 
depth  in  a  particular  well  was  due  to  the  seasons  or  to  pumping,  or  to 
both.  With  regard  to  the  proposal  to  shift  the  burden  of  proof,  he 
held  that,  in  Nottinghamshire  at  all  events,  the  water  undertakers 
could  not  prove  a  negative. 

Mr.  W.  J.  Freer,  Clerk  of  the  Peace  for  Leicestershire,  said  it  was 
difficult  to  conceive  a  district  which  required  to  have  more  care  exer- 
cised for  the  preservation  of  the  small  supplies  of  good-quality  water 
which  existed  than  his  county.  He  was  in  favour  generally  of  the 
Bill,  but  considered  the  county  councils  should  be  authorities  under 
it.  As  to  placing  on  water  undertakers  the  obligation  of  proof  that 
damage  was  not  caused  by  them,  he  said  the  case  was  so  complicated 
that  it  would  be  rather  hard  to  do  so.  The  County  Councils'  Associa- 
tion generally  approved  of  the  Bill. 

Mr.  Percy  Griffith,  the  Secretary  of  the  Association  of  Water 
Engineers,  said  the  provisions  of  the  Bill  would  very  considerably  in- 
crease the  charges  imposed  on  the  water  authorities  of  the  country  ; 
and  as  these  charges  would  ultimately  fall  on  the  consumers,  his 
Association  urged  that  the  interests  of  private  consumers,  as  well  as,  if 
not  in  preference  to,  the  interests  of  private  owners,  should  be  con- 
sidered. It  was  a  popular  fallacy  that  water  companies  worked  for 
dividends,  and  were  on  a  totally  different  basis  from  local  authority 
water  undertakings.  If  there  were  a  general  inquiry,  evidence  should 
be  obtained  as  to  the  cost  of  capital  in  both  cases.  Generally,  the  divi- 
dends paid  by  water  companies  were  equivalent  to,  and  not,  as  a  rule, 
in  excess  of,  the  amount  of  interest  and  capital  charges  which  local 
authorities  had  to  meet.  Forty-six  water  authorities,  representing 
three-and-a-quarter  million  consumers,  had  passed  resolutions  in  oppo- 
sition to  the  Bill.  His  Association  did  not  understand  why  the  pro- 
visions of  a  Bill  affecting  public  interests  did  not  apply  to  Scotland 
and  Ireland.  Clause  3  should  not  bs  made  retrospective  or  of  general 
application.  While  his  Association  did  not  object  to  a  clause  in  a 
Piivate  Bill  the  operation  of  which  was  confined  to  the  prevention  of 
the  abstraction  of  water  from  a  site  not  specially  authorized  by  Parlia- 
ment, they  submitted  that  the  clause  went  much  beyond  this,  and  was 
very  undesirable  in  the  public  interest.  The  clause  was  very  indefinite 
as  regarded  the  information  which  might  or  might  not  be  required 
under  it.  Many  of  the  authorities  he  represented  would  object  to  the 
restriction.  If  he  had  to  choose  between  specification  of  works  or 
specification  of  the  amount  of  water,  he  would  select  the  latter.  Pro- 
cedure by  Provisional  Order  should  be  continued.  Undertakings  con- 
structed under  section  51  of  the  Public  Health  Act,  1S75,  should,  if  the 
Bill  was  passed,  be  exempted  from  its  operation.  With  regard  to 
clause  4,  the  Association  urged  that  it  was  necessary  for  each  case  of 
compensation  to  be  judged  according  to  the  local  conditions,  which 
varied  considerably.  This  clause,  and  the  definition  of  "protected 
area,"  could  not  possibly  apply  to  gravitation  supplies.  There  were 
cases  in  which  compensation  was  right  and  proper.  Each  case  should 
be  considered  on  its  merits.  He  did  not,  however,  see  how  under  a 
Gereral  Bill  such  consideration  cculd  be  given.  Generally,  the  onus 
of  proving  that  depletion  of  private  sources  was  not  due  to  the  works  of 
the  undertakers  could  not  equitably  be  placed  on  the  water  authorities. 
Compensation  required  under  the  general  law  should  not  exceed  the 
restoration  of  the  conditions  as  to  quality,  quartity,  &c.,  existirg 



[July  5. 1910- 

previously  to  depletion,  or  an  equivalent  in  money  ;  and  any  provisions 
in  the  general  law  relative  to  compensation  for  depletion  should  be 
applicable  not  only  to  owners  of  private  water  supplies  against  water 
authorities,  but  also  to  water  authorities  against  owners  of  private 
sources.  He  very  strongly  opposed  any  alteration  of  the  law  that  a 
person  claiming  damages  should  prove  his  case.  There  were  many 
instances  in  which  water  supplies  were  being  seriously  interfered  with 
by  works  of  those  who,  according  to  the  Bill,  were  private  owners. 
In  the  interests  of  public  health,  as  well  as  in  the  interest  of  justice,  it 
was  necessary  to  protect  the  public  interest  before,  rather  than  after, 
the  private  interest.  If  the  Bill  were  passed,  unwarranted  claims 
would  be  made.  If  the  Committee  adopted  the  idea  of  throwing  the 
onus  of  proof  on  water  authorities,  it  would  follow  that  the  water 
authorities  must  be  given  specific  and  not  general  power  to  go  on  the 
lands  and  property  of  the  private  owners  making  the  claim.  They  had 
not  this  power  at  present.  With  regard  to  clause  5,  the  Association 
objected  to  it,  because  they  held  that  it  would  allow  a  district  council, 
on  a  line  of  pipes,  whose  area  had  been  allotted  to  an  authorized  under- 
taker, to  go  to  the  Local  Government  Board  and  demand  a  supply  of 
water  in  bulk  from  the  authority  bringing  the  water  from  a  distance. 
The  parenthetical  words  in  the  clause  allowing  this  to  be  done  should 
be  deleted.  The  clause  needed  defining  in  a  practical  way.  Clause  6 
appeared  to  be  inconsistent  with  the  opening  words  of  clause  4.  If 
existing  statutory  powers  were  to  be  subject  to  abrogation  by  a  General 
Act,  the  liabilities  of  water  authorities  should  not  be  exempted  from  the 
same  effect.  Select  Committees,  when  passing  Water  Bills,  considered 
liabilities  and  powers  together  ;  and  in  future  legislation  the  two  should 
still  be  considered  together. 

Mr.  Edward  Sandeman,  the  Engineer  to  the  Derwent  Valley  Water 
Board,  also  gave  evidence  on  behalf  of  the  Association  of  Water  En- 
gineers. Speaking  with  special  reference  to  gravitation  supplies,  he 
said  his  only  objection  to  clause  3  was  that  it  would  prevent  small 
authorities  from  constructing  works  without  applying  to  Parliament. 
With  regard  to  clause  4,  the  words  "  private  water  supply  "  and  "  pro- 
tected area,"  as  defined  by  clause  7,  made  the  clause  apply  to  gravita- 
tion works.  1 1  appeared  that  the  idea  of  a  protected  area  was  originally 
intended  to  apply  to  wells  and  boreholes  taking  underground  waters, 
and  that  its  extension  to  upland  waters  was  an  inadvertence.  The  ex- 
pression "  protected  area"  was  defined  as  the  area  within  a  radius  of 
2j  miles  from  the  works  ;  and  hitherto  it  had  been  used  only  in  con- 
nection with  underground  supplies.  He  could  see  no  reason  to  make 
it  applicable  to  gravitation  works,  which  should  be  excluded  from  the 
section.  In  connection  with  gravitation  schemes,  it  was  usual  to  give 
compensation  by  returning  a  portion  of  the  water  to  the  river  or  stream 
affected.  If  such  schemes  were  not  excluded  from  the  clause,  compen- 
sation would  be  given  twice  over.  With  regard  to  clause  5,  in  all 
schemes  upon  which  a  burden  of  this  kind  was  placed,  the  district 
councils  seeking  supplies  should  be  required  to  define  the  points  of 
delivery  and  the  quantities  required  when  the  scheme  was  under  con- 
sideration by  Parliament  ;  otherwise  the  water  authority  carrying  out 
the  works  might  be  put  to  unnecessary  expense  in  providing  aqueducts 
of  a  size  which  would  not  be  proportioned  to  the  quantity  of  water  pass- 
ing through  them.  If  water  was  set  aside  for  the  use  of  the  district 
through  which  the  aqueduct  ran,  it  should  be  set  aside  altogether ;  the 
quantity  being  determined  when  the  Act  was  passed.  It  was  unsatis- 
factory to  provide  for  supplies  being  given  from  surplus  water,  because 
the  district  undertaking  the  scheme  might  eventually  require  all  the 
water  that  it  would  yield.  The  Association  recognized  the  propriety  of 
appropriating  a  certain  quantity  of  water  for  the  use  of  intermediate 
districts  through  which  an  aqueduct  passed;  but  the  quantity  should 
be  definitely  limited  to  a  small  proportion — at  most,  10  per  cent,  of  the 
whole  supply.  With  regard  to  the  rights  of  persons  on  the  route,  the 
district  most  urgently  needing  water  was  the  one  entitled  to  it.  A 
central  authority  should  be  set  up  to  deal  with  the  whole  question  of 
water  supply. 

Mr.  William  Matthews  also  gave  evidence,  on  behalf  of  the  As- 
sociation of  Water  Engineers,  with  reference  to  the  bearing  of  the  Bill 
on  supplies  from  underground  sources.  Clause  3,  he  said,  was  quite 
unnecessary.  The  Lord  Chairman's  Model  Clause  met  every  reason- 
able requirement.  He  strongly  objected  to  the  other  clauses  on 
grounds  nearly  all  of  which  had  been  laid  before  the  Committee. 



At  the  Devonshire  Quarter  Sessions,  held  at  Exeter  last  Wednesday, 
Mr.  Spencer  Pickering  appealed  against  a  lighting  rate  made  by  the 
Parish  Council  of  Morthoe, 

Mr.T.  E.  Havdon  and  Mr.  W.  Beresford  represented  the  appellant 
No  appearance  was  entered  for  the  respondents,  the  Barnstaple  Union 
Assessment  Committee,  the  Overseers  of  Morthoe,  and  the  Parish 

Mr.  Haydon  said  the  appeal  really  was  against  the  whole  rate  made 
on  the  31st  of  December  last  year  ;  but  Mr.  Pickering,  who  resided  at 
Morthoe,  would  be  satisfied  if  the  rate  for  lighting  by  gas  were  quashed. 
The  case  hinged  upon  the  Parish  Council's  unsuccessful  determination 
to  adopt  the  Lighting  and  Watching  Act  for  part  of  the  parish  ;  and 
the  facts  connected  with  these  attempts  were  of  some  public  interest. 
The  objections  to  the  rate  were  based  mainly  on  the  ground  that  the 
Act  had  never  been  validly  adopted  for  the  whole  or  any  part  of  the 
parish  ;  that  none  of  the  meetings  at  which  the  Act  was  purported  to 
be  adopted  were  legally  convened  ;  that  the  proceedings  at  these  meet- 
ings were  invalid  and  irregular  ;  that  if  the  Act  had  been  validly 
adopted  it  was  for  the  whole  parish,  at  a  meeting  held  on  July  5,  igog  ; 
and  that  no  proceedings  thereafter  were  competent  for  the  adoption  of 
the  Act  for  a  particular  area,  until  the  Act  had  been  abandoned  for 
the  parish,  under  the  provisions  of  section  15  of  the  Act.  On  Jan.  6, 
1908,  a  meeting  was  held  to  consider  the  question  of  adopting  the  Act, 
and  fifty  ratepayers  were  present.    The  meeting  was  irregular,  because 

the  majority  in  favour  of  adopting  the  Act  was  not  a  two-thirds 
majority.  On  Jan.  25,  1909,  the  Woollacombe  Gas  Company  was 
registered,  and  a  parish  meeting  was  called.  To  this  Mr.  Pickering 
objected  ;  pointing  out  that  it  was  not  regularly  called.  Moreover, 
those  who  took  part  in  the  proceedings  were  either  Directors  or  share- 
holders of  the  Gas  Company.  The  Act  was  again  adopted  ;  and  then, 
extraordinarily  enough,  the  meeting  resolved  itself  into  one  of  part  of 
the  parish  which  it  was  desired  to  light.  Subsequently  the  Local 
Government  Board  advised  the  Parish  Council  that  their  proceedings 
of  January,  igo8,  and  July,  1909,  were  of  no  legal  effect.  Nevertheless 
the  rate  was  made  ;  but  Mr.  Pickering  was  not  served  with  a  demand 
note.  He  had,  in  fact,  to  go  and  ask  for  it.  At  length,  when  he  gave 
notice  of  appeal  against  the  rate,  the  authorities  announced  that  they 
withdrew  the  rate  ;  and  Mr.  Pickering's  Solicitors  at  once  pointed  out 
that  the  Overseers  could  not  abandon  the  rate,  but  that  application 
must  be  made  to  Quarter  Sessions  to  quash  it. 

The  Clerk  said  the  whole  matter  was  very  simple.  If  the  Court  so 
ruled,  an  order  could  be  made  to  quash  the  rate. 

Formal  evidence  having  been  given, 

The  Chairman  announced  that  the  rate  would  be  quashed. 

Mr.  Haydon  asked  for  costs  as  between  solicitor  and  client ;  but 
the  Bench  would  only  award  costs  against  the  Parish  Council  in  the 
ordinary  way. 

Winding=Up  of  the  Mid  Oxfordshire  Gas  Company. 

In  the  Chancery  Division  of  the  High  Court  of  Justice  last  Tuesday, 
Mr.  Justice  Swinfen  Eady  had  again  before  him  the  petition  presented 
by  a  judgment  creditor  (a  debenture  holder)  for  £']i().  The  Hon.  F. 
Russell,  K.C.,  for  the  petitioner,  having  reminded  his  Lordship  that 
the  matter  stood  over  on  June  7  in  order  that  the  Liquidator  (Mr. 
Stephens)  might  call  a  meeting  of  the  creditors,  and  ascertain  their 
wishes  with  regard  to  continuing  the  voluntary  liquidation,*  said  an 
affidavit  had  now  been  filed  by  the  Liquidator  giving  the  result  of 
the  meeting,  which  was  an  overwhelming  majority  in  favour  of  a 
compulsory  winding-up  order.  The  numbers  in  favour  of  the  re- 
solution submitted  to  the  meeting  to  continue  the  voluntary  liqui- 
dation were  3932  ;  against  it,  24,760.  Under  these  circumstances,  he 
did  not  suppose  the  Company  would  further  resist  the  order,  and  it 
would  not  be  necessary  to  go  into  the  evidence  which  had  been  filed, 
showing  how  the  petitioner  would  be  prejudiced  by  a  voluntary  wind- 
ing-up. Mr.  Christopher  James,  representing  the  Liquidator,  said  he 
should  have  submitted,  on  the  question  of  prejudice,  that  there  was  no 
evidence  of  it  ;  but  as  this  part  of  the  case  had  not  been  opened,  it  was 
not  necessary  to  go  into  it,  beyond  pointing  out  that  the  Liquidator 
had  sworn  positively  that  he  was  perfectly  independent,  and  had  not 
known  or  heard  of  Mr.  Preston,  whose  nominee  he  was  said  to  be, 
until  the  amended  petition  had  been  filed.  He  admitted  that  the 
majority  of  the  creditors  were  in  favour  of  a  compulsory  order  ;  and 
be  did  not  know  that  he  could  properly  ask  the  Court  to  disregard 
their  wishes,  though  the  unsecured  creditors  seemed  about  equal.  His 
Lordship  said  the  only  proper  order  to  make,  under  the  circumstances, 
was  the  usual  compulsory  one. 

Bucks  and  Oxon  District  Gas  Company,  Limited. 

Last  Friday,  application  was  made  to  Mr.  Justice  Joyce,  by  Mr. 
Hughes,  K.C.  (with  him  Mr.  Ward  Coldridge),  on  behalf  of  Miss 
Eveleigh,  a  debenture  holder,  for  the  appointment  of  a  Receiver  and 
Manager  of  the  undertaking  of  the  above-named  Company.  The 
Company  was  incorporated  on  May  15,  igoy,  with  a  nominal  capital 
of  ^25,000  ;  and  plaintiff  was  holder  of  two  first  debentures  of  ^25 
eacd,  which  became  payable  in  the  event  of  the  Company  making 
default  in  payment  of  interest  for  three  months,  or  of  passing  resolutions 
for  winding-up.  On  the  25th  of  June,  the  Company  passed  a  resolution 
for  voluntary  winding-up,  and  appointed  Mr.  G.  Montague  White  as 
Liquidator.  It  was  asked  that  this  gentleman  should  be  appointed 
Receiver  and  Manager.  Mr.  Galbraith,  appearing  for  the  Company, 
said  he  could  not  resist  the  application.  His  Lordship  appointed  Mr. 
White,  who  is  to  act  at  once,  and  give  security  in  due  course,  but  not 
to  act  beyond  Oct.  31  without  further  order. 

A  Gas  Official  Sentenced. 

At  the  Warwickshire  Quarter  Sessions  last  week,  Ernest  Harry 
Clarke,  a  clerk,  pleaded  guilty  to  stealing  various  sums  of  money  while 
in  the  employ  of  the  Corporation  of  Stratford-on-Avon.  Mr.  Maddocks, 
for  the  prosecution,  said  the  prisoner  had  been  a  trusted  servant  for 
years.  He  was  employed  in  the  Gas  Department  ;  and  part  of  his 
duties  was  to  receive  the  money  collected,  enter  the  amounts  on  a 
counterfoil,  and  account  for  the  whole  sum.  He  defrauded  his  employers 
by  entering  a  smaller  amount  than  he  received,  and  stealing  the  differ- 
ence. The  total  amount  of  the  defalcations,  which  spread  over  three 
or  four  years,  was  about  /440.  Apart  from  this  offence,  he  bore  an 
excellent  character,  and  gave  the  officials  every  assistance  ;  but  the 
Corporation  had  no  option  but  to  set  the  case  before  the  Court.  The 
prisoner  absconded  to  S  tow-on-the- Wold,  but  returned  and  gave  himself 
up.    A  sentence  of  six  months'  hard  labour  was  passed. 

*  See  "  Journal  "  for  June  14,  p.  705. 

It  was,  of  course,  only  what  one  would  have  expected  that  a 
Saturday  evening  should  be  chosen  for  a  "sudden  failure"  of  the  elec- 
tric light  at  Ponlypool.  "  Considerable  inconvenience,"  we  are  told, 
was  caused  to  tradespeople  and  pedestrians  ;  and  in  i  large  number  of 
instances  persons  resorted  to  candles  and  oil  lamps,  for  which  there  was 
a  rush.  For  some  time,  the  market  place  was  in  total  darkness  ;  and 
something  akin  to  panic  occurred  among  the  people  in  the  large  hall. 
Considerable  quantiiies  of  goods  were  stolen  from  the  stalls.  The 
cause  of  the  failure  is,  it  seems,  in  doubt ;  but  the  blame  has  been 
thrown  upon  the  main  switchboard. 

t      July  5,  1910.] 





The  Accounts  for  the  Year. 

The  Edinburgh  and  Leith  Gas  Commissioners  had  before  them  on 
Monday  of  last  week  the  accounts  for  the  financial  year  ending  May  15. 
In  submitting  the  accounts,  the  Treasurer — Mr.  John  S.  Gibb — also 
lodged  an  abstract  statement  to  the  effect  that :  The  Commissioners 
will  notice  that  the  "  abstract  "  is  considerably  more  detailed  than  has 
been  the  case  in  former  years.  The  general  features  are  in  accordance 
with  the  suggestions  of  the  Scottish  Office,  as  confirmed  and  approved 
by  the  Commissioners.  The  following  short  statement  shows  the  finan- 
cial result  of  the  year's  operations  : — 

The  balance  carried  to  profit  and  loss  account 

on  the  year's  working  is   £125,361 

There  lias  been  paid  during  the  year — 

For  Edinburgh  and  Leith  annuities  .     .     .  -£3^,43° 
,,    Edinburgh-Portobello  gas  annuities     .     .  1,028 
Amount  transferred   to  sinking  fund  in 
respect  of  annuities  redeemed      .     .     .  2,741 
,,    Do.  in  respect  of  mortgages  redeemed    .     .  2,535 

,,    Interest  on  mortgages,  &c  40,722 

,,    Expenses  of  mortgages   444 

,,    Special  reserve  fund,  in  terms  of  igo8  Act  iG,686 


Showing  a  net  balance  on  the  year's  working  of  i^3o, 774 

to  which  falls  to  be  added  the  balance 
brought  from  the  year  igog  (after  charging 
the  contributions  to  the  sinking  and  reserve 

lunds  applicable  to  that  year)    ....  2,6ig 

Making  the  total  sum  at  the  credit  of  net  revenue 

account   /33,393 

This  is  subject  to  the  statutory  minimum  charges  for  the 
sinking  funds,  as  follows  : — 

(1)  For  repayment  of  money  borrowed  (20s. 

percent.)  ;f  11,764 

(2)  For  redemption   of  annuities  (15s.  per 

cent.)  6,861 

(3)  For  reserve    fund  (Commissioners'  Gas 

Order,  1902,  section  9),  J  per  cent,  on 

;£48i,25i  1,204 

Together    19,828 

Which  leaves  a  balance  of  ;f  13,565 

at  the  credit  of  profit  and  loss  account,  to  be  carried  for- 
ward to  next  year,  or  to  be  added  to  the  reserve  fund,  as  the 
Commissioners  may  determine. 

A  further  proportion  of  the  costs  of  the  alteration  and  extension  of  the 
offices  and  workshops  at  Waterloo  Place  and  Calton  Hill  has  been  charged 
against  revenue.  The  contribution  to  the  special  reserve  fund,  required 
by  the  1908  Act  (;£i5,686)  has  been  met  out  of  this  year's  revenue,  by  in- 
structions of  the  Commissioners. 

The  gas  sold  has  been  80  million  cubic  feet  more  than  last  year  ;  but  the 
revenue  from  gas  is  less  by  £2894,  consequent  upon  the  reduction  in  price. 

The  return  from  residual  products  has  been  greater  by  ^^'2637  than  last 

The  present  value  of  id.  per  1000  cubic  feet  of  gas  is  i;'8i8o. 

Under  the  Commissioners'  Act  of  1908.  the  capital  of  the  Edinburgh 
Gaslight  Company  (^^200, 000)  has  been  converted  into  perpetual  an- 
nuities, redeemable  at  any  term  of  Whitsunday  or  Martinmas,  at  28J 
years'  purchase.  The  capitalized  amount  is  ^570,000,  and  the  amoun't 
of  yearly  annuities,  ^20,000.  The  capital  of  the  Edinburgh  and  Leith 
Gas  Company  has  been  similarly  increased  in  amount  from  / 
to  £<  with  ;^i4,ooo  of  annuities  ;  and  the  capital  of  the  Porto- 
belio  Gaslight  Company,  Limited,  has  been  increased  from  /20,ooo  to 
;f.24,ooo,  with  ;^i2oo  of  annuities.  The  total  capital  authorized  is  stated 
at  ;^  and  the  total  annuities  at  /35,2oo.  Annuities  have  been 
redeemed  to  the  amount  of  ^2793,  at  a  cost  of  /78,i49.  A  year  ago, 
before  the  conversion  of  the  stock,  the  total  capital  authorized  was 
stated  at  /37o,ooo  ;  and  the  annuities  redeemed  amounted  to  /2646  ; 
the  cost  of  redemption  having  been  ;^28,io7.  Money  has  been  borrowed 
on  mortgage  to  the  amount  of  ^1,281,250,  out  of  a  total  authorized  of 
/■i, 400, 000.  Of  the  amount  borrowed  on  morigage,  /i  18,749  has  been 
repaid;  leaving  mortgage  debt  amounting  to  ;f  1,174,877 — a  reduction 
of  ;^28,073  during  the  year.  There  are  also  deposit  receipts,  bearing 
interest  at  the  rate  of  3  per  cent.,  to  the  amount  of  ;^i50o. 

The  cost  of  the  acquisition  of  the  undertaking  is  stated  at  /i, 068, 933, 
under  deduction  of  ;£^i5,36o  received  for  plant  or  properties  sold  or 
transferred  to  Granton.  Of  the  sum  stated,  there  was  expended  upon 
the  acquisition  of  the  Edinburgh  Company  ;^599,i89;  of  the  Edin- 
burgh and  Leith  Company,  /44i,ioo  ;  of  the  Portobello  Company, 
£26,794;  and  of  the  Corstorpbine  Company,  £1850.  The  amounts 
expended  since  the  date  of  acquisition  in  1888  have  been  :  On  works, 
inanufacturing  plant,  &c.,  in  New  Street,  £26.530;  in  Baltic  Street, 
£1550  ;  in  Salamander  Street,  £6811  ;  in  Portobello,  £54  ;  in  Corstor- 
phme,£25;  at  Granton,  £841,721 ;  in  Assembly  Street  workshops,  &c., 
£5512  ;  and  upon  Craigleith  quarry  and  water-main,  /563r.  Upon 
mam  and  service  pipes  there  nas  been  expended  /192.693,  of  which 
£985  was  expended  last  year;  upon  gas-meters,  £64,228;  upon  office 
furniture,  £363  ;  upon  heritable  properties  not  embraced  in  the  works, 
£9650  ;  upon  gas  cooking  and  heating  stoves,  £13,852  (subject  to 
deduction  during  the  year  of  £804) ;  and  upon  the  cost  of  the  Com- 
missioners' Act  of  188S,  £22,671.  The  total  capital  outlays  of  the 
^.commissioners  have  been  £2,246,377,  of  which  £1505  was  incurred 
last  year.  With  deductions  amounting  to  £1849,  the  capital  account 
stands  at  £2,244,528.  b      x,    tJ.  y 

In  November  last,  the  price  of  gas  was  reduced  from  3s.  to  2s.  lod. 
per  1000  cubic  feet  to  ordinary  consumers.    The  quantity  of  gas  sold 

during  the  year  was  1,963,184,400  cubic  feet — an  increase  of  8o,89j,40o 
cubic  feet.  The  quantity  sold  to  ordinary  consumers  was  1,708,616,400 
cubic  feet ;  to  prepayment  meterconsumers,  71,538,500  cubic  feet ;  and 
for  use  in  gas-engines,  26,401,201  cubic  feet.  The  revenue  from  the 
sale  of  gas  was  £281,360 — a  decrease  of  £2894.  Coke  realized  (less 
£5248  working  expenses  and  railway  carriage)  £32,171 — an  increase 
of  £1424.  Tar  brought  in  £11, 480— a  decrease  of  £1298.  Salphate 
of  ammonia  produced  (less  £5150  working  expenses)  £21,242 — an 
increase  of  /2513.  The  total  revenue  from  residual  products  was 
£64,893 — an  increase  of  £2638.  The  revenue  from  all  sources  was 
?359.373— an  increase  of  £11,871. 

The  quantity  of  coal  carbonized  was  187,153  tons — an  increase  of 
6533  tons.  The  cost  of  coal  was  ^93,605 — a  decrease  of  £19,452. 
The  cost  of  oil  for  cirburetted  water  gas  was  £2919— a  decrease  of 
^1723.    The  wages  of  workmen,  cirbDnizing,   amounted  to 

£12,634 — an  increase  of  £210.  Salaries,  wages,  and  charges  at  works 
tor  general  purposes,  works  staff,  Ac,  amounted  to  £12,901 — an  in- 
crease of  £272.  Purifier  material,  and  wages  of  purifier  men  came  to 
£861 — an  increase  of  £48.  Repairs  and  maintenance  of  works  and 
plant,  tools  and  implements,  &z.,  at  Granton,  New  Street,  c^^-c,  and 
dismantling  old  works,  cost  £"31,878 — an  increase  of  £5482.  The  total 
cost  of  manufacturing  gas  was  £154,799  —a  decrease  ot  ;^^i5.i53.  Dis- 
tribution cost  £28,255 — an  increase  of  £645.  There  was  expended 
on  repairing  and  fitting  up  gas  cookers,  fires,  and  appliances,  £8797  — 
an  increase  of  £6952.  Management  cost  £11,472 — an  increase  of  £344. 
Feu-duties  and  rents  amounted  to  £625— an  increase  of  £5.  Rates 
and  taxes  came  to  £17,388 — an  increase  of  /860.  Pensions  and  allow- 
ances amounted  to  £1234 — a  decrease  of  /240.  The  contribution  of 
the  Commissioners  to  the  superannuation  fund  created  by  the  Act  of 
1908,  equivalent  to  the  contributions  by  the  employees,  amounted  to 
£1811  ;  and  the  interest  upon  the  special  contribution  to  the  superan- 
nuation fund,  amounted  to  £2035.  Accidental  damages  cost  £187 — an 
increase  of  /180.  Law  and  parliamentary  expenses  amounted  to  £205  — 
a  decrease  of  £1814.  Discounts,  abatements,  and  bad  debts  amounted 
to  £^7202 — an  increase  of  ^150.  The  total  expenditure  was  £234,012  — 
a  decrease  of  /1342.  There  was  left  a  balance  of  ^125,361 — as  com- 
pared with  £112,147  a  year  ago. 

Out  of  the  balance  of  £125,361,  and  £32,839  brought  forward  from 
the  previous  year,  the  Commissioners  have  paid,  in  respect  of  annui- 
ties, £35,200 ;  interest,  £43,256  ;  expenses  of  mortgages,  ^445  ;  con- 
tribution to  special  reserve  fund,  £15,686  ;  to  sinking  fund  for  redemp- 
tion of  annuities,  £6890  ;  to  sinking  fund  for  repayment  of  borrowed 
money,  £12,104  I  and  to  the  general  reserve  fund,  £1226,  and  to  the 
special  reserve  fund,  £10,000.  These  paymsnts  amount  to  £124,807, 
and  leave  a  net  balance  of  ^33,393. 

The  Commissioners  have  expended  £80,437  in  the  redemption  of 
annuities  to  the  amount  of  ;f  2793.  They  have,  from  the  sinking  fund, 
invested  in  mortgages  over  heritable  property  £212,010 — an  increase 
during  the  year  of  £1743.  The  sinking  fund  for  redemption  of  annui- 
ties amounts  to  ;^249,884,  and  for  repayment  of  money  borrowed,  to 
£132,920.  The  general  reserve  fund  amounts  to  ;^i9,340  ;  the  special 
reserve  fund  to  ^25,973  ;  and  the  superannuation  fund  to  /56SS. 


The  Leeds  Gas  Committee  met  last  Tuesday — Alderman  Tetley  in 
the  chair — when  Mr.  R.  H.  Townsley,  the  Engineer  and  General 
Manager,  presented  the  financial  statement  of  the  gas  undertaking  for 
the  year  to  March  31. 

The  total  revenue  for  the  twelve  months  was  £380.500,  and  the  total 
expenditure  £282,179 ;  leaving  a  gross  profit  of  £98,321,  as  against  a 
gross  profit  for  the  previous  year  of  ;f95,587.  From  the  gross  profits, 
£52,296  is  paid  out  in  income-tax  and  interest,  /37,9i8  goes  to  the 
redemption  fund,  and  £"2092  for  repayment  of  stoves.  This  leaves  a 
net  profit  for  the  relief  of  the  city  rates  of  £6016,  as  compared  with  a 
net  profit  of  /'5068  for  the  previous  twelve  months.  The  sales  of  gas 
show  a  decrease  of  99,234,300  cubic  feet,  or  3J  per  cent.,  compared  with 
the  quantity  sold  the  previous  year.  This  decrease  is  attributed 
partly  to  depression  in  trade,  partly  to  lessened  consumption  due  to  the 
greatly  extended  use  of  incandescent  burners,  and  partly  to  the  extra- 
ordinarily bright  winter.  The  latter  cause  was  particularly  operative 
during  the  quarter  ended  March  31,  when  the  consumption  decreased 
by  70  million  cubic  feet  compared  with  1909.  During  the  year,  the 
net  debt  on  capital  account  was  reduced  by  £30,446,  and  now  stands 
at  ;^i.273.524- 

Altogether,  the  report  is  considered  by  the  Committee  to  be  a  satis- 
factory one. 


Separation  of  Management. 

At  the  Meeting  of  the  Leicester  Town  Council  last  Tuesday,  the  Gas 
and  Electric  Lighting  Committee  presented  a  report  dealing  with  the 
future  management  of  the  two  undertakings  under  their  control.  They 
were  unanimously  of  opinion  that  it  was  desirable  that  there  should  be 
separate  management  of  the  gas  undertaking  ;  and  they  recommended 
that  the  Council  should  advertise  for  a  Gas  Engineer  and  Manager  at 
a  commencing  salary  of  £800  a  year,  rising  by  annual  increments  of 
£100  to  £1000  a  year.  With  reference  to  the  control  of  the  electricity 
undertaking,  the  Committee  recommended  that  expert  advice  should  be 
taken  as  to  the  practicability  of  amalgamating  the  administration  of  the 
two  generating  systems  of  electricity  at  the  gas-works  and  the  tramway 
power  station. 

Alderman  Smith,  the  Chairman  of  the  Committee,  in  moving  the 
adoption  of  thereport,afterreferring  to  thegrowth  of  thegas  undertaking 
and  the  electric  lighting  department  under  the  control  of  the  late  Mr. 
Alfred  Colson,  proceeded  to  remark  that  the  Committee  had  to  consider 
the  question  of  the  future  management  from  two  aspects.  The  first  was  : 
"  Is  it  desirable  to  run  each  of  the  two  undertakings  on  its  own  merits 
or  under  separate  management  ?  "  and  the  second  ;  "  Is  it  better,  in  the 



[July  5.  1910. 

public  interest,  to  amalgamate  the  two  works  under  the  control  of  one 
special  Electricity  Committee  ?  "  There  were  probably  some  advan- 
tages and  disadvantages  in  regard  to  the  adoption  of  either  plan.  It 
was  alleged,  for  instance,  and  probably  with  some  truth,  that  the 
Aylestone  electricity  works  had  not  had  a  fair  chance  in  competition 
with  gas  for  lighting  purpises,  and  that  under  separate  management 
it  could  do  much  better  ;  ihit  its  present  reserve  power  might  bs  used 
by  the  Tramways  Committee,  and  thus  improve  its  day-load  and  finan- 
cial position.  The  advantages  of  unification  might  be  briefly  summar- 
izsd  as  follows  :  (i)  The  whole  electricity  production  and  supply  for 
ligh'ing  and  power  would  be  under  the  control  of  one  special  Com- 
mittee, whose  duty  it  would  be  to  supply  electricity  at  the  cheapest  pos- 
sible rate.  {2)  It  would  stop  friction  between  Committees,  and  abolish 
insane  and  unnecessary  competition.  (3)  Consumers  and  users  of 
light  and  power  would  have  free  choice  in  taking  alternating  or  direct 
current,  whichever  suited  them  best,  at  equal  rates.  (4)  The  present 
ducts,  cables,  and  machinery  could  be  more  economically  used  for  the 
present  purposes  and  future  extensions  of  supply.  (5)  One  central 
office— part  of  the  present  gas  offi;es  being  available — could  be  ex- 
tended, where  all  requiring  electricity  for  light  or  power  could  apply. 
(6)  Amalgamation  would  mean  the  retention  of  the  present  engineering 
and  clerical  staffs,  with  less  friction  and  better  control  and  economy 
of  management.  Having  regard  to  certain  engineering  difficulties  that 
might  have  to  be  overcome  in  carrying  out  the  changes  indicated,  the 
Committee  thought  they  should  have  the  best  available  expert  advice 
bjfore  any  change  was  made.  They  asked  for  power,  in  conjunction 
with  the  Tramways  Committee,  who  were  equally  interested  in  the 
change,  to  obtain  such  expert  advice  as  the  Joint  Committee  might 
think  necessary,  in  order  to  guide  them  to  a  right  conclusion. 

Mr.  G.  E.  Hilton  seconded  the  motion  ;  and,  after  some  remarks, 
it  was  carried. 


At  the  Meeting  of  the  Coventry  City  Council  last  Tuesday,  the 
management  of  the  gas  undertaking  of  the  Corporation  was  warmly 
eulogized  on  account  of  the  successful  year's  working,  which  had  pro- 
duced a  net  profit  of  /'i8,ooo;  and  the  Council  marked  their  sense  of 
appreciation  by  increasing  the  salary  of  Mr.  Fletcher  W.  Stevenson, 
the  Engineer  and  General  Manager,  by  £150  per  annum.  The  result 
shown  above  was  described  by  the  Chairman  of  the  Gas  Committee 
(Mr.  W.  H.  Bitchelor)  as  the  first  of  a  series  of  good  reports  which 
the  citizens  might  confidently  expect  from  the  undertaking  in  future. 
Naturally  there  were  some  who  thought  the  advance  granted  was  too 
high  ;  and  there  were  two  amendments  to  the  Committee's  recommen- 
dation, which  was  made  with  unanimity — one  being  that  a  rise  o(£io:) 
should  be  given,  and  the  other  providing  for  an  increase  of  £^0.  The 
latter  was  characterized  by  one  councillor  as  "  paltry  :  "  and  the  Com- 
mittee's recommendation  was  eventually  accepted.  The  point  was  very 
strongly  emphasized  that,  when  Mr.  Stevenson  was  appointed,  he  was 
given  to  understand  that  if  he  made  the  cincern  a  financial  success, 
and  showed  good  results,  the  Council  would  reward  him  accordingly. 
This  he  had  done  ;  and,  apart  from  his  capabilities  as  Manager,  he 
had  saved  the  Gis  Department  considerable  sums  by  his  great  engi- 
neering skill,  as  shown  in  the  design  of  the  new  works  at  Foleshill,  of 
which  the  report  presented  embraced  the  first  year's  working.  Another 
point  impressed  with  some  effect  upon  the  Council  was  that  had  Mr. 
Stevenson  been  in  the  service  of  a  private  company  he  would  have  been 
paid  a  higher  salary  than  was  now  proposed,  and  that,  in  fact,  there 
were  smaller  towns  than  Coventry  where  the  salary  of  the  gas  manager 
was  higher. 

In  reviewing  the  past  year's  results,  Mr.  Batchel or  referred  to  various 
economiss  that  had  b3eneffec:ed  under  the  improved  methods  of  work- 
ing, and  held  out  a  hope  of  still  better  results  in  years  to  come.  At 
the  same  time,  he  was  not  unmindful  of  the  keen  competition  the  Gas 
Department  had  to  face  in  the  matter  of  the  supply  of  electricity,  par- 
ticularly for  power  purposes  ;  and  he  remarked  that  some  of  those 
who  previously  used  gas-engines  had  now  adopted  electric  motors. 
Satisfaction  was  expressed  at  the  continued  increase  of  customers 
through  the  prepayment  meters;  but  in  regard  to  gas-cookers,  the 
Chairman  mentioned  that  there  was  a  good  deal  of  expense  involved  in 
the  frequent  removal  of  users  from  one  house  to  another— there  being 
a  disposition  on  the  part  of  people  to  require  either  a  new  cooker 
entirely  or  to  have  one  already  in  use  thoroughly  cleaned  and  over- 
hauled. This  work  was  necessarily  very  expensive,  particularly  when 
it  was  considered  that  as  many  as  fifteen  removals  not  infrequently 
occurred  in  one  day.  Dealing  with  the  proposal  to  reduce  the  price  of 
gas  by  id.  per  1000  cubic  feet  to  ordinary  consumers,  and  2d.  in  the 
case  of  those  using  prepayment  meters,  it  was  pointed  out  that  a 
promise  was  given,  when  the  new  works  were  opened,  that  there  should 
be  some  concession  made  to  small  consumers  at  the  earliest  possible 
moment ;  and  the  Committee  were  hopeful  that  this  was  only  the  com- 
mencement of  further  reductions  that  would  be  rendered  possible  by 
the  more  advantageous  methods  of  production  they  now  had. 

In  the  course  of  a  short  discussion,  the  view  was  expressed  by  one 
speaker  that  the  price  of  gas  was  still  very  high  in  Coventry,  so  far  as 
ordinary  consumers  were  concerned,  particularly  in  view  of  the  sub- 
stantial nature  of  the  profits  shown  as  the  result  of  the  past  year's 
working  ;  but  the  Chairman  explained  that,  in  recommending  that  only 
/4000  should  be  devoted  to  the  relief  of  the  local  rates,  the  Committee 
had  regard  to  the  fact  that  they  must  make  ample  provision  for  the  loss 
of  capital  consequent  upon  the  abandonment  of  the  old  works — an 
amount  that  was  estimated  at  £6'j,oqo.  Moreover,  the  Council  must 
not  forget  that  they  had  exhausted  their  borrowing  powers  in  respect 
of  the  gas  undertaking,  and  that  there  was  a  tendency  now  for  large 
sums  not  to  be  voted  towards  the  relief  of  rates.  The  Committee  were 
anxious  to  wipe  off  the  amount  referred  to  as  early  as  they  could,  and 
place  the  undertaking  in  as  favourable  a  financial  position  as  possible. 
For  this  reason,  they  were  proposing  this  year  to  make  a  grant  of 
/i3,ooo  out  of  the  net  profits  towards  the  loss  of  capital.  A  furiher 
pomt  to  be  considered  was  that  if  tbey  went  to  the  Local  Government 
Bjard  for  sanction  to  borrow  more  money,  they  might  be  met  by  a 

refusal ;  so  that  by  keeping  the  powers  they  possessed  in  their  own 
bands,  and  using  the  profits  earned  in  the  way  they  thought  best,  they 
could  avoid  the  necessity  for  anything  of  the  kind. 

The  report  was  unanimously  adopted,  together  with  the  recom- 
mendations submitted  as  to  the  disposal  of  the  surplus. 

The  wisdom  of  the  step  taken  by  the  Water  Dspartment  some  time 
ago  in  deciding  to  acquire  an  additional  supply  of  water  from  the 
Birmingham  Corporation,  was  shown  in  the  excellent  report  presented 
to  the  City  Council  at  the  same  meeting.  The  net  profits  realized  as 
the  result  of  the  past  year's  operations  amounted  to  ^5577,  against  a 
profit  of  /2133  in  the  previous  year.  Alderman  Drinkwater,  the 
Chairman  of  the  Water  Committee,  in  presenting  their  report,  said  that 
but  for  certain  6xtra  amounts  that  had  to  be  included  in  this  year's 
accounts,  under  the  new  system  adopted  in  the  presentation  of  the 
figures  relating  to  the  department,  they  would  have  been  able  to  show 
a  record  surplus.  Reference  was  made  to  the  arrangement  with  the 
Birmingham  Corporation,  whereby  Coventry  has  to  make  a  minimum 
payment  of  /5000  a  year  for  the  water  received  ;  but  it  was  pointed  out 
that  care  was  taken  to  see  that  the  full  quantity  allowed  was  used. 
The  city  had  been  well  provided  for  throughout  the  year  ;  there  being 
no  scarcity  recorded.  It  was  correct  that  they  had  had  to  make  an 
increase  of  25  per  cent,  in  the  scale  of  charges,  and  though  same  thought 
this  was  excessive,  the  wisdom  of  it  had  been  fully  justified  in  the  result 
now  submitted.  Allusion  was  made  to  the  additional  expenditure 
incurred  upon  the  department  in  the  last  twelve  months  ;  and  the 
Chairman  said  they  had  to  face  a  further  outlay  of  between  ^30,000 
and  ^40,000.  The  satisfactory  result  shown  was  due  to  the  increased 
number  of  consumers  and  the  successful  management  of  the  concern 
by  Mr.  J.  E.  S  A'indlehurst,  the  Water  Engineer.  The  Council  adopted 
the  report,  and  decided  to  apply  /3500  in  relief  of  rates. 


The  Past  Year's  Working. 

Below  are  given  some  particulars  from  the  report  of  the  Engineer 
and  General  Manager  (Mr.  W.  Langford)  on  the  Longton  gas  and 
electricity  undertakings,  as  well  as  some  figures  from  the  accounts  re- 
lating to  the  past  year's  working— that  is,  to  March  31. 

The  report  states  that  the  total  quantity  of  gas  made  during  the 
year  was  155,100,000  cubic  feet  ;  being  an  increase  on  the  previous 
year  of  3,959,000  cubic  feet,  or  2  6  per  cent.    The  gas  sold  shows  an 
increase  of  2,844,600  cubic  feet,  or  i-g  per  cent.    The  quantity  of  gas  j 
unaccounted   for  through  leakage  equalled  4'59  per   cent.    There  I 
was,  says  Mr.  Langford,  a  substantial  increase  in  the  quantity  of  gas 
produced  per  ton  of  coal  carbonizsd  ;  and  the  unaccounted-for  gas  is 
very  low  for  a  mining  district.    The  amount  paid  over  to  the  borough  1 
fund  in  relief  of  the  rates  was  ^5300  ;  the  total  so  employed  since  the 
purchase  of  the  gas-works  by  the  Corporation  having  been  /73,397.  I 
The  gross  profits  on  the  year's  working  amounted  to  £qOi7-  After  pro- 
viding for  interest  and  sinking  fund  charges  on  capital,  there  remained 
a  net  profit  of  ^4225,  which,  together  with  an  amount  of  /2175  re- 
ceived from  the  depreciation  and  reserve  fund,  has  been  dealt  with  as 
follows  :  Paid  over  to  the  boro-gh  fund,  /5000  ;  expanded  on  fitting 
up  cottages  on  the  slot  system,  ^295  ;  expended  on  new  mains,  /294]; 
on  new  meters,  /'71 3— total,  /6302,  and  leaving  a  balance  of  £98  to 
be  carried  forward. 

With  regard  to  the  supply  of  electricity,  the  report  states  that  the 
total  number  of  units  generated  during  the  past  year  was  329,268  ; 
being  an  increase  of  55,867  units.  The  total  number  sold  was  306,186. 
All  new  meters,  repairs,  and  renewals  of  machinery  and  plant  were  paid 
for  out  of  revenue.  The  average  price  paid  per  unit  for  motive  power 
wasi'493.  ;  for  lighting,  4-5d.  The  gross  profits  for  the  year  amounted 
to  ;^2ii9,  and  after  deducting  the  interest  and  sinking  fund  charges 
there  was  a  net  profit  of  /537. 

Following  the  report  are  the  accounts.  The  first  table  shows  the 
quantity  of  gas  made,  sold,  and  unaccounted  for  from  1879  till  the  past 
financial  year.  In  1S79,  the  make  was  65  million  cubic  feet,  of  which 
56J  millions  were  sold,  and  the  leakage  was  i3'2S  per  cent.  Last  year, 
the  figures  were  155  and  14S  millions,  and  a  loss  of  only  4^59  per  cent. 
At  the  outset  of  the  Corporation's  management,  the  price  of  gas  was 
3s.  6d.  within  the  borough  ;  but  it  was  lowered  to  3s.  in  18S5.  It  had 
to  be  put  up  again  in  1901  ;  but  it  was  quickly  brought  down  3d.,  then 
another  2d.,  and  is  now  2S.  gd.,  less  3d.  discount,  with  a  charge  of 
23.  3d.  to  IS.  9d.  for  power,  according  to  quantity.  The  next  table 
shows  the  amounts  paid  to  the  borough  fund  since  the  gas-works  were 
transferred  to  the  Corporation.  They  range  from  /500  in  (1899)  up  to 
^5000  for  the  past  year.  Since  Mr.  Langford  took  office,  /2000  tias  been 
transferred  to  the  borough  fund  annually  for  six  years,  /2500  for  three 
years,  then  ;^30oo  ;  now  /5000.  The  total  capital  outlay  stands  at 
/15S.475.  ol  which  ^78,475  has  been  spent  on  new  works  ;  but  in  I 
March,  1905,  a  sum  of  ;f  1450  (not  shown  in  the  account)  was  written  ofl 
for  depreciation.  The  ;^8o,ooo  originally  borrowed  in  respect  of  the 
gas  undertaking,  as  well  as  ;^20,ooo  subsequently  raised,  will  both  be 
repaid  in  eighteen  years  ;  while  a  further  loan  of /io,ooo,  repayable  in 
thirty  years  from  June  30,  1S94,  will  be  cleared  off  in  fourteen  years. 
The  capital  actually  employed  is  :  Mortgage  loans,  stock,  and  deben- 
tures, ;^i32,45o ;  less  repaid  and  in  sinking  fund  ^44,340 — total, 
^88,110.  As  mentioned  in  the  report,  the  gross  profit  is  if 9937  ;  being  i 
the  difference  between  revenue,  /24,50s,  and  expenditure,  /i4,57i. 

The  following  are  the  general  results  of  the  year's  working  :  Coal  gas  ' 
made,  142,988,000  cubic  feet ;  water  gas  made,  12,112,000  cubic  feet —  | 
total,  155, 100,000 cubic  feet.  Gas  sold  toprivate  consumers,  128,137,000  i 
cubic  feet ;  for  public  lighting,  18,086,000  cubic  feet  ;  used  on  works, 
1,745,000  cubic  feet ;  unaccounted  for,  7,132,000  cubic  feet.    The  quan- 
tity of  coal  carbonized  was  11,083  tons.    The  make  of  gas  was  12,901 
cubic  feet  per  ton;  and  the  average  illuminating  power  was  i5'8  can- 
dles, tested  with  the  No.  2  burner.    The  sale  of  gas  per  ton  was  12,100 
cubic  feet.    The  production  of  residuals  was :  Coke,  7204  tons ;  tar, 
745  tons;  sulphate  of  ammonia,  119  tons  6  cwt.    They  had  realized 
5s.  6*66d.,  IS.  5'2Sd.,  and  is.  9'52d.  per  ton  of  coal  used. 

^  July  5,  1910.] 




The  Past  Year's  Working. 
I*   The  audited  accounts  of  the  Lincoln  Corporation  for  the  past  finan- 
j  :ial  year  have  lately  been  abstracted  under  the  supervision  of  the  City 
'Accountant  (Mr.  J.  H.  Burgess)  ;  and  the  following  figures  show  the 
^progress  of  the  gas  and  water  undertakings. 

'    The  quantity  of  gas  sold  was  356,590,501  cubic  feet,  of  which  up- 
;  wards  of  327,030,010  cubic  feet  were  taken  by  private  consumers.  This 
produced  ^36,485  ;   the  sale  of  residuals  realized  £12, ^yi  ;  and  the 
gross  profit  was  {14,2^^,  of  which  ^'3300  was  used  in  aid  of  the  general 
district  rate.    Redemption  of  debt  accounts  for  some  ;f  8000  ;  and  gas 
.cooking-stoves  have  bf^en  purchased  to  the  extent  of  £1012 — the 
1  balance  carried  forward  being  ;^(i33,  or  more  than  ^^703  in  excess  of 
the  previous  figure.    The  balance-sheet  shows  the  assets  and  outlay  to 
"amount  to  ;^253,268,  nearly  half  of  which  has  been  paid  off,  as  the  total 
liabilities  are  ^^148, 464,  and  the  balance  of  assets  is  ;^i04,833. 

The  water-works  revenue  account  shows  that  the  income  last  year 
'  was  in  excess  of  the  expenditure  by /■17, 449,  out  of  which  had  to  be 
I' paid  the  interest  on,  and  repayment  of,  loans,  amounting  to  /io,546, 
,and  certain  special  expenses.    The  balance  standing  to  the  credit  of 
the  net  revenue  account  on  the  31st  of  March  was  /.igoj.    Turning  to 
■  the  capital  account,  there  was  a  balance  due  to  the  Treasurer  in  March, 
'  1909,  of     1,333  •  and  the  payments  during  the  year  amounted  to  close 
upon  ;^46, 000.    To  meet  these,  /i4,22q  was  raised  by  the  issue  of 
stock,  ^50,000  was  advanced  by  the  Union  of  London  and  Smiths 
Bink,  Limited  (of  the  latter  amount  ^13,000  has  been  repaid),  and 
j  ^1421  has  been  transferred  from  the  net  revenue  account.    The  balance 
'^of  payments  over  receipts  at  the  end  of  March  was  /4392.  Coming 
!  to  the  bilance-sheet,  the  mortgage  and  stock  debt  amounts  to  160,252. 
!  Adding  the  accounts  due  to  sundry  persons  and  the  cash  due  to  the 
j*  Treasurer  brings  the  total  liabilities  up  to  /163.201.    The  balance  of 
ji assets,  however,  amounts  to  close  upon  /73.000. 


At  the  Meeting  of  the  Gas  and  Water  Committee  of  the  Kendal  Cor- 
poration on  Monday  last  week,  the  Engineer  and  Manager  (Mr.  W.  R. 
Wilion)  presented  his  report  for  the  year  ended  the  31st  of  March. 
It  showed  that  the  gross  profits  of  the  Gas  Department  amounted  to 
^3734  ;  and  after  setting  aside  ^2725  for  interest  and  sinking  fund 
charges,  there  was  a  surplus  of  £ioog,  out  of  which  the  Committee  had 
voted  £800  in  relief  of  the  rates.  The  reserve  fund  remains  at  /5000  ; 
and  the  sinking  fund,  including  debt  repaid,  stands  at  /i3,675.  The 
total  quantity  of  coal  and  cannel  carbonized  amounted  to  7713  tons 
18  cwt.,  being  an  increase  of  55  tons  4  cwt  ,  or  0.72  per  cjnt.,  on  the 
preceding  year.  The  cost  of  the  coal  delivered  on  the  works  was 
£59^7,  or  15s.  6-28d.  per  ton.  The  total  quantity  of  gas  made  was 
84,029,703  cubic  feet,  being  an  increase  of  1,206,700  cubic  feet,  or  1-45 
per  cent.  The  amount  of  gas  sent  out,  as  shown  by  the  consumers' 
meters  was  77,177,800  cubic  feet — an  increase  of  187,230  cubic  feet, 
or  o'24  per  cent.  There  are  at  present  1877  ordinary  and  1807  prepay- 
ment consumers  on  the  books ;  showing  a  net  increase  of  67  ordinary  and 
246  prepayment  consumers  over  the  year  1908-9.  The  receipts  for 
coke  show  a  decrease  of  £22g  ;  for  tar,  an  increase  of  /18  ;  and  for 
sulphate  of  ammonia,  an  increase  of  £2  12s.  5d.  The  price  of  gas  has 
been  reduced  from  2S.  8d.  to  2S.  6d.,  and  for  public  lighting  from 
25.  7d.  to  2S.  4d.  per  1003  cubic  feet.  In  the  Water  Department,  the 
gross  profit  amounts  to  /2484.  Interest  on  debentures  absorbs  /1539 
(less  £1  15s.  6d.  being  bank  interest),  and  sinking  fund  /781 ;  leaving 
a  surplus  of  £164.  The  sinking  fund,  including  debt  repaid,  stands  at 
/io,86o.  The  Committee  resolved  that  the  Borough  Treasurer  should 
transfer  /800  from  the  Gas  Department  net  revenue  account  to  the 
general  district  fund  account ;  and  that  the  sum  of  ;^200,  being  the 
remainder  of  the  surplus  profit,  should  be  carried  to  next  year's  net 
revenue  account.  As  to  the  surplus  profit  of  the  Wa*er  Department, 
thev  decided  that  the  Borough  Treasurer  should  transfer  it  to  the 
reset ve  fund  account. 

Miners  and  the  Eight  Hours  Act. — At  a  conference  of  miners 
on  the  question  of  amending  the  Mines  (Eight  Hours)  Act,  held  at 
the  Westminster  Palace  Hotel  last  Wednesday,  the  following  resolu- 
tion was  agreed  to  :  "  That  this  conference,  having  fully  considered  the 
position  in  SDuth  Wales,  hereby  reaffirm  the  resolution  passed  on 
March  30,  1910,  and  resolve  to  resist  any  amendment  to  the  Mines 
Regulations  Act,  1908,  which  is  not  introduced  or  sanctioned  by  the 
Miners'  Federation  of  Great  Britain."  The  resolution  of  March  30 
referred  to  is  the  one  which  authorizes  the  South  Wales  miners  to 
agree  to  the  conditions  negotiated  with  the  S3uth  Wales  owners  for  the 
continuation  of  the  Coal  Conciliation  Board,  and  in  it  strong  opposition 
was  expressed  to  any  amendment  of  the  Eight  Hours  Act. 

,,  Fatal  Explosion  of  Acetylene  Gas.— A  groom  and  a  nurse  were 

j,  killed  and  three  other  persons  seriously  icjured  by  an  explosion  cf 

I  acetylene  gas  which  occurred  last  Tuesday  night  at  Lord  Huntingdon's 

r  residence,  Sharavogue  House,  near  Birr,  King's  County.    There  had 

^  been  an  escape  of  acetylene  gas,  which  was  not  considered  serious  ;  but 

;  as  the  nursery  governess.  Miss  Jessie  Dawne,  was  going  to  her  apart- 

I  ments  with  a  lighted  candle,  a  terrific  explosion  took  place  in  a  long 

\  corridor  on  the  first  floor.    She  received  terrible  injuries,  and  suc- 

,  cumbed  within  an  hour.    A  stableman  named  Joseph  Power,  who  was 

I-  I"  .'^"^  corridor  at  the  time,  was  killed  instantly.    At  the  inquest, 

r  Wilham  Ennis,  the  steward,  said  that  he  had  been  working  the  gas- 

r  generator  for  upwards  of  two  years,  and  no  accident  had  happened 

i  With  it.    The  gas  was  conveyed  into  the  house  by  an  iron  pipe,  but 

|:  the  one  under  the  flooring  of  the  passage  where  the  explosion  occurred 

;i  was  of  lead  •  and  his  opinion  was  that  the  leakage  could  have  been 

I  ca'ised  by  rats  gnawing  through  the  pipe.    A  verdict  was  returned  of 

/  "Accidental  death." 


At  the  West  Greenwich  Gas-Works  Institute,  on  the  24th  ult.,  Mr. 
Charles  Carpenter,  the  Chairman  of  the  South  Metropolitan  Cias  Com- 
pany, unveiled  a  portrait  of  the  late  Sir  Gsorge  Livesey,  the  work  of 
Miss  Mabel  Robinson,  of  Balham.  The  cost  has  been  borne  by  the 
members  of  the  Institute;  a  Committee,  of  which  Mr.  Alfred  Sbowell 
is  the  Hon.  Sscretary,  having  charge  of  the  collection  of  the  subscrip- 
tions. Mr.  J.  1'.  Braidwood,  the  Engineer  of  the  Greenwich  station 
of  the  Company,  presided  ;  and  there  was  a  large  attendance.  Bifore 
unveiling  the  portrait,  which  was  covered  by  a  Union  Jack,  Mr.  Car- 
penter dwelt  upon  the  incalculable  results  of  co-partnership,  of  which 
Sir  George  was  the  pioneer.  He  said  his  interest  in  the  welfare  of 
working  men  never  abated  ;  and  nothing  gave  him  greater  pleasure 
than  to  get  into  conversation  with  them.  Mr.  Carpenter  warmly  com- 
mended the  idea  of  the  portrait.  He  then  cut  a  string,  and  the  por- 
trait, "  depicting  the  noble  features  of  the  late  Sir  (ieorge,"  as  he 
added,  was  exposed  to  view,  amid  profound  silence.  Mr.  Carpenter 
and  Mr.  Braidwood  were  cordially  thanked  for  the  part  they  had  taken 
in  the  function,  and  it  was  brought  to  a  close. 


Its  Coming  of  Age. 

The  first  article  in  the  "  Co-partnership  Journal  of  the  South  Metro- 
politan Gas  Company"  for  July  is  on  "The  Coming  of  Age  of  Co- 
partnership." It  is  by  Mr.  Charles  Carpenter,  the  Chairman  of  the 
Company,  who  offers  the  following  remarks  on  the  subject. 

Under  the  name  of  the  "  Bonus  Scheme  "  our  co-partnership  came 
into  being  in  the  troublous  year  of  1889  ;  and  it  has  now,  therefore, 
had  existence  for  twenty-one  years.  Sir  George  Livesey  often  related 
the  circumstances  which  led  up  to  its  conception ;  and  these  need  not 
now  be  recapitulated.  Its  great  object  was  to  improve  the  relationship 
between  the  Company  and  its  employees,  and  at  the  same  time  to  give 
them  the  opportunity  of  bettering  their  lot  in  life.  With  the  present 
declaration  of  bonus  at  the  rate  of  8^  per  cent,  upon  all  salaries  and 
wages  earned  during  the  past  twelve  months,  the  amount  of  money 
credited  in  this  way  to  the  Company's  employees  now  exceeds  half-a- 
million  pounds  sterling.  This  remarkable  figure  represents  the  sum  of 
what  has  been  paid  over  and  above  wages  as  the  Company's  return  for 
the  loyal  and  intelligent  service  of  its  large  army  of  workers  during  the 
period  under  review.  A  friend  of  mine  often  applies  to  us  a  remark  of 
an  eminent  statesman,  now  deceased,  and  says  "We  are  all  Socialists." 
Well,  if  this  is  Socialism,  we  have  nothing  to  be  ashamed  of  in  the  de- 
signation.   I  think,  however,  the  similarity  ends  with  the  name. 

With  the  welfare  of  working  men  and  women  near  and  dear  to  his 
heart,  Sir  George  saw  the  fallacious  basis  upon  which  rested  most  of 
the  socialistic  teaching  ;  and  he  set  himself  to  work  to  devise  a  more 
practical  one,  for  which  his  intense  sympathies  and  wide  experience  so 
eminently  fitted  him.  His  great  ideal  was  the  formation  into  a  new 
class,  though  under  an  old  name,  of  those  who,  whether  labourers  or 
artisans,  toil  for  a  daily  or  an  hourly  wage.  A  fundamental  part  of 
the  new  order  of  things  was  a  plan  to  give  greater  continuity  and 
certainty  of  service.  To  this  end,  a  system  of  agreements  was  insti- 
tuted; and  instead  of  following  their  vocation  under  the  uncertain 
tenure  of  an  hour's,  a  day's,  or  even  a  week's  notice,  workmen  were 
assured  regular  and  continuous  employment  for  periods  varying  from 
three  to  twelve  months. 

Furthermore,  beyond  the  wages  which  custom  and  trade  societies 
had  decreed  as  fair  to  live  within  and  provide  not  only  for  a  summer 
holiday  but  an  occasional  rainy  day,  a  part  of  the  varying  profits  of 
the  undertaking  was  set  aside  year  by  year  for  the  employees'  benefit, 
and  invested  by  the  purchase  of  shares  in  the  Company's  business. 
These  shares  are  bought  in  the  open  market,  transferred  to  the  work- 
men in  their  own  names,  and  inalienably  held  by  them.  Sjrely  the 
possession  of  such  securities  is  bound  to  bring  about  a  feeling  of 
freedom  and  independence  attainable  in  no  other  way.  Must  it  not 
make  a  man  less  fearful  and  more  self-reliant  if  he  feels  he  has  the 
means  in  bis  possession  to  run  alone  for  a  few  weeks  or  a  few  months, 
instead  of  having  to  pass  his  life  in  complete  dependence,  living  from 
hand  to  mouth  ? 

Co-partnership  has  become  as  integral  a  part  of  our  business  as  the 
supply  of  gas.  I  make  this  statement  with  firm  conviction  and  full 
deliberation.  But  neither  in  gas  supply  nor  in  co-partnership  must  we 
be  content  with  matters  as  they  are.  Undertakings  which  do  not  pro- 
gress recede.  I  believe  there  is  no  such  thing  as  standing  still.  Our 
aim  must  be  to  promote  the  economic  use  of  gas  in  every  way  ;  and 
the  greater  the  reiurn  the  consumer  gets  for  the  money  he  spends  with 
us,  the  more  he  is  likely  so  to  spend.  And  the  same  principle  is  true  of 
the  bonus.  The  more  the  employees  invest  their  savings  in  the  Com- 
pany, the  greater  their  interest  in  it  becomes  and  their  power  to  contri- 
bute to  its  prosperity.  We  cannot  expect  the  whole  half  million  to  be 
in  existence  to-day  as  the  employees'  holding  in  the  Company  ;  but  I 
do  beg  all  to  use  their  utmost  endeavour  to  increase  the  amount. 

Its  Cash  Value. 

In  the  same  number  of  the  publication  referred  to  in  the  opening 
paragraph,  there  is  shown,  from  some  figures  furnished  by  the  Chief 
Accountant  of  the  Company  (Mr.  Sims),  the  money  value  of  the  co- 
partnership bonus  to  a  workman  earning  the  very  moderate  wage  of 
30s.  a  week.  If  such  a  man  had  decided  at  the  inauguration  of  the 
scheme  to  leave  his  bonus  and  interest  untouched,  it  would  in  the  past 
twenty  years  have  accumulated  to  /175  12s.  6d.,  thus  :  Withdrawable 
account,  £icS  15s.  ;  trust  account,  /66  17s.  Od.  This  represents  the 
cash  value  of  the  bonus  to  a  man  earning  his  30s.  weekly.  Other 
amounts  would  be  proportionate—/.!'.,  fora  man  with  ;f 2  per  week,  the 
figures  would  be  one-third  more. 



[July  5,  19 lo. 


Deputation  to  the  Local  Government  Board. 

A  deputation  representing  nineteen  Municipalities  (including  Man- 
chester, Liverpool,  Glasgow,  Belfast,  Bradford,  Leeds,  Cardiff,  Llan- 
dudno, and  Brighton)  and  several  public  associations  waited  upon  the 
President  of  the  Local  Government  Board  (the  Right  Hon.  John  Burns) 
last  Wednesday,  and  presented  a  memorial  on  the  subject  of  preventing 
the  pollution  of  the  air  by  smoke. 

The  memorialists  set  forth  the  evil  effects  of  the  smoke  nuisance, 
and  referred  to  the  steps  taken  by  the  Legislature  to  cure  the  evil. 
This,  they  said,  was  curable  by  the  application  of  thought  and  an 
expenditure  on  apparatus,  which,  carefully  used,  was  accompanied  by 
economy  of  fuel.  Though  the  Public  Health  Act,  1875,  intended  the 
Local  Gavernment  Board  to  take  action  on  the  failure  of  a  local  autho- 
rity to  do  so,  the  memorialists  considered  that  the  Board  was  not 
suffi -iently  equipped.  They  therefore  made  a  series  of  requests,  among 
them  being  the  following  :  "  The  creation  of  a  Smoke  Department  of 
the  Local  Government  Board,  with  inspectors,  competent  men  with 
scientific  training,  who  should  supervise  and  report  upon  the  success 
of  the  local  authorities  in  keeping  down  smoke,  and  give  them  advice 
and  assistance.  If,  in  the  opinion  of  the  Board,  these  authorities 
prove  inefTective,  the  Board  should  itself  undertake  the  control  of 
smoke.  In  order  to  remove  the  domestic  smoke  nuisance,  all  new  fire- 
places should,  after  a  reasonable  delay,  be  inspected  and  passed  as 
drains  and  plans  are.  Believing  that  cheap  gas  will  be  a  large  factor 
in  the  ultimate  solution  of  the  smoke  question,  we  trust  the  Board,  in 
dealing  with  the  borrowing  powers  asked  for  by  gas  undertakings,  will 
absolutely  prohibit  the  pernicious  practice  of  selling  gas  dear  to  relieve 
the  rates.  This  leads  to  wasteful  expenditure,  is  unfair  to  large  users 
of  gas,  and  prevents  the  development  of  this  clean  and  civilized  way 
of  obtaining  heat  and  power." 

The  deputation,  which  was  received  in  private,  was  introduced 
by  Mr.  Gordon  Har\  ev,  M.P.,  who  stated  that,  as  a  manufacturer 
owning  four  mill  chimneys,  he  had  practically  succeeded  in  stopping 
smoke  and  making  a  profit. 

Principal  Graham,  the  Chairman  of  the  Smoke  Abatement  League, 
cited  figures  to  show  that  the  existing  smoke  legislation  is  a  failure  over 
most  of  the  country.  He  said  that  seven  towns  were  endeavouring  to 
carry  out  the  law — viz.,  Liverpool,  Manchester,  Glasgow,  Birmingham, 
Bradford,  Nottingham,  and  Sheffield.  The  total  number  of  prosecu- 
tions instituted  by  these  towns  came  to  21S1  in  the  two  years  1903  and 
1904  ;  leaving  only  164  prosecutions  to  be  distributed  over  the  remaining 
102  authorities  in  two  years,  or  less  than  one  prosecution  each  per 
annum,  though  they  had  received  6182  official  reports  of  nuisance  from 
black  smoke.  The  new  feature  of  the  deputation  was  that  they  were 
there  as  representatives  of  municipalities  themselves,  asking  the  Local 
Government  Board  to  come  and  assist  localities  where  they  clearly 
failed.  They  did  not  ask  that  the  subject  should  be  taken  wholly  out 
of  their  control  ;  only  that  local  control  should  be  guided,  stimulated, 
and,  where  it  failed,  supplemented  by  central  control,  with  a  staff  of 
inspectors  analogous  to  those  who  work  under  the  Alkali  Acts.  It  was 
extremely  desirable  that  there  should  be  in  immediate  control  of  smoky 
chimneys  someone  more  influential  and  better  informed  than  the  ordi- 
nary smoke  inspector,  whose  wages  were  not  much  above  those  of  a 
skilled  workman,  and  whose  duty  it  was  to  control  and  even  to  annoy 
wealthy  firms. 

Mr.  W.  B.  Smith,  the  Convener  of  the  Sub-Committee  on  Air  Purifi- 
cation of  the  Glasgow  Corporation,  stated,  as  showing  the  necessity  for 
action,  that  they  had  in  Glasgow  last  winter  one  of  the  most  striking 
examples  of  the  direct  effect  of  smoke-polluted  air  on  the  lives  of  the 
people.  In  nine  weeks  following  the  30th  of  October  there  was  an  ex- 
cess of  1060  deaths  ;  and  as  the  increased  number  of  deaths  each  week 
exactly  synchronized  with  the  occurrence  of  black  fogs,  they  thought 
it  was  conclusively  proved  that  smoke-fog  was  the  immediate  cause  of 
this  excessive  mortality.  The  speaker  went  on  to  say  he  had  been  re- 
quested to  put  before  Mr.  Burns,  for  his  consideration,  the  desirability 
of  consolidating  the  laws  against  the  emission  of  smoke,  and  making 
one  uniform  code  for  the  whole  country.  Various  local  authorities  in 
England  and  Scotland  had  Special  Acts  under  which  they  proceeded  ; 
and  they  varied  considerably  in  the  powers  they  conferred  for  dealing 
with  this  form  of  nuisance.  It  seemed  to  the  deputation  that  all  these 
differences  should  be  put  an  end  to,  and  that  there  should  be  one  general 
law  applicable  to  all  manufacturers  alike.  It  was  now  well  known  that 
for  many  of  the  smaller  industries  in  a  city  the  gas  which  was  manu- 
factured and  sold  by  the  corporation  was  utilized  for  the  purpose  of 
driving  machinery  and  for  heating  and  cooking  purposes.  Wherever 
gas  was  used  in  place  of  coal,  smoke  was  entirely  prevented  ;  and  hence 
they  desired  to  specially  draw  Mr.  Burns's  attention  to  the  difficulties 
which  lay  in  the  way  of  some  manufacturers  as  against  others  in  the 
utilization  of  this  smokeless  form  of  fuel.  They  referred  to  the  practice 
which  had  grown  in  recent  years  in  various  towns  in  England  whereby 
certain  local  authorities  took  an  undue  amount  of  the  profits  from 
their  gas  undertakings  and  applied  them  to  a  reduction  of  the  general 
rates  ;  thus  keeping  up  the  price  of  gas  against  the  consumers,  and 
therefore  hindering  the  utilization  of  gas,  both  for  heating  and  for 
power  purposes.  They  contended  that  gas  should  be  sold  to  the  com- 
munity at  as  nearly  cost  price  as  possible,  so  that  its  cheapness  would 
encourage  its  use  by  the  manufacturers,  who  now  had  to  burn  raw 
coal  in  small  steam-boilers.  It  was  well  known  among  engineers  that 
the  smaller  type  of  Cornish  boilers,  and  also  all  vertical  boilers,  were 
among  the  worst  smoke  producers.  In  these  circumstances,  they  ap- 
pealed to  Mr.  Burns  to  take  such  steps  as  might  seem  fitting  to  prevent 
the  undue  amount  of  the  profits  of  gas  undertakings  being  utilized  for 
the  reduction  of  rates,  as  they  were  convinced  that  this  practice  not 
only  tended  towards  some  extravagance  in  public  expenditure,  but  also 
had  a  direct  bearing  on  the  prohibition  of  gas  as  a  fuel  in  the  smaller 

Alderman  Fildes  (Manchester)  and  Mr.  Leach  (Bradford)  having 
given  particulars  in  regard  to  the  smoke  nuisance  in  their  respective 

Mr.  Burns  said  he  sympathized  entirely  with  the  objects  of  the 

deputation.    He  had  listened  with  pleasure  to  what  Mr.  Harvey  had 
said — that,  as  a  manufacturer,  he  had  proved  that  smoke  was  not 
necessary,  and  that  its  absence  implied  (as  he,  Mr.  Burns,  believed  it 
did  really  imply)  the  economic  management  of  the  concern.  Principal 
Graham  had  given  reasons  for  preferring  national  and  general  rather 
th  an  local  action  in  these  matters.    Mr.  Smith,  of  Glasgow,  had  raised 
an  interesting  point  as  to  the  action  of  local  authorities  in  allocating 
the  profits  from  their  gas  undertakings  in  relief  of  the  rates  ;  the  effect 
of  this  being  to  make  gas  dearer  than  it  ought  to  be,  and  so  preventing 
its  freer  use  as  an  illuminant  and  heater.    He  frankly  sympathized 
with  this  view.    Briefly,  the  contentions  of  the  deputation  were  that 
penalties  should  be  increased  ;  that  central  control  and  inspection 
should  go  hand-in-hand  with  local  administration  ;  that  there  should 
be  general,  as  distinct  from  local,  action,  both  in  regard  to  penalties 
and  standards  of  smoke ;    and  that  there  should  be  national  and 
uniform  supervision  as  against  intermittent  action  on  the  part  of 
a  few  public-spirited  local  authorities.    Finally,  the  deputation  asked 
that  areas  outside  cities  should  have  similar  penalties  to  the  cities 
which  they  adjoined,  so  that  a  man  could  not  get  over  the  border  and 
in  this  way  escape  smoke  liabilities  and  responsibilities.    He  asso- 
ciated himself  entirely  with  the  real  and  practical  object  of  the 
deputation,  because,  as  an  engineer,  and  one  who  had  taken  an  active 
part  in  improving  the  health  and  amenities  of  big  cities,  he  believed 
that  smoke,  wherever  it  came  from,  was  an  insanitary  nuisance.  He 
considered  that  smoke  was  useless,  dangerous,  and  ought  to  be 
abolished  ;  and  if  this  was  the  object  of  the  deputation,  he  was  certainly 
in  entire  accord  with  their  views.    He  believed  that  a  smoky  chimney 
was  a  sign  of  waste,  an  evidence  of  defective  combustion,  and  a  proof 
of  bad  stoking.    He  believed  that  much  improvement  could  be  accom- 
plished if  employers  would  give  practical  and  technical  instruction  to 
their  stokers,  and  afterwards  some  little  encouragement  in  the  shape  of 
an  extra  shilling  or  two  a  week  in  wages.    He  considered  a  man  who 
was  making  money  out  of  a  factory,  and  at  the  same  time  polluting  the 
air  with  smoke,  was  guilty  of  a  most  unneighbourly  act.    He  must, 
however,  point  out  that  there  were  several  difficulties  to  be  faced. 
Legislation  as  it  at  present  existed,  with  the  splendid  exception  of 
Nottingham,  struck  only  at  the  factory,  the  workshop,  and  large  under- 
takings.   He  agreed  that  legislation  should  be  made  possible  in  many 
of  the  directions  they  had  indicated  ;  but  they  had  not  dealt  with  one 
of  the  chief  causes  of  smoke  nuisance — viz.,  the  domestic  house.  In 
this  matter  he  anticipated  more  from  general  progress  than  from  any 
legislation  for  which  they  were  asking.    He  believed  that  great  progress 
had  already  been  made  in  the  designing  of  furnaces,  and  that  electric 
and  gas  power  were  gradually  taking  the  place  of  detached  and  badly- 
constructed  factory  boilers  and  smoky  chimneys.    All  these  improve- 
ments were  a  step  in  the  direction  of  abating  the  smoke  nuisance  to 
which  they  had  not  perhaps  attached  sufficient  importance.    As  an 
example  of  the  extent  of  domestic  smoke,  Mr.  Burns  drew  attention  to 
the  fact  that  while  there  are  in  Greater  London  about  35,000  factories 
and  workshops,  the  dwelling-houses  numbera  million.  Unless  anthracite 
was  insisted  upon  (which,  he  thought,  impossible)  for  everyone  of  these 
million  houses,  reform  could  only  be  looked  for  by  educating  public 
opinion.    He  believed  that  this  reform  was  coming  more  rapidly,  par- 
ticularly in  London,  than  some  people  thought,  in  the  shape  of  improved 
stoves  and  grates,  and  by  the  supersession  of  the  coal  grate  and  heater 
by  gas  and  electricity.    He  had  been  at  some  pains  to  obtain  figures 
that  very  morning  from  two  large  Gas  Companies  in  London — the  Gas- 
light and  Coke  Company  and  the  South  Metropolitan  Gas  Company— 
which  confirmed  his  view  that,  so  far  as  London  was  concerned,  the 
smoke  nuisance  was  not  nearly  so  bad  now  as  it  was  ten,  twenty,  or  1 
thirty  years  ago.    He  found  that  these  two  Companies  had  between  j 
them  1,300,000  gas-fires,  gas-cookers,  ring  burners,  or  hot-water 
heaters  ;  and  he  was  of  opinion  that  the  use  of  all  this  additional  gas 
in  lieu  of  coal  must  undoubtedly  have  reduced  considerably  the  smoke 
nuisance  in  London.    In  conclusion,  Mr.  Burns  said  he  was  prepared 
to  take,  so  to  speak,  a  hill-top  view  of  this  question,  and  to  take 
counsel  with  the  officers  of  the  Board  to  see  if  anything  could  be  done 
on  some  of  the  lines  suggested  by  the  deputation.    But  he  warned 
them  that  there  were  difficulties  in  the  way  more  serious  perhaps  than 
some  of  them  realized.    So  far  as  sympathy  with  their  object  was: 
concerned,  he  assured  them  that  the  Local  Government  Board  wasi 
with  them  ;  and  if  the  final  result  of  their  interview  were  some  im- 
provement in  the  directions  they  wished,  no  one  would  be  better 
pleased  than  the  officers  of  the  Board. 


Electricity  v.  Gas.  | 

At  the  Meeting  of  the  Acton  Urban  District  Council  last  Wednesday,! 
there  was  a  long  discussion  in  regard  to  proposals  for  the  lighting  oi 
the  district.  It  was,  however,  of  purely  local  interest,  and  left  matters| 
very  much  as  they  were  before. 

Upon  the  ai:;ciida  was  a  letter  from  Mr.  Alex.  A.  Johnston,  the  Engi- 
neer and  Manager  of  the  Brentford  Gas  Company,  containing  an  offer; 
from  them  in  respect  of  the  lighting.  He  stated  that  the  Directors  had! 
for  some  time  had  under  consideration  the  means  by  which  the  street 
lighting  could  be  improved,  and  at  the  same  time  reduced  in  cost;  and 
that  they  were  now  in  a  position  to  make  a  proposal  which  would  effect 
both  of  these  objects.  This  proposal  was:  (i)  To  light  the  whole  ofi 
Uxbridge  Road  and  Churchfield  Road  West  by  1500-candle  power  in- 
verted lamps,  fitted  on  the  existing  electric  arc  lamp  columns,  at  a  cost 
for  cleaning,  lighting,  and  maintenance  of  £12  per  lamp  per  annum  ; 
and  (2)  to  fix  300-candle  power  Welsbach  self-intensified  lamps  where, 
there  are  now  eleven  arc  lamps  other  than  those  specified  above,  for  the 
sum  of  £5  los.  per  lamp  per  annum— the  scheme  to  include  fixing  at 
the  Company's  expense.  Automatic  controllers  would  be  put  to  all  the 
existing  gas-lamps  ;  and  the  price  of  these  lamps  would  be  reduced  to 
£3  each  per  annum.  The  high-pressure  lamps  would  be  extinguished 
at  I  a.m.,  and  their  places  taken  by  4-feet  Kern  lamps  siniilar  to  those 
now  fitted  in  most  of  the  side  roads  ;  and  they  would  be  lighted  at  the 
time  the  others  were  extinguished.  These  low-pressure  lamps  would 
be  fixed  on  the  existing  gqs-standards,    Mr.  Johnston  pointed  out  that 

July  5,  1910.] 



this  scheme  would  give  the  Council  not  only  the  best  lighted  main 
road  in  any  district  outside  London,  but  would  also  effect  a  very  sub- 
stantial saving  on  the  lighting  account.  At  the  same  time,  in  view  of 
the  very  heavy  capital  expenditure  involved  in  carrying  it  out,  a  con- 
tract for  a  period  of  not  less  than  ten  years  was  essential.  There  was 
no  discussion  on  the  letter. 

Mr.  Shillecher  then  proposed  another  motion,  as  follows:  "That 
the  resolution  carried  at  the  special  meeting  of  the  Council  held  on 
Friday,  June  10,  1910,  with  reference  to  the  handing  over  of  the  elec- 
tricity supply  to  the  Metropolitan  Electric  Supply  Company,  be  re- 
scinded, and  that  notice  to  terminate  the  agreement  be  given  to  the 
Company."  He  raised  several  objections  to  the  proposed  arrange- 
ments with  the  Company,  and  said  he  had  come  to  the  conclusion  that 
the  Council  could  get  a  supply  of  gas  for  /5000,  instead  of  the  ^20,000 
estimated  by  the  Engineer.  Mr.  DuDsmore  said,  while  he  was  opposed 
to  giving  the  contract  to  the  Electric  Supply  Company,  he  questioned 
whether  the  present  was  a  proper  time  to  discuss  the  matter,  as  nego- 
tiations were  now  proceeding.  The  Chairman  (Mr.  Schultess  Young, 
J. P.)  expressed  the  opinion  that  street  electric  lighting  was  doomed, 
unless  the  cost  was  reduced.  In  Acton,  under  the  present  charges  for 
current  in  bulk,  the  greater  the  consumption  the  worse  it  was  for  the 
undertaking.  He  pointed  out  that  electricity  for  public  lighting  was 
being  displaced  by  gas,  and  referred  to  the  example  of  Westminster  in 
adopting  the  latter  illuminant.    In  the  result,  the  motion  was  lost. 


Tbe  Annual  Outings. 

At  the  invitation  of  the  Directors,  the  employees  of  the  Plymouth 
and  Stonehouse  Gas  Company  had  their  annual  outings  last  week. 
This  year  the  programme  included  a  combined  train  and  coach  trip  ; 
the  parties  proceeding  by  train  to  Kingsbridge,  thence  by  coach  to 
Dartmouth,  and  afterwards  by  train  to  Torquay  and  Plymouth.  As 
usual,  the  guests  were  divided  into  three  parties ;  200  going  on  Tuesday, 
and  similar  numbers  on  each  of  the  two  following  days.  Luncheon 
was  provided  at  the  Town  Hall,  Dartmouth,  and  dinner  at  Torquay. 
Mr.  Percy  S.  Hoyte,  the  Engineer  and  Manager,  was  responsible  for 
the  excellent  arrangements,  and  personally  saw  that  they  were  carried 
out  on  each  of  the  days. 

There  was  a  little  speech-making  after  the  luncheon  on  Tuesday, 
when,  at  the  call  of  Mr.  J.  Walters,  the  foreman  of  the  works,  sup- 
ported by  other  past  and  present  employees,  the  Directors  and  Manager 
were  heartily  thanked  for  their  work  in  the  interests  of  the  staff. 
Special  reference  was  made  to  the  good  feeling  prevailing  at  the  works, 
and  to  the  pensions  bestowed  on  old  employees,  several  of  whom  were 
included  in  the  party.  Sir  Joseph  Bellamy,  in  reply,  said  the  Directors 
were  doing  as  they  would  be  done  by,  and  acted  towards  the  men  from 

a  sense  of  justice.  They  had  been  asked  out  of  Plymouth  why  they 
favoured  a  pension  scheme  without  contributions  from  the  men.  It 
was  a  fad  of  his  that  the  men  should  not  contribu  e  anything,  because 
they  wanted  the  men  to  recognize  that  it  was  the  carrying  out  of  a 
sense  of  obligation  on  the  part  of  the  Directors  for  good  work  done.  A 
man  who  passed  forty  years  of  his  life  in  one  concern,  which,  through 
his  efforts  and  those  of  his  colleagues — including  those  who  might  be 
Directors — had  been  brought  to  a  successful  issue,  should  receive  a 
reasonable  pension  when  he  became  worn  out.  The  extension  of  the 
business  outside  Plymouth  was  to  be  undertaken.  It  would  not  pro- 
duce profit  for  a  long  time  yet ;  but  it  would  enable  them  to  make  gas 
in  increasing  quantities,  and  to  find  employment  for  more  men,  while 
it  would  at  the  same  time  enable  them  to  do  good  to  a  number  of  people 
who  wanted  more  light.  The  gas-works  had  been  maintained  in  a 
thoroughly  efficient  stale  for  the  last  twelve  months,  and  thanks  were 
due  to  the  employees  for  the  way  in  which  they  had  aided  the  efforts 
of  the  Board  to  bring  about  the  successful  results  achieved.  The  re- 
duction in  the  price  of  gas  by  id.  per  loco  cubic  feet  meant  a  gift  of 
/sooo  to  the  consumers  and  an  extra  profit  to  the  shareholders  of  only 
^500.  They  knew,  however,  that  the  lower  the  price  charged  for  gas 
the  greater  the  consumption  ;  and  as  gas  was  the  poor  man's  light,  the 
cheaper  it  was  the  greater  the  benefit  to  the  working  classes.  Mr. 
Hoyte  spoke  of  the  great  assistance  rendered  by  the  officials  of  the 
Company  in  the  carrying  on  of  the  works— specially  referring  to  Mr. 
H.  B.  Heath,  the  Secretary,  Mr.  Richmond,  of  the  Distribution  Depart- 
ment, Mr.  J.  W.  Cornish,  and  Mr.  Clark,  the  Assistant-Engineer. 


From  Our  Own  Correspondent! 


The  annual  accounts  of  the  Edinburgh  and  Leith  Gas  Commissioners 
published  in  another  column,  bear  testimony  to  the  vitality  of  the 
undertaking  under  its  present  management.  The  output  of  gas  during 
the  year  was  the  largest  the  Commissioners  have  ever  had,  being 
24  million  cubic  feet  over  the  next  largest  output — that  of  1907  8. 
The  income  from  the  sale  of  gas  was  the  same  as  two  years  ago,  when 
the  price  was  2s.  gd.  per  1000  cubic  feet  for  tbe  first  part  of  the  year, 
and  3s.  for  the  winter  season.  Last  year  the  price  was  3s.  for  the 
summer,  and  2s.  lod.  for  the  winter  season.  The  largest  revenue  from 
gas  was  in  1901-2,  when  the  price  was  3s.  4d.  per  1000  cubic  feet ; 
and  the  sum  earned  was  /29i,i64.  During  the  past  five  years,  the  gas 
consumption  has  increased  by  110  million  cubic  feet,  or,  upon  an 
average,  more  than  20  million  cubic  feet  per  year — a  very  satisfactory 
increment.  During  the  past  year,  coal  was  cheaper  than  in  the  year 
before  by  over  /'i9,ooo,  which  helped  considerably  in  bringing  about 
a  favourable  financial  result  ;  but  the  fact  remains  that  economic 
working  had  more  to  do  with  it.  For  instance,  to  effect  the  purifica- 
tion of  nearly  two  billion  cubic  feet  of  gas  at  the  cost  of  £&6i  for 



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10  THE  CITY 

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[July  5,  igid. 

purifying  material  and  wages  is  marvellous.  The  Commissioners  are 
under  obligations,  imposed  by  their  Act  of  1908,  more  severe  than 
hitherto.  They  have  been  able  to  meet  them  all,  including  a  special 
contribution  of  ;^i5,ooo  to  a  special  reserve  fund,  and  have  /i3,555  over. 
This  result  is  a  matter  for  congratulation.  The  next  balance-sheet  will 
be  prepared  under  the  working  conditions  of  a  new  set  of  officials — 
Engineer  and  Treasurer ;  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  it  will  prove 
equally  satisfactory.  We  can  scarcely  wish,  in  face  of  the  phenomenal 
prosperity  of  the  past  year,  that  it  should  be  more  satisfactory. 

I  have  endeavoured  to  follow  as  closely  as  I  could  the  proceedings  at 
Westminster  upon  the  Gas  Bill  of  the  Glasgow  Corporation  ;  but  in  the 
absence  of  a  set  of  the  documents,  it  is  all  but  impossible  to  understand 
the  bearing  of  some  of  the  evidence  and  the  arguments.  It  is  quite 
apparent,  however,  that,  subject  to  the  decisions  of  the  House  of  Lords 
Committee  being  acquiesced  in  by  the  House  of  Commons,  the  Cor- 
poration have  done  well  in  prosecuting  the  Bill  in  the  House  of  Lords. 
They  have,  if  nothing  else  had  been  attained,  secured  the  consolidation 
of  their  Gas  Acts,  rendering  administration  easier  and  cheaper  ;  but  in 
the  House  of  Lords  the  Corporation  have  had  restored  to  them  two 
things  which  the  Commons  refused  them — the  adjustment  of  the  areas 
of  supply  as  they  wished,  and  the  right  to  charge  differential  rates. 
The  Commons'  Committee  took  away  a  right  which  the  Corporation 
have  all  along  possessed,  of  applying  profits  from  the  gas  undertaking 
to  general  purposes — that  is,  in  relief  of  the  rates  ;  and  the  Lords  Com- 
mittee acquiesce  in  this  decision,  so  that,  to  this  extent,  the  Corporation 
are  worse  off  than  they  were  before  going  to  Parliament  at  this  time. 
But  the  right  has  not  been  of  much  service  to  the  Corporation,  as,  out 
of  profits  amounting,  in  forty  years,  to  nearly  ;^35o,ooo  net,  and  in  gross 
to  very  much  more,  they  have  only  drawn  ;^2i,ooo  from  gas  profits  for 
the  general  good.  The  loss  of  this  power  will  therefore  not  be  much 
felt.  It  is  of  consequence,  however,  that  the  department  should  have 
power  to  differentiate  in  price.  This  is  a  power  new  to  them,  in  the 
lighting  branch  of  their  business.  Its  careful  application  may  be  anti- 
cipated from  the  lightness  of  their  requisition  of  gas  profits  for  the 
relief  of  rates.  The  Corporation  are  empowered  to  create  a  reserve 
fund,  which  is  in  accordance  with  contemporary  provisions.  Regarded 
as  a  whole,  it  cannot  be  overlooked  that  the  case  for  the  Corporation  has 
been  excellently  conducted.  The  Bill,  as  amended — shall  I  say  muti- 
lated ? — by  the  House  of  Commons  Committee  was  presented  to  the 
House  of  Lords  Committee  by  the  Corporation  in  its  amended  state, 
and  it  was  left  to  outside  influences  to  work  whatever  alteration  upon 
the  measure  they  required,  or  could  obtain.  The  suggestion  that  the 
Corporation  were  the  real  movers  in  the  policy  of  amendment  was 
firmly  resented  ;  and  we  may  accept  the  disclaimer  the  more  readily  in 
that  the  presumption  is  permissible  that  Counsel  for  the  Corporation, 
seeing  that  the  forces  arrayed  against  them  were  antagonistic,  relied 
upon  their  doing  the  work  of  persuading  the  Committee,  by  which 
means  the  ends  of  the  Corporation  were  served,  and  the  Corporation 
and  Counsel  for  them  have  escaped  the  odium  of  seeking  to  pit  one  of 
the  branches  of  Legislature  against  the  other.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that, 
as  between  the  two  Houses  of  Parliament,  the  points  still  in  question 

will  be  amicably  adjusted,  and  that  the  Corporation  of  Glasgow  will 
obtain  their  much-needed  Gas  Acts  Consolidating  Act. 

At  the  annual  meeting  of  the  Carluke  Gas  Company,  Limited,  held 
last  night,  it  was  reported  that  the  income  for  the  past  year  had  been 
/3114,  and  the  expenditure  ^2435  ;  leaving  a  profit  of  £6yg.  A  divi- 
dend of  10  per  cent,  was  declared,  and  £i7g  was  carriel  forward.  It 
was  reported  by  the  Directors  that  the  works  had  been  maintained  in 
an  efficient  condition,  and  that  it  is  expected  that  additions  and  altera- 
tions which  have  been  resolved  upon  will  be  completed  in  time  to  meet 
the  winter's  demands. 

The  Muirkirk  Gaslight  Company  earned  a  profit  last  year  of  £22^, 
out  of  which  a  dividend  of  10  per  cent,  has  been  paid. 

The  Pittenweem  Gaslight  Company  had  a  profit  of  ^353  on  the  past 
year's  transactions,  and  have  paid  a  dividend  of  10  per  cent. 

Sheriff-Substitute  Scott  Moncrieff,  in  the  Glasgow  Sheriff  Court,  has 
refused  a  petition  for  interdict  against  the  Glasgow  Corporation  Gas 
Department,  which  had  been  presented  by  Mr.  J.  M.  Ross,  the  Liquida- 
tor upon  the  estate  of  Messrs.  Hutson  and  Son,  Limited,  Engineers, 
Glasgow,  The  Corporation  were  among  the  creditors  of  the  Company 
in  respect  of  unpaid  accounts  for  gas  and  electricity  supplied  to  their 
works  before  liquidation.  These  accounts  the  Liquidator  refused  to 
pay,  whereupon  the  Gas  Department  intimated  that,  failing  immediate 
payment,  the  gas  would  be  cut  off.  It  was  contended,  on  behalf  of  the 
Liquidator,  that  the  Corporation,  by  threatening  to  cut  off  supplies,  were 
endeavouring  to  force  payment  of  their  accounts,  and  thereby  to  secure 
an  illegal  preference  ;  while  they  were  entitled  only  to  rank  for  their 
claim  as  ordinary  creditors.  It  was  also  urged  that,  by  their  threatened 
action,  the  Corporation  would  deprive  the  Liquidator  of  the  supplies  of  j 
gas  and  electricity  which  were  necessary  for  carrying  on  the  Company's  | 
business,  and  which,  it  was  contended,  he  was  entitled  to  get  on  his 
undertaking  to  pay  for  what  was  consumed  subsequent  to  the  date  of 
the  liquidation.  On  behalf  of  the  Corporation,  it  was  pleaded  that 
they  were  within  their  rights  in  cutting  off  supplies  for  overdue 
accounts.  The  Court  upheld  this  view.  The  same  subject  was  before 
the  Court  of  Session  on  the  17th  of  May  last,  in  an  application  by  the 
Liquidator  of  a  hotel  company  to  have  the  Corporation  of  Aberdeen 
interdicted  from  cutting  off  the  electricity  supply.  The  step,  if  taken, 
it  was  contended,  would  put  a  stop  to  business,  and  prevent  its  being 
sold  as  a  going  concern.  Lord  CuUen  offered  to  grant  interim  inter- 
dict until  caution  for  payment  should  be  found,  which  would  have 
enabled  the  question  of  liability  in  such  circumstances  to  be  afterwards 
considered  and  determined.  Caution,  however,  could  not  be  offered; 
and  in  this  case  also  interdict  was  refused.  In  both  these  cases  Liquida- 
tors have  claimed  to  be  in  a  higher  position  than  ordinary  creditors ; 
and  in  both  their  claim  has  been  repelled. 

The  hearing  of  the  action  by  Mr.  W.  Ewing,  late  Gas  Manager  at 
Greenock,  against  the  Corporation  of  Greenock,  in  which  the  pursuer 
sues  for  remuneration  for  extra  services,  is  put  down  for  Tuesday 
morning,  in  the  First  Division  of  the  Court  of  Session.  The  case 
comes  up  by  reclaiming  note  for  the  pursuer  against  the  decision  of 
Lord  Mackenzie,  which  was  adverse  to  him. 


The  Pioneer  Gas  Cooker! 

The  "EUREKA"  for  a  generation  has  been 
doing  good  pioaeer  work. 

At  the  present  day  the  name  "  Eureka " 
stands  for  all  that  is  highest  in  Gas- 
Stove  construction, 

Both  — 

To  the  Gas  Consumer, 
To  the  Gas  Authority, 

The  Standard  Cooker ! 
The  Standardised  Cooker!! 


Essex  Works, 

July  5,  1910.] 




i »  .  .  ^     11         >_  Liverpool,  fiily  2. 

i  Sulphate  of  Ammonia. 

j,'  June  requirements  having  been  provided  for,  demand  has  been 
rather  slack,  and  prices  have  been  somewhat  irregular.    The  closing 

i  quotations  are  £11  15s.  per  ton  f.o.b.  Hull,  £1 1  163.  3d.  per  ton  f.o.b. 

^Liverpool,  and  £11  17s.  6d.  per  ton  f.o.b.  Leith.  Foreign  buyers  are 
not  much  interested  in  the  prompt  position  at  present,  and  buyers  who 

I  have  July  contracts  to  cover  are  not  in  a  hurry  to  operate.    There  has 

'  been  good  inquiry  in  the  forward  position,  but  the  firmness  of  makers 
stands  in  the  way  of  direct  business.  Makers'  prices  are  for  the  most 
part  £11  17s.  6d.  per  ton  for  July-December,  1910,  delivery,  and  £12 
per  ton  for  January-June,  1911  ;  but  no  business  is  reported  thereat, 
and  buyers  abroad  report  that  they  can  buy  at  2s.  6d.  to  3s.  gd.  per  ton 

.  below  these  figures. 
Nitrate  of  Soda. 

This  article  on  spot  Liverpool  is  easier,  and  the  quotations  are 
'gs.  3d.  percwt.  for  95  per  cent,  and  gs.  6d.  for  refined  quality. 

_     „    .    ,  London,  July  4. 

Tar  Products.  '•'  ^ 

The  markets  for  tar  products  have  been  very  quiet  throughout  the 
past  week,  and  pitch  has  been  weak.  The  present  high  prices  in  this 
article  are  such  that  makers  are  induced  to  sell  their  make  as  soon  as 
they  secure  their  tar ;  and  as  both  the  Continent  and  the  South  Wales 
buyers  appear  to  have  ample  supplies  for  some  months  ahead,  they 
prefer  to  hold  off  in  the  present  state  of  the  market  rather  than  pur- 
chase ;  while  the  Germans  apparently  are  not  only  willing  to  sell  pitch 
at  a  fairly  low  figure  for  delivery  over  next  season,  but  are  also  taking 
a  large  number  of  fuel  orders  from  the  French  makers.  Business  has 
been  done  in  London  pitch  at  35s.  per  ton  ;  and  it  is  doubtful  whether 
even  this  price  can  be  secured  on  the  east  coast.  Creosote  is  quiet 
but  steady ;  and  it  appears  to  be  the  general  impression  that  we  shall 
have  an  improvement  in  the  market  for  this  article  towards  the  end  of 
the  year.  Benzols  are  very  weak  indeed.  In  the  North,  90  per  cent, 
quality  has  been  sold  at  5d.  per  gallon  naked  f.o.b.  ;  while  50  percent, 
quality  has  been  done  at  6d.  on  the  same  terms.  Toluol  is  quiet,  and 
there  is  little  demand  for  it.  Solvent  naphtha  is  steady  ;  but  there  is 
not  very  much  buying  just  now.  Heavy  naphtha  is  quiet,  with  very 
few  orders  in  the  market.  Crude  carbolic  appears  to  be  slightly  firmer, 
and  there  is  some  disposition  on  the  part  of  Continental  consumers  to 
buy  for  a  few  months  ahead.  Crystals,  however,  are  still  neglected. 
Cresylic  acid  is  firm,  and  prices  are  well  maintained,  as  is  customary 
at  this  time  of  the  year.  The  price  realizable  for  tar  has  fallen  owing 
to  the  outlook  for  pitch. 

The  average  values  during  the  week  were:  Tar,  15s.  gd.  to  igs.  gd., 
ex  works.  Pitch,  London,  35s. ;  east  coast,  34s.  6d.  to  35s.  ;  west  coast, 
34s.  to  35s.  f.a.s.  Mersey  ports.  Benzol,  go  per  cent.,  casks  included, 
London,  7|d.;  North,  6^d. ;  50-go  per  cent.,  casks  included,  London, 
7|d.  ;  North,  7J^d.  Toluol,  casks  included,  London,  lod. ;  North,  gd.  to 

gjd.  Crude  naphtha,  in  bulk,  London,  3jd.  to  3fd. ;  North,  3jd.  to  3jd. ; 
solvent  naphtha,  casks  included,  London,  is.  3d.;  North,  is.  2id.  to 
IS.  3d. ;  heavy  naphtha,  casks  included,  London,  IS.  to  is.  id.;  North, 
I  Id.  to  IS.  Creosote,  in  bulk,  London,  2jd.  to  2jd. ;  North,  2d.  to  2jd. 
Heavy  oils,  in  bulk,  23d.  to  2^d.  Carbolic  acid,  60  per  cent.,  casks 
included,  west  coast,  is.  ;  east  coast,  is.  to  is.  cid.  Naphthalene, 
/4  los.  to  £8  lof.;  salts,  40s.  to  42s.  6d.,  bags  included.  Anthracene, 
"A"  quality,  ijd.  per  unit,  packages  included  and  delivered. 

Sulpliate  of  Ammonia. 

The  market  for  this  article  still  continues  quiet,  and  buyers  are 
very  independent  as  to  forward  business.  Actual  Beckton  is  quoted  at 
;^i2;  and  outside  I^ondon  makes  on  Beckton  terms  at /i  I  los.  In  Hull, 
£11  13s.  gd.  to  £11  15s.  is  asked  ;  in  Liverpool,  £11  15s.  to £11  i6s.  3d. ; 
in  Leitb,  ^11  17s.  6d.  to  £11  18s.  gi.  ;  and  in  Middlesbrough, 
£11  13s.  gd.  to  £11  15s. 


Norttiern  Coal  Trade. 

The  coal  trade  has  shown  ease  of  late  ;  but  a  rather  better  tone 
seems  to  be  setting  in,  more  especially  for  forward  deliveries.  In  the 
steam  coal  trade,  best  Northumbrians  are  about  los.  to  los.  ijd.  per 
ton  f.o.b.  For  second-class  steams,  about  gs.  3d.  to  gs.  6d.  is  quoted  ; 
and  steam  smalls  are  steady  at  from  5s.  6d.  to  63.  6d.  There  is  a 
rather  better  demand  fcr  coal  now  that  prices  are  lower;  but  the  pro- 
duction is  still  ample  for  all  the  needs.  In  the  gas  coal  trade,  the 
period  of  lowest  consumption  is  now  passing  ;  but  the  increase  in  the  car- 
bonization of  coal  is  at  first  only  slow.  Exports  are,  however,  fairly  good. 
Durham  gas  coals  are  from  about  93.  3d.  to  gs.  8d.  per  ton  f.o.b.  for 
the  usual  classes,  according  to  quality  ;  while  for  "  Wear  specials,"  up 
to  los.  6d.  is  the  current  quotation.  Some  sales  of  gas  coal  for  delivery 
over  next  year  are  reported  at  practically  the  same  prices  as  the 
current  ones.  In  addition,  there  are  two  or  three  contracts,  including 
those  for  the  Ostend  Gas-Works  for  next  year,  under  consideration,  and 
the  large  sales  are  slightly  stiffening  the  prices,  though  not  very 
rapidly.  In  the  coke  trade,  the  tone  is  quiet.  Gas  coke  is,  however, 
still  in  small  supply,  and  is  firm  at  about  15s.  4jd.  per  ton  f.o.b  in  the 
Tyne  or  Wear. 

Scotch  Coal  Trade. 

There  are  signs  of  improving  demand,  particularly  in  the  foreign 
trade,  which  is  about  at  the  height  of  its  season.  The  home  market 
for  steam  coal  and  for  washed  stuffs  is  firm.  The  prices  now  quoted 
are  :  Ell,  8s.  gd.  to  los.  3d.  per  ton  f.o.b.  Glasgow  ;  splint,  gs.  gd.  to 
los.  ;  and  steam,  gs.  to  93.  3d.  The  shipments  for  the  week  amounted 
to  320,831  tons — a  decrease  of  21.083  tons  upon  the  preceding  week, 
and  of  38,595  tons  upon  the  corresponding  week  of  last  year.  For  the 
year  to  date,  the  total  shipments  have  been  7,593,699  tons — an  increase 
of  623,458  tons  upon  the  corresponding  period. 

R.  &  J.  DEMPSTER,  Limited 

Leading  Makei's  of  SPIRAL  GUIDED 

Spiral  Plates 
Steel  Tested 
Special  Rails 
Smooth  Rollers 
Steady  Action 
Strong  Details 
Save  Capital 
Safe  and  Sure 
Stand  Severe 
Snow  Storms  and 
Stiffest  Gales 


From  a  Photograph  showing  the  conversion  of  a  Two=Lift  Quide  Framed  Holder  to  a  Four-Lift  Spiral 
Holder  of      million  cubic  feet  capacity,  for  the  Newcastle  and  Gateshead  Qas  Company,  to  Plans  and 
Specifications  of  W.  D.  QIBB,  Esq.,  M.lnst.C.E.,  Engineer. 



[July  5,  1910. 

Torquay  Corporation  Water  Works. 

Members  of  the  Torquay  Corporation  on  Thursday  paid  their  annual 
visit  of  inspection  to  the  water-works.  Among  the  points  which 
especially  attracted  attention  was  the  progress  which  is  being  made  with 
the  afiorestation  of  the  land  constituting  the  gathering-ground.  The 
reservoirs  ara  situated  on  Dartmoor.  On  the  more  exposed  portions 
of  the  land,  larch  and  Scotch  fir  trees  are  being  planted.  Oak,  beech, 
and  sycamore  are  also  being  planted  ;  and  in  the  low-lying  ground  an 
osiery  is  being  established.  The  Corporation  have  laid  out  a  nursery 
for  rearing  young  trees ;  and  a  number  will  be  planted  each  year. 
Another  matter  to  which  attention  was  directed  was  the  provision 
made  for  aerating  the  water  from  the  Kennick  reservoir.  The  water  is 
now  conducted  along  the  side  of  a  hill  and  down  an  inclined  plane  con- 
structed in  ferro-concrete,  with  a  series  of  steps,  by  means  of  which  the 
stream  of  water  is  broken  into  cascades  before  entering  the  trunk  main. 
At  a  luncheon  which  was  served  in  the  Board  room  at  Tottiford,  Mr. 
T.  H.  Wills,  the  Chairman  of  the  Water  Committee,  who  presided,  said 
that  the  population  now  supplied  with  water  was  54,000,  and  the  daily 
consumption  was  34  gallons  per  head.  The  farming  and  afforestation 
operations  had  been  carried  out  with  success.  The  aeration  scheme 
would  materially  improve  the  quality  of  the  water  in  summer.  Mr. 
S.  C.  Chapman,  the  Water  Engineer,  referring  to  the  planting  of 
trees,  said  they  had  not  a  great  deal  of  money  to  devote  to  this  pur- 
pose, and  were  feeling  their  way.  The  idea  was  that  in  time  the  trees 
would  hs  a  source  of  revenue,  and  he  thought  that  the  growing  of 
willows  for  making  cricket  bats  would  result  in  a  good  profit.  The 
Town  Clerk  (Mr.  F.  S.  Hex)  remarked  that  the  Water  Supplies  Pro- 
tection Bill  now  before  Parliament  was  one  of  great  interest  to  Torquay. 
Its  progress  was  being  watched  very  carefully  ;  and  if  it  were  considered 
advisable  for  the  protection  of  the  interests  of  the  town,  and  the  rights 
of  the  Corporation,  steps  would  be  taken  to  join  with  others  in  opposi- 
tion to  the  measure. 

Price  of  Gas  at  Shoebury.— Id  the  course  of  a  meeting  of  the  Shoe- 
bury  Ratepayers'  Association,  Mr.  Hatcher  remarked  that  the  Urban 
District  Council  had  been  paying  17s.  Gd.  a  ton  for  coal.  Now,  as  the 
result  of  tenders  having  been  invited,  they  could  get  it  at  15s.  i  id. ;  and 
if  it  proved  satisfactory,  he  thought  the  price  of  gas  should  be  reduced 
accordingly.  At  present,  ordinary  consumers  paid  4s.  3d.  per  iood 
cubic  feet.  The  Chairman  (Mr.  W.  Neil)  said  while  he  was  on  the 
Council  it  was  his  ambition  to  bring  the  price  of  gas  down  to  33.  6d. 
They  started  at  5s.  lod.  ;  and  now  the  charge  was  4s.  3d.  The  Council 
could  eilect  a  saving  of  is.  yd.  on  each  ton  of  coal ;  but  they  would 
never  get  the  price  of  gas  reduced  unless  they  agitated  very  strongly 
for  it.  The  hobby  of  the  Council  was  to  make  the  gas  undertaking  a 
paying  concern,  and  it  paid  now.  But  to  charge  the  ratepayers  a  high 
price  so  that  the  works  should  show  a  profit,  was  taking  money  out  of 
one  pocket  to  put  into  another.  It  was  decided  to  inform  the  Council 
that,  in  the  opinion  of  the  Association,  when  the  new  coal  contract  was 
entered  into,  the  price  of  gas  should  be  reduced  in  proportion. 

The  Proposed  Improved  Lighting  of  Wandsworth.— The  Lighting 
Committee  01  the  Wandsworth  Borough  Council  report  having  further 
considered  the  subject  of  the  suggested  adoption  of  inverted  burners  for 
street  lighting.  A  Sub  committee  inspected  the  public  lamps  recently 
fitted  with  burners  of  this  description  in  Clapham  High  Street,  Balham 
Hill,  and  Balham  High  Road  ;  and,  with  the  view  of  extending  the 
experiment,  they  had  decided  that  inverted  burners  should  also  be  fitted 
to  all  the  lamps  in  Clapham  Common  South  Side  not  already  provided 
with  them.  The  estimated  cost  is  ^4  193.,  and  the  estimated  annual 
saving  £5  los.    The  Committee  will  report  further  on  the  matter. 

The  Lighting  of  Launceston. — Approval  was  given  by  the  Laun- 
ceston  Town  Council  yesterday  week  to  a  scheme  for  the  better  lighting 
of  the  town.  The  Lighting  Committee  reported  the  receipt  of  a  letter 
from  the  Gas  Company  agreeing  to  the  average  consumption  per  lamp 
being  ascertained  by  15  meters  fixed  on  certain  lamps ;  the  whole  of 
the  lamps  being  of  one  pattern,  and  a  contract  to  be  entered  into  for 
twelve  months  at  the  price  of  3s.  3d.  per  1000  cubic  feet.  The  Mayor 
(Alderman  Trood)  said  the  matter  had  been  under  consideration  for 
many  years.  The  provision  of  new  lanterns,  <S;c.,  would  cost  £156; 
but  tie  tselieved  the  Council  would  gain  by  the  change  in  the  system 
of  payment,  and  that  in  two  or  three  years  the  proposed  outlay  would 
have  been  recouped.  The  time  had  come  to  improve  the  lighting  of 
the  town.  At  present  they  had  three  sorts  of  burners;  and  those  of 
the  batswing  type  consumed  8  cubic  feet  of  gas  per  hour,  against 
6  cubic  feet  in  the  incandescent  burners.  One  or  two  members  of  the 
Council  suggested  that  the  matter  might  be  delayed.  But  it  was 
pointed  out  that  the  contract  must  be  concluded  at  once  ;  and  the 
recommendation  of  the  Committee  was  then  agreed  to. 

Paignton  Water- Works  Plans. — Further  discussion  took  place  at 
the  last  meeting  ot  the  Paignton  Urban  District  Council  respecting  the 
demand  which  has  been  made  upon  the  former  Water  Engineer  (Mr. 
F.  \V.  Vanstone)  for  the  return  of  certain  plans  and  documents  in  his 
possession  relating  to  the  works  of  water  supply  which  were  carried 
out  under  his  supervision.  The  Water  Committee  recommended  the 
Council  to  instruct  their  solicitors  to  take  the  necessary  steps  to  obtain 
the  documents  and  plans,  and  to  defend  any  action  which  the  late  Water 
Engineer  might  bring  against  the  Council  to  recover  fees  alleged  to  be 
due  to  him.  The  Chairman  of  the  Water  Committee  (Mr.  Ham)  stated 
that  application  was  made  to  Mr.  Vanstone  in  November,  1904,  for 
these  plans  ;  but  on  his  pointing  out  that  the  signed  contract  plans 
were  necessary  for  his  use  during  the  construction  of  the  works,  they 
were  allowed  to  remain  with  him.  No  question  of  the  right  of  the 
Council  to  the  plans  was  raised  until  Mr.  Vanstone  made  his  claim  for 
payment  for  extra  services.  Mr.  Hawkins,  the  new  Water  Engineer, 
was  appointed  in  December  last ;  but  he  had  not  had  the  documents 
necessary  for  the  proper  carrying  out  of  his  duties.  Mr.  Vanstone,  who 
is  now  a  member  of  the  Council,  criticized  the  management  of  the 
water- works,  but  made  no  reference  to  the  dispute  between  himself  and 
the  Council.   The  recommendation  of  the  Committee  was  approved. 


No.  70. 





Some  of  its  chief  points  are  : — 

FFFIPIFNPY  Great  Extent  of  Heating  Surface,  Vent 

crnuicnui.    outlet  at  bottom  conserves  Heat. 

-Only  One  Water  Chamber.     No  cross 
Tubes  or  Soldered  Joints. 
_Made  of  Strong  Copper.   No  Rust.  Heat 
equally  distributed. 

P.nNUFNIFNP.F  Sv»^ing-out  Pilot  for  Lighting.  Double 

UUnwcniCWm:.     gyp^er  with  separate  Taps. 








July  5,  rgio.] 



Cheaper  Gas  for  Droitwich.— The  Mayor  of  Droitwich  (Alderman 
Gabb),  when  the  annual  report  of  Mr.  F.  Shewring,  the  Clas  Manager, 
was  before  the  Town  Council,  remarked  that  the  results  of  the  past 
year's  working  were  very  satisfactory.  There  had  been  a  larger  sale 
of  gas,  with  a  smaller  make.  The  Council  decided  to  reduce  the  price 
of  gas'a  further  2d.  per  1000  cubic  feet,  making  the  charge  3s. 

Gas  Profits  at  Workington.— The  profit  on  the  Workington  Cor- 
poration Gas-Works  for  the  past  year  is  /3'^54-  The  price  of  gas  is 
2S.  4d.  per  1000  cubic  feet ;  and  the  quantity  that  has  been  sold  con- 
stitutes a  record.  In  no  previous  year,  it  is  reported,  has  the  result 
been  so  satisfactory,  except  in  1933,  when,  however,  gas  was  for  nine 
months  yd.  per  1000  cubic  feet  dearer,  and  for  three  months  4d.  per 
1000  cubic  feet  dearer  than  it  is  now,  and  when  the  coal  cost  Od.  per 
ton  less. 

Birmingham  Gas-Coal  Contracts.— The  principal  business  trans- 
acted at  a  meeting  of  the  Birmingham  Gas  Committee  on  Monday  of 
last  week,  says  the  "  Birmingham  Post,"  was  the  placing  of  the  coal 
contracts  for  the  year  ending  June  30,  1911.  It  had  been  generally 
anticipated  that  the  Committee  would  have  to  pay  probably  is.  or  is.  6d. 
a  ton  more  for  their  annual  supply  than  they  did  last  year.  This 
would  have  meant  an  advance  in  the  coal  bill  of,  perhaps,  /■30.000  or 
^40,000  ;  for  the  contracts  to  be  entered  into  amounted  to  550,000  tons. 
The' Committee,  however,  have  been  more  fortunate,  as  they  have  been 
able  to  place  the  contracts  at  an  advance  of  only  a  few  pence  per  ton 
as  compared  with  last  year.  The  increase  in  the  price  is  substantial ; 
but  it  is  small  in  comparison  with  the  amount  originally  anticipated. 

The  electric  supply  at  Woking  failed  on  Saturday  evening ;  and 
was  not  restored  until  Sunday.  This  applied  to  the  whole  district  ; 
and  being  Saturday  evening  tradesmen  and  private  residents  were  put 
to  considerable  inconvenience. 

The  East  Surrey  Water  Company  are  about  to  sell  by  tender  700 
ordinary  shares  of  £10  each  ;  the  last  day  for  the  receipt  of  tenders 
being  the  29th  inst. 

At  the  ICxhibition  of  Meat  and  Meat  I'roducts  and  Refrigerating 
Machinery  held  at  Moscow  in  May,  the  highest  award  (Diploma  of 
Honour)  was  granted  to  the  I'ulsometer  Engineering  Company,  Limited, 
of  Reading,  for  their  exhibit  of  ice  and  refrigerating  plant. 

Hitherto,  the  water  ussd  on  the  liisildon  ICstate,  in  Berkshire,  has 
been  obtained  from  wells.  Captain  Morrison,  M.I'.,  the  new  owner, 
has  decided  upon  the  erection  of  a  large  reservoir,  from  which  pipes 
will  be  laid  so  that  in  future  the  cottagers  and  others  will  be  able  to 
draw  water  from  taps  in  their  own  houses. 

Messrs.  Ashmore,  Benson,  Pease,  and  Co.,  Limited,  of  Stockton- 
on-Tees,  have  received  instructions  to  add  a  second  lift,  on  their  cable 
system,  to  No.  3  holder  at  the  Ainslie  Street  Gas- Works  of  the  I5arrow- 
in-Furne3S  Corporation.  The  holder  is  125  feet  diameter  and  -'5  feet 
deep,  and  is  the  sixth  order  received  from  the  Barrow  Corporation  for 
cable-guided  gasholders.  The  firm  have  also  been  given  a  contract  to 
supply  and  erect  two  cast-iron  tower  scrubbers,  15  feet  diameter  and 
4T  feet  high,  by  the  Leicester  Corporation  for  ttieir  Aylestone_Road 
Works,  to  the  design  of  the  late  Mr.  Alfred  Colson. 

The  residents  in  Port  Elizabeth  have  lately  been  afforded,  by  the 
Manager  of  the  South  African  Lighting  Association,  Limited  (Mr. 
W.  Arnott),  an  excellent  opportunity  of  witnessing  the  capabilities 
of  the  gas-stove  in  domestic  culinary  operations,  as  he  arranged  for  the 
delivery  by  Miss  Mercer  of  a  series  of  cookery  lectures,  with  demon- 
strations, in  the  Loubser  Hall,  from  the  6th  to  the  20th  ult.  The  lady 
holds  several  diplomas  and  certificates  ;  and  her  lectures,  which,  with 
one  exception,  were  free,  were  attended  by  appreciative  audiences. 
At  the  opening  ceremony,  the  Chairman  of  the  School  Board  (Mr. 
Charles  Mackay)  presided,  and  offered  some  appropriate  remarks  on 
the  value  of  a  good  knowledge  of  cookery. 


Situations  Vacant. 

Manager.  Swadlincote  Gas  Department.  Applica- 
tions by  J  uly  12. 

Engineer  and  Manager.  Leicester  Gas  Department. 
Applications  by  July  i6. 

Working  Foreman.    No.  525'*. 

Travelling  Salesman.  Laddite  Incandescent  Mantle 

Situations  Wanted. 

Accountant.    No.  5259. 

Assistant-Manager  or  Manager.   T.  E.  Shadbolt, 

Inspecior.   No.  5260. 

Patent  Licences. 

Generating  ANP  Using  Hydrocarbon  Vapours  for 
Heating  and  Lighting.    L.  Duvinage,  Brussels. 

Stocks  and  Shares. 

Harnet  Gas  and  Water  Company.   July  13. 
Lowestoft  Water  and  Gas  Company.    July  12. 
East  Surrey  Water  Company.   Tenders  by  July  29. 
Southend  Gas  Company.    July  12. 
Southend  Water  Company.    July  12. 
T0NHRIDGE  Gas  Company.    Tenders  by  July  lO. 

Tanli-Waggon  for  Hire. 

Clayton  Analine  Company. 

Coal  and  Cannel. 

CowKS  Gas  Department.    Tenders  by  July  9. 
Darlington  Gas  Department.    Tenders  by  July  14. 
GooLE  Gas  and  Water  Department.   Tenders  by 
July  23. 

Lymm  Urban  District  Council.   Tenders  by  July  20. 
Smethwick  Gas  Department.   Tenders  by  July  22- 
Stratford-upon-Avon  Gas  Department.  Tenders 
by  Aug.  C. 

Flre-Clay  Goods.  Urban  District  Council.   Tenders  by  July  20. 

Pipe  Laying. 

Hedinghams  Gas-Works. 

Pipes,  &c. 

Stoke-on-Trent  Gas  Department,     Tenders  by 
July  7. 

WiNSFORD  Gas  Department.   Tenders  by  July  25, 

Retort-Bench,  &c. 

LvMM  Urban  District  Council,    Tenders  by  July20. 

Tar  and  Liquor. 

Lymm  Urban  I;)istrict  Council.  Tenders  by  July  20 
Rotherham  Gas  Department.   Tenders  by  July  iS. 


Referred  to  on  p.  18, 





■a"  m 





a  a 


■5.-  Q 








a  a 

u  .  V 

0  "  3 
■a  >  0 

















Q  i.<^ 










1  8-iSo 






A  pi 



Alliances  Dublin Ord.  ■ 

81  83 

—  I 








Imperial  Continental  . 






1  an. 



Do.   4  P.O.  Deb. 

I 00 — 1 02 









Do.    3i  p.o.  Deb.  Red. 




1 1 






Bombay,  Ltd  









Lea  Bridge  Ord.  5  p.o.  . 

122  —124 









New,  A  paid  . 

4^  — 5i 









Liverpool  United  A 









Bourne-     ^  0  p.c.  . 

29  -  30 






Do.          B  .  . 

164— ,65 





I  1 



Gas  >  B  7  P  C.  . 

I6i— 16^ 




306  083 




Do.      Deb.  Stk. 

104 — 106' 







and  Water  )  Pref.  6  p.c. 







J  une 



Malta  &  Mediterranean. 

4i'..-  4is' 







Brentford  Consolidated 









Met  of    1  5  p  c.  Deb. 

100  -102 






Do.       New  . 

i8d— iQO 







Melbourne  )  4J  p.c.  Deb. 









Do.      5  p.c.  Pret,  . 










Monte  Video.  Ltd.  . 

12.J— 13 










Do.      4  p.c.  Deb.  . 

99-  101 









Newc't  e& G't  sh'd Con 

r2.J— 10-?, 








Brighton  &  Hove  Orig. 

214-  217 









Do.  3J  p.c.  Deb. 







Do.      AOrd.  Stk.  . 

153  -i;C 









North  Middlesex  7  p.c. 










4t— 45 









Oriental,  Ltd.     .    .  . 










BromUy,  A  5  p.o.     .  . 









Ottoman,  Ltd.     .    .  . 







Do.     B  34  p.o.    .  . 

88-  90 









Portsea  Island  A.    .  , 

134— Ij6 






Do.    C  5  p.c.    .  . 

IC5  — 107 







Do.       B.    ,  , 








Do.        p.c.  Deb.  . 








Do.       C.    .  . 

119 — 121 










s  Avres4  P.O.  Deb. 

96- gb' 







Do.  DandE. 

100 — 102 





Cape  Town  &  Dis.,  Ltd. 







Ptimitiva  Ord.  . 








Do.  4i  p.c.  Pref. 




J  une 



Do,     5  p.o  Pref,  . 









Do.  6  p.c.  ist  Mort. 

49  -'0 






J  une 



Do.     4  p.c.  Deb.  , 






1  une 



Do.  4i  p.c.  Deb.  Stk. 

88  -go» 









River  Plate  4  p.c.  Deb,  . 











Chester  5  p.c.  Ord.  .  , 

109— III 









San  Paulo,  Ltd.  .  , 

15*— 16 
ii-J— 12} 









Commercial  4  p.c.  Stk.  . 

107  —  109 







Do      6  p.c.  Pref.  ■ 







Do.       3i  p.c.  do.  . 

103 — 105 









Do.     5  p.c.  Deb.  . 

49-  50' 

+  1 








Do.    3  p.c.  Deb.  Stk. 

80— f  2* 

+  4 









Sheffield  A  .... 

232  —234 




800  000 




Continental  Union,  Ltd. 







Do.    B  .... 








Do.         7  p.c.  Pref. 




523. 5C0 


Do.    C  .... 







Derby  Con.  Stk.  ,    .  . 

121 — 123 








South  African  .... 

II— 114 







Deb.  Stk.  .    ,  . 

lod — 105 









South  Met.,  4  p.o.  Ord. 

120  —  122 








East  Hull  5  p.c.  Ord.  . 

24i— 24^ 









Do.         3  p.o.  Deb. 










European,  Ltd.  . 








South  Shields  Con.  Stk. 









Do.       f.7  los.  paid. 

I8t  — Ibr; 









S'th  Suburb'n  Ord.  5  p.o. 










4  p.o.  Ord.     ,  . 

1C4— 105 






Do.    5  p.c.  Pref. 

121 — 123 







3i  p.c.  max.  , 









Do.    5  p.c.  Deb.  Stk. 

122 —124 








4  p.c.  Con.  Pref. 

104 — ic  6 








Southampton  Ord.  . 

:I0— 112 









3  p.c.  Con.  Deb. 











Tottenham  ]  A  5  p.c. 

133— '35 








Hastings  &  St.  L.  3*  p.c. 






and      f  B  3i  p.c.  . 







Do.          do.    5  p.c, 

117  —  119 








Edmor.ton  )  4  p.o.  Deb. 









Hongkong  &  China,  lltd. 







J  une 




+  4 









Ilford  A  and  C    .    ,  , 









Do.    5  p.c.  Deb.  Red. 

97-  99* 







icg— III 

+ 1 








Tynemouth,  5  p  0  ma.^. 

113— «'5 






Do.  4  P.O.  Deb.  ,    .  . 










Wands-  1  B  3i  p.o.   .  . 


+  4 





1  June 



worth  1  3  p.c.  Deb,  Stk. 





Prices  marked  ♦  are  "  Ex  div." 



[July  5,  1910. 


No  notice  can  be  taken  of  anonymous  communications.    Whatever  is  intended  for  insertion  in  the  "JOURNAL"  must  be  authenticated  by  the  name 
and  address  of  the  writer;  not  necessarily  for  publication,  but  as  a  proof  of  good  faith. 

COPY  FOR  ADVERTISEMENTS  tor  the  "JOURNAL"  should  be                 TERMS  OF  SUBSCRIPTION  to  the  "JOURNAL." 
received  at  the  Office  NOT  LATER  than  TWELVE  O'CLOCK  NOON  ON     United  Kingdom :  One  Year,  21g. ;  Half  Year,  108. 6d. ;  Quarter,  68. 6d. 
MONDAY,  to  ensure  Insertion  In  the  following  day's  Issue.                      Payable  in  advance.    If  credit  is  taken,  the  charge  is  25s.  a  year. 

Orders  for  Alterations  In,  or  stoppages  of.  PERMANENT  ADVER-         Abroad  (In  the  Postal  Union) :  £1  78.  6d.,  payable  In  advance. 

TISEMENTS  should  be  received  by  the  FIRST  POST  on  SATURDAY.                                                         ,^     ,  u    ...  a 

All  Communications,  Remittances,  &c.,  to  be  addressed  to 

Wanted,  For  Sale,  and  Tender  Advertisements,  Six  Lines  and     Walter  King,  ii.  Bolt  Court,  Flebt  Street,  London,  E.C. 
under,  38. ;  each  additional  Line,  6d.                                                         Telegrams:  "aASKINQ,  London."   Telephone:  P.O.  lS7Ia  central. 


"             For   GAS  PURIFICATION. 


T  &  J.  BRADDOCK  (Branch  of  Meters 

"  •    Limited),  Globe  Meter  Works,  Oldham,  and 
54  &  47,  Westminster  Bridge  Road,  London,  S.E. 


RePAIBS  receive  prompt  ATTENTION, 

Telephones :  816  Oldham,  and  2412  Hop,  London, 

Telegrams : — 
"Bbaddooe,  Oldham,"  and  "  Metbiqce,  London." 



6|  Cbooebd  EjanBi  Ljondom,  El 


Pauiebstom  House  J 

Old  Bboad  Stbbet,  Lohdoh,  B.C. 





QPECIALLT  prepared  for  the  Manu- 

O    faoture  of  SULPHATE  OF  AMMONIA, 

with  which  is  amalgamated  Wm.  Feaboe  &  Sons,  Ltd, 
86,  Mark  Lane,  London,  E.O,  Works :  Siltebtowh. 
Telegrams:  " Hydboohlobio, Lomdom," 
Telephone :  841  Avenue, 

WIIfEELtf  Ainf'8 


V     Besists  4600°  Fahr.   Best  for  GAS-WORKS, 
Akdbew  Stephenbon,  182,  Falmerston  Honee,  Old 
Broad  Street,  London,  E.G.   "  Voloanlsm,  London," 


OffioeB :  City  Chambers,  Leeds. 
Correspondence  invited, 


*       PUBIjICATIONo,      MjliKCrlAr.UJDn.  MAKKa 
ACT,    and    Decisions   thereunder,"    la.;  "TRADE 
BECBET8   V.    PATENTS,"    6d. ;    "DOCTRINE  of 
EQUIVALENTS,   Mechanical  and    Chemical,"  6d. ; 

MEWBURN,  ELLIS,  &  PRYOR,  Chartered  Patent 
Agents,  70  &  12,  Chancery  Lanp,  London,  W.C.  Tele- 
grams: "Patent London,"  Teleph^ne:  No. 243 Holborn, 



rriHE  First  Dutch  Bogfore  Co.,  Ltd., 

JL                 NYMEGEN,  HOLLAND. 

Qtneral  Manager  (for  England  and  Walet) — 
Oemral  Manager  (for  Scotland) — 
J,  B.  MACDERMOTT,  11,  Bothwell  St.,  GLASGOW. 





Blenheim  Works,  London,  W. 
Telegrams :                               Telephone : 
"  Gasoso  London."                   14  Hammersmith. 

"TTALLITE"  Asbest  s  High-Pressure 


Hallite  Douglas,  Limited,  106,  Leadenhall  Street, 
London,  E.C. 

IP    BOYALL,  Contractor  for  Painting 

"  •    GASHOLDERS,  OIL-TANKS,  ROOFS,  and  all 
kinds  of  LOFT  and  other  PAINT  WORK. 
70,  Balcorne  Street,  Well  Street,  Hackney,  N.E. 

AMMONIACAL  Liquor  wanted. 

Bbothkhton  and  Co.,  Ltd.,  Ammonia  Distillers. 
Works:  Bibminoham,  Glasgow,  Leeds,  Litbbpool, 


QPECIALLT  prepared  for  Sulphate  of 

^     AMMONIA  Makers  by 


Works :  Oldbdby,  Wednesbcry,  and  Staffobd, 
Address  Correspondence  and  Inquiries  to  Oldbuby, 

Telegrams:  "  Chemicals,  Oldbdby,'' 


18  &  20,  FARRINGDON  ROAD,  LONDON,  E.C. 

Telegrams:  Telephone: 
"Dacolight  Londoh,"                 3836  Holbobn, 

AMMONIACAL  Liquor  wanted. 

^^^^      V^UANUtE     AMU     £1 U  n  A 1     AJlUtf     V.'UOLLIIUCU  iUaUUinU* 

turers,  Oldbhey,  Wobcs. 
Telegrams :  "  Chemicals." 


ttk   Consumers  in  any  form  are  Invited  lo  correspond 
nitb  Chance  and  Hunt,  Ltd,,  Chemical  Manafao- 
rarers,  Oldbury,  Wobcs, 

"rj.AZINE  "  (Registered  in  England  and 

Abroad).  A  radical  Solvent  and  Preventative 
of  Naphthalene  Deposits,  and  for  the  Automatic 
Cleaning  of  Mains  and  Services. 

It  is  also  used  for  the  enrichment  of  Gas. 

Manufactured  and  supplied  by  C.  Bourne,  West 
Mojr  Chemical  Works,  Killingworth,  or  through  his 
Agent,  P.  J,  NicoL,  Pilgrim  House,  Newcastle-on- 

Telegrams:  "  Doric,"  Newoastle-on-Tyne.  Natiora' 
Telephone  No.  2497, 

qULPHURIC  ACID  for  Sale,  specially 

O    suitable  for  making  Sulphate  of  Ammonia. 

Bbotherton  and  Co.,  Ltd.,  Chemical  Manufacturers, 
Works:  Birmingham,  Leeds,  Sdndercand,  and  Wake- 


Telephone  :  Central  Manchester,  7002, 
Telegrams:  "UPRIGHT." 

Albert    Chemic&l    Works  BRADFORD 

Pitch.  Creosote,  Brick  and  Fuel  Oils,  Benzol.  Solvent 
Naphtha,  Carbolic,  Sulphate  of  Ammonia. 

A  MMONIA  Waste  Liquor  Disposal. 

Purification  Plant. 
Results  Guaranteed.     No  Working  Costs. 
John  Radcliffe,  Chemical  Engineer,  East  Barnet. 


VV               ZWOLLE,  HOLLAND. 

Diggers  and  of  the 


(Natural  Oxide  of  Iron.) 
Best  Percentages.    For  lowest  Quotations  to  any  Port, 
Station,  or  direct  into  Works,  please  apply  to — 
London  Offices:  6,  LEATHER  LANE,  E.C, 


•TIHE  very  best  Patent  Grids  for  Holding 

Oxide  Lightly. 
See  Illustrated  Advertisement,  June  21,  p.  914. 

T   E.  C.  LORD,  Ship  Canal  Tar  Works, 

"  ■    Weaste,  Manchester.   Pitch,  Creosote,  Benzols, 
Toluol,  Naphtha,  Pyridine,  all  kinds  of  Cresylio  Acid, 
Carbolic  Acid,  Sulphate  of  Ammonia,  &o. 

JOHN  RILEY  &  SONS,  Chemical  Manu- 

W    facturers,  Hapten,  near  Accrington,  are  MAKERS 
of  Special  SULPHURIC  ACID,  tor  Sulphate  of  Am- 
monia Making.     Highest  percentage  of  Sulphate  of 
Ammonia  obtained  from  the  use  of  this  Vitriol,  which 
has  now  been  ured  for  upwards  of  50  Years.  References 
given  to  Gas  Compai  ies. 


J.  W.  &  C.  J.  PHILLIPS,  23,  College  Hill, 
London,  E.C,  and  25,  Bbidoe  End,  Leeds, 

r<AS-WORKS  requiring  Extensions 

should  Communicate  wiih  FIRTH  BLAKELEY, 
SONS,  AND  CO.,  LIMITED,  Dewsbury,  who  make  a 
Speciality  of  Catering  for  the  Smaller  Gas  Concerns. 
Prices  Reasonable;  quality  and  results,  the  best.  Satis- 
faction Guaranteed. 

piTY  and  Guilds  Examinatiors  in  Gas 

Engineering  .md  Gas  Supply.     Students  who 
have  done  badly  at  the  recent  Examinations  should  join 
Mr.  Crantield's  Coi  respondcnce  Classes  for  next  Session. 
Assistance  ample,  individual,  and  private. 
Write  at  once,  11,  A\'ondale  Place,  Halifax. 

r<  AS  PLANT  for  Sale— We  can  always 

^    offer   NEW   and    SECOND-HAND    GAS  AP- 
PARATUS, includine  Retorts  and  Fittings,  Condensers, 
Exhausters,  Bcrubbers,  Washers,  Purifiers,  Gasholders, 
Tanas,  Valves,  Connections,  &c.     Also  a  few  COM- 
PLETE WORKS.    Compare  Prices  and  Particulars 
before  ordering  elsewhere. 

PiBTH  Blaheley,  Sons,  and  Company,  Limited, 
Thornbill,  Dewsbuby, 



Represent   the   Strongest   Independent  Re- 
fineries in  America;  also  Petroleum  Spirit  for  Gas 
Enrichment,  18,  Exchange  Stbeet,  Manchesteb,  and 
11,  Old  Hall  Street,  Liverpool, 


O    SATURATORS  and  all  LEAD  and  TIMBER 
WORK  in  Connection  with  Sulphate  Plants. 

We  guarantee  promptness,  with  efficiency  for  Re- 

Joseph  Taylob  and  Co.,  Ckntfal  Plumbing  Wobks, 

Telegrams  :  Satdbatobs,  Bolton,  Telephone  0648. 


PREPARED  from  Pure  Iron. 

•        Twice  as  Rich  as  Bog  Ore. 
Gives  no  back  Pressure, 
The  Cheapest  in  the  Market, 
Bead  Holliday  and  Sons,  Ltd,,  HcDDEBsnsLD, 

n. AS  TAR  wanted, 

V           Bbotheeton  and  Co,,  Ltd.,  Tar  Distillers 
Works :  Birminobam,  Glasgow,  Leeds,  Livbbpool 


^    July  5,  1910.] 



'  |>Ofi£RT  D£MFSI£R  &  SONS,  Led., 

Contraolora  for  Complete  CARBONIZING 
PLANTS  and  every  desoription  of  GAS  APPARATUS 
Mount  Ibon-Wobkb,  Elland. 


SIMULTANEOUS  Dischargfing-Charger. 
The  one  Machine  which  Discharges  and  Charges 
at  One  Stroke. 
See  Advertisement,  June  21,  p.  IV.  of  Centre. 
39,  Victoria  Street,  Webtminbtke,  8.W. 
Telegrams :  Telephone : 

i     "MoTORPiTHY,  London."         5118  Westminstkb. 

APPOINTMENTS.— Ambitious  Men  of 
Parts  invited  to  write — 


Specimen  of  many  results  : — 

"  Have  got  the  job.   Quite  a  good  start. 
To  you  the  credit  is  due,  and  I  think  your 
fee  the  best  Investment  I  ever  made." 

IT  is  Worth  Your  While  to  Buy  Direct. 
supply  the  best  value  in  NON-CORROSIVE  LUBRI- 
CANTS—viz  ,  Motor  Waggon  Oil,  Is.  ;  Motor  Car  Oil, 
2s. ;  Engine,  Cylinder,  and  Machinery  Oils,  Is. ;  Axle  Oil, 
lOJd.;  Exhauster  Oil,  lOd. ;  Special  Cylinder  Oil,  Is.  4d. ; 
650  T  Cylinder,  2s. ;  Special  Engine  Oil,  Is.  id. ;  Gas 
Engine  and  Oil  Engine  Oil,  Is.  6d. ;  Refrigerator,  Is.  9d. ; 
Renown  Engine  Oil,  Hid.;  and  Astral  Disinfectant, 
2s.  6d.  per  gallon.  Barrels  free,  carriage  paid.  Solidified 
Oil,  2.5s.  ewt. 

The  Reliance  Lubricating  Oil  Company,  19  &  20, 
Water  Lane,  Tower  Street,  London,  E.C, 


GAS  Engineering  and  Gas  Supply. 
City  and  Guilds  of  London  Institute. 
Teacher;  HERBERT  LEES  (Silver  Medallist), 
Assoc.M.Inst.C.E.,  Engineer  and  Manager  of  the  Hex- 
ham Gas  Company,  Lecturer  at  Rutherford  College, 
For  Terms,  &c.,  address  Elvaston  Road,  Hexham. 


NOTICE,  the  Directois  have  made  an 
APPOINTMENT  to  the  Vacant  Office  of  Chief 


All  Applicants  are  THANKED. 

SITUATION  wanted  by  a  Young  Man, 
Son  of  a  Gas  Manager,  as  ASSISTANT-MANAGER 
or  MANAGER  of  Small  Works,  or  place  of  Trust. 
Has  been  thoroughly  Trained  for  Gas  Management. 
Address  Thos.  E.  Shadbolt,  Gas- Works,  Grays. 

INSPECTOR  (Age  35),  Married, 
thoroughly  Practical,  Seeks  ENGAGEMENT, 
London  or  Provinces.  Twenty  years  with  late  Com- 

Address  No.  5260,  care  of  Mr.  King,  11,  Bolt  Court, 
Fleet  Street,  B.C. 


A  CCOUNTANT  (Age  29),  with  Expert 

Knowledge  of  Gas  Accounts  and  Secretarial  Ex- 
perience, desiring  change,  is  open  to  accept  RE- 
SPONSIBLE POSITION  in  Gas  Company's  Office. 

Address  No.  5259,  care  of  Mr,  King,  11,  Bolt  Court, 
Fleet  Street,  E.C. 

"IIT ANTED,  for  a  Colliery  Gas  Works  in 

the  North  of  Engband,  a  WORKING  FORE- 
MAN—Handy  Man  Accustomed  to  Generator  Furnaces 
and  Exhausters.    House  and  Coal  pro\idei. 

Apply,  by  letter,  stating  Wages  required,  to  No.  5258, 
care  of  Mr.  King,  11,  Bolt,  Court,  Fieef  Street,  E.C. 

»rRA YELLING  Salesman  wanted,  one 

*  thoroughly  acquainted  with  the  Gas-Manile 
Trade,  and  who  has  established  Connections  through- 
out Great  Britain. 

Apply,  by  letter,  to  the  Laddiie  Incandescent 
Mantle  Company,  Kingston-on-Thames. 


npHE  above  Council  invite  Applications 

for  the  Position  of  MANAGER  (under  a  Con- 
sultmg  Engineer)  of  the  Council  Gas- Works. 

The  Annual  Make  of  Gas  approximates  about 
47,000,000  Cubic  Feet. 

The  Salary  offered  is  £150  p5r  Annum ;  and  the  Ap- 
pomtment  will  be  t;rmitiab  e  on  Three  Months'  Notice 
from  either  side. 

■The  age  of  Applicants  must  not  exceed  35  fears. 

Apphcdtions,  stating  Age,  Experience,  and  present 
l^osnion,  and  accompanied  by  copies  of  not  more  than 
Ihree  recent  Testimonials,  to  be  addressed  to  me,  en- 
dorsed "  Gas  Works  Manager,"  so  as  to  reach  me  not 
19l"         Twelve  Noon  on  Tuesday,  the  12ih  of  July, 

W.  A.  MussoN, 

_       .,   Clerk  to  the  Council. 

Council  Offices, 


THE  Gas  Committee  of  the  Corporation 
of  Leicester  invite  APPLICATIONS  for  the 
Office  of  GAS  ENGINEER  and  MANAGER  to  the 

The  Gontlemon  applying  must  have  an  Extensive 
Knowledge  of  Modern  Gas  Manufacture,  and  must  be 
fuUv  competent  to  Manage  a  Modern  Chemical  Works 
for  dealing  with  the  Hesidual  Products. 

The  Manager  will  have  charge  of  the  Commercial  as 
well  as  the  Manufacturing  Departments,  and  will  be 
held  responsible  for  the  General  Supervision  and  Con- 
trol of  the  Office  and  Works.  He  will  be  required  to 
Devote  his  Whole  time  to  the  Duties  of  his  Business. 

The  Salary  will  commence  at  £800  a  Year,  rising, 
subject  to  tlie  Services  of  the  Gentleman  Appointed 
being  approved  by  the  Committee,  by  Annual  Incre- 
ments of  £100  to  £1000  a  Year. 

Applications,  stating  Age,  Previous  Experience, 
Present  Occupation,  and  date  when  Duties  can  be 
taken  up,  together  copies  of  not  more  than  Five 
recent  Testimonials,  and  endorsed  "  Gas  Manager," 
must  reach  me  on  or  before  Saturday,  the  16th  day  of 
July  next. 

Canvassing  is  strictly  prohibited. 

H.  a.  Pbitchaed, 

Town  Clerk. 

Town  Hall,  Leicester, 
June  30,  1910. 

FOR  HIRE— One  Tank- Waggon  suitable 
for  carrying  Benzol,  and  one  suitable  for  carry- 
ing Crude  N,aphtha. 

Address  The  Clayton  Aniline  Company,  Limited, 
Clayton,  Manchester. 

GASHOLDERS- Splendid  45  feet  dia- 
meter and  New  STEEL  TANK,  fixed  Complete 
to  Plan  and  Specification ;  also  14  feet  and  16  feet 
Diameter  GASHOLDERS,  with  STEEL  TANKS.  Can 
be  seen  temporarily  erected.  Re-erected  Cheap  for 
immediate  Sale. 
Firth  Blakeleys,  Thornhill,  Dewseury. 


TENDERS  are  invited  for  the  Relaying 
of  about  li  Miles  of  MAIN,  4-inch  and  3-inch. 
Pipes  supiJlied  by'the  Company. 

For  Particulars,  Apply  to  C.  G.  Grimwood,  Sudbury, 


THE  above  Council  are  prepared  to 
receive  TENDERS  for  the  Supply  of  CANNED 
and  Best  Screened  GAS  COAL,  to  be  delivered  at  their 
Gas-Works  in  Lymm,  for  a  term  of  Twelve  Months 
from  the  1st  day  of  September,  1910. 

The  probable  Quantities  required  will  be  about  200 
Tons  of  Cannel  and  about  2000  Tons  of  Gas  Coal,  which 
must  be  freshly  Wrought,  well  Screened,  and  free  from 
Sulphurous  Pyrites  and  other  objectionable  matter; 
but  the  Council  reserve  the  right  of  increasing  or  de- 
creasing the  Quantities  named. 

The  Person  whose  Tender  is  accepted  will  be  re- 
quired to  enter  into  an  Agreement  with  the  Council  for 
the  due  performance  of  his  Contract. 

Sealed  Tenders,  stating  Price  per  Ton  delivered  by 
Boat  alongside  the  Works,  to  be  sent  to  the  undersigned 
on  or  before  the  23th  of  July,  1910,  and  endorsed  "Coal 

The  Council  do  not  bind  themselves  to  accept  the 
lowest  or  any  Tender. 
Forms  of  Tender  are  not  Supplied. 

Purtner  Particulars  may  be  had  on  Application  to 
the  Gas  Manager,  Mr.  W.  L.  Donaldson. 

W.  Mullard. 


Council  Offices,  Lymm. 
Cheshire,  July  1,  1910 


THE  Lymm  Urban  District  Council  are 
prepared  to  receive  TENDERS  for  the  Purchase 
of  the  Surplus  TAR  and  AMMONIACAL  LIQUOR 
made  at  their  Gas  Works  for  a  term  of  One  Y'ear  from 
the  1st  day  of  September,  1910  (or  for  such  longer  term 
as  may  be  contracted  lor  with  the  consent  of  the 

Tar  and  Liquor  will  be  delivered  free  into  Contractor's 
Boat  on  the  Bridgewater  Canal. 

Tenders  to  be  sent  to  the  undersigned  on  or  before 
the  20th  day  of  July,  1910,  endorsed  "Tar." 

The  Purchaser  will  be  required  to  enter  into  an  Agree- 
ment with  the  Council  for  the  due  performance  of  his 

The  Council  do  not  bind  themselves  to  accept  the 
highest  or  any  Trnder. 
Forms  of  Tender  are  not  Supplied. 

Further  Particulars  may  be  had  on  Application  to  the 
Gas  Manager,  Mr.  W.  L.  Donalason. 



Council  Offices,  Lymm, 
Cheshire,  July  1,  1910. 


THE  above  Council  are  prepared  to 
receive  TENDERS  for  the  Supply  of  M  .\TERI  ALS 
and  Execution  of  WOIIK  required  in  Connection  with 

Specification,  Conditions,  and  all  Particulars  may  be 
obtained  from  Mr.  W.  L.  Donaldson,  the  Council's  Gas 

The  Council  do  not  bind  themselves  to  accept  the 
lowest  or  any  Tender  or  Tenders. 

Forms  of  Tender  are  not  Supplied. 

Sealed  Tenders,  endorsed  "  Tender  for  Extensions," 
to  be  delivered  to  me  not  later  than  the  20th  of  July, 

W.  Mdllard, 


Council  Offices,  Lymm, 
Cheshire,  Jul;  1, 1910. 


(Gas  Departmf.nt.) 

TENDERS  are  invited  for  the  Supply  of 
4000  Tons  of  First-Class  G  AS  COAL  for  the  Year 
ending  July  31,  1911. 

Sealed  and  cndn-seJ  Tender.}  to  reach  th«  under- 
signed (from  whom  further  Particulars  miy  be  obtained) 
by  July  9. 

The  lowest  or  any  Tender  not  necessirily  accepted. 

E.  H.  MiLLARO, 

Engineer  an  1  Manager. 
Gas-Works,  Cowes,  I.  of  W. 


(Gas  Department.) 

THE  Corporation  of  Rotherham  are 
prepared  to  receive  OFFERS  for  the  Purchase 
of  the  Surplus  GAS  TAR  and  AMMONIACAL  LIQUOR 
produced  at  their  Gas-Works  during  the  ensuing  Year. 

Forms  of  Tender  and  Specification  may  be  obtained 
on  Application  to  Mr.  J.  S.  Naylor,  Engineer. 

Oilers,  endorsed  "  Gas  Tar  and  Ammoniacal  Liquor," 
to  be  sent  to  ine  not  later  than  July  18  next. 

W.  J.  Board, 

Town  Ciert. 

Town  Hall,  Rotherham, 
June  '28,  1910. 


(Gas  and  Water  Works.) 

TENDERS  are  invited  for  the  Supply 
of  about  8000  Tons  of  GAS  COAL,  and  800  Tons 
of  STEAM  COAL,  or  portions  thereof. 

Particulars  and  Form  of  Tender  may  be  obtained  on 
Application  to  Mr.  J.  Fazakerley,  Gas  and  Water 
Engineer,  Gas-Works,  Goole. 

Tenders,  endorsed  "Tender  for  Coal,"  to  be  delivered 
to  the  undersigned  not  later  than  Noon  on  Wednesday, 
the  20th  of  July,  1910. 

Robert  Tyson, 

Clerk  to  the  Council. 

Council  Offices,  Goole, 
June  28,  1910. 


(Gas  Department.) 

THE  Gas  Committee  invite  Tenders  for 
the  Supply  of  6000  Tons  of  Good  Screened  GAS 
COAL  or  NUTS  for  delivery  during  Twelve  Months 
ending  Sept.  30,  1911. 

Forms  of  Tender  and  other  Particulars  can  be  ob- 
tained upon  Application  to  the  Engineer  and  Manager. 

Tenders  to  be  sent  in  (and  will  be  accejited  only  on 
the  Forms  supplied)  not  later  than  Aug.  6,  1910. 
The  lowest  or  any  Tender  not  necessarily  accepted. 

J.  S.  Cranmer, 

Engineer  and  Manager. 

July  2,  1910. 



THE  Gas  Committee  invite  Tenders  for 
the  Supply  of  about  33,000  Tons  of  GAS  COAL 
and  NUTS  and  1000  Tons  of  CANNEL. 

Form  of  Tender  and  further  Information  may  be 
obtained  of  the  undersigned. 

Sealed  Tenders,  endorsed  and  addressed  to  the  Chair- 
man of  the  Gas  Committee,  Council  House,  Smethwick, 
to  be  sent  in  not  later  than  the  22nd  inst. 

The  Committee  do  not  bind  themselves  to  accept  the 
lowest  or  any  Tender. 

By  order, 

W.  J.  Sturges, 


Gas  Offices,  Council  House, 


(Gas  Department.) 

THE  above  Council  are  prepared  to  re- 
ceive TEXDERS  for  the  Supplv  of  1000  Yards  of 
4-inch  and  250  Yards  of  3  inch  CAST-IRON  PIPES, 
with  Spigot  and  Socket  Joints,  Bends,  Syphon  Boxes, 

Tenders,  endorsed  "Gas  Mains,"  to  be  delivered  to 
the  undei signed  on  or  before  the  25th  of  July,  1910. 

Specifications  and  Forms  of  Tender  may  be  obtained 
on  Application  to  Mr.  F.  Sidwell,  Manager,  Gas- Works, 

The  Council  do  not  bind  themselves  to  accept  the 
lowest  or  any  Tender. 

Jso.  H.  Cooke, 

Clerk  to  the  Council. 
Council  Offices,  Russell  Street, 
Winsford,  Cheshire,  July  1,  1910. 


(Gas-Works  Dep.irimext.) 


THE  Gas  Works  Committee  of  the  above 
Corporation  invite  TENDERS  for  the  Supply  of 
35,000  Tons  of  Freshly-Wrought  GAS  COALS,  delivered 
at  the  Gas-Works  Siding,  as  required  during  the  en- 
suing Twelve  Months. 

Further  Particulars  and  Form  of  Tender  may  be 
obtained  from  Mr.  Frank  P.  Tarratt,  Gas-Works  En- 
gineer, Darlington. 

Tenders,  endorsed  "  Tender  for  Gas  Coal,"  to  be  de- 
livered at  mv  Office,  Houndgate,  Darlington,  not  later 
than  July  14,' 1910. 

No  pledge  is  given  that  the  lowest  or  any  Tender  will 
be  accepted. 

H.  G.  Steavenson, 

Town  Clerk. 

Town  Clerk's  Office, 
Darlington,  July  2,  1910. 



[July  5,  1910. 




TENDERS  are  invited  for  the  Supply  of 
(«)  the  CAST-IRON  PIPES  and  ((-)  tlie  WROUGHT- 
IRON  TUBES  and  FITTINGS  whicli  will  be  required 
at  the  Burslem,  Fenton,  Loiigton,  and  Stokc-npon- 
Trent  Gas-Works  during  the  Year  ending  the  30th  of 
June,  1911. 

Specifieations  and  Forms  of  Tender  can  be  liad  on 
Application  to  the  undersigned. 

The  Council  reserve  the  right  of  accepting  the  whole 
or  any  part  of  a  Tender,  or  of  div.ding  same  as  they 
may  consider  desirable. 

Neither  the  lowest  nor  any  Tender  will  necessarily 
be  accepted. 

Tenders  must  be  sent  to  the  Town  Clerk,  Stoke-on- 
Trent,  so  as  to  reach  him  not  later  than  Twelve  o'clock 
Noon  on  Thursdny,  the  7th  day  of  July  inst.,  endorsed 
"  Tender  for  Piping,  &c," 

A  Clause  as  to  Trade  Union  Rates  of  Wages,  Hours 
of  Labour,  and  as  to  Sub-Letting  will  be  inserted  in 
any  Contract  for  Supply  which  the  Council  enter  into. 

EU.-.TAI  F.  Jov, 

Acting  Town  Clerk. 

July  1,  1910. 


MESSRS.  A.  &  W.  RICHARDS  beg  to 
notify  that  their  RALES  BY  AUCTION  of  NEW 
POWERS,  and  of  STOCKS  and  SHARES  belonging  to 
EXECUTORS  flnd  other  PRIVATE  OWNERS  in  LON- 
at  the  Mart,  TOKENHOUSE  YARD.  E.C. 

Terms  for  Issuing  New  Capital,  and  also  for  including 
other  Gas  and  Water  Stocks  and  Shares  in  these  Periodi- 
cal Sales,  will  be  forwarded  on  Application  to  Messrs. 

A.  &  W.  illCHAKDH,  at  IH,  PlNSBURY  ClRCUS,  E.C. 

By  order  of  the  Directors  of  the 



MESSRS.  A.  &  W.  RICHARDS  will 
Mart,  E.G.,  on  Tuesday,  July  12,  at  Two  o'clock,  in 

Particulars  of  the  Auctioneehs,  18,  Finsbdry 
C1KCD8,  E.C. 

By  order  of  the  Executors  of  Solomon  Blaiberg,  Esq., 




MESSRS.  A.  &  W.  RICHARDS  will 
Mart,  E.G.,  on  Tuesday,  July  12,  at  Two  o'clock,  in 

Particulars  of  the  Auctioneers,  18,  Finsbury 
Circus,  E.C. 


NEW   ISSUE   OP   £1000  POUR   PER  CENT. 

THE  Directors  of  the  above  Company 
give  Notice  that  they  will  be  prepared  to  receive 
not  later  than  Twelve  o'clock  Noon  on  Saturd-ny,  the 
16th  of  July,  1910.  sealed  Tenders  for  i'lOOO  FOUR  PER 
CENT.  DEBENTURE  STOCK,  in  Lots  of  £10  each,  or 
multiples  of  .£10. 

Minimum  Price,  i'lOO  per  £100  Stock. 
Pull    Particulars  and  Forms  of  Tender  ziiay  be 
obtained  from  the  undersigned. 

James  Donaldson, 
Secretary  and  Engineer. 

OfBces;  109,  Ligh  Street, 



"JJOTICE  is  Hereby  Given,  that  it  is  the 

intention  of  the  said  Company  tn  BELL  BY' 
of  £10  each,  of  and  in  the  East  Surrey  Water  Company. 

The  last  day  for  the  reception  of  Tenders  will  be 
Friday,  the  29th  day  of  July  next,  at  Twelve  o'clock, 
at  noon. 

Forms  of  Tender,  with  Particulars  of  Sale  and  Con- 
ditions of  Tender  attached,  can  be  had  upon  Appli- 
cation at  the  Company's  Office,  Redhill,  Surrey. 

By  order, 
A.  E.  Cornewall- Walker, 


Redhill,  Surrey, 
June  24,  1910. 


THE  Proprietor  of  the  British  Patent 
No.  10,610/0.5  for  "IMPROVEMENTS  IN 
ING PURPOSES"  desires  to  sell  his  Patent  or  to 
Grant  Licences  thereof. 

All  Comnmnications  should  be  addressed,  in  the  first 
instance,  toL.  DuviNAGE,;^Patent  Agent,  10,  Avenue  des 
Nerviens,  Brussels. 


Established  1820, 

Owners  of  the  BIrtley  Iron  Works  and 
Pelaw  Main  Collieries, 


Makers  of  Cast-iron  PIPES  and  CONNEC- 
TIONS for  Gas,  Water,  Steam,  Electrical. 
Sanitary,  and  other  purposes  ;  also  TANKS, 
COLUMNS  of  every  description.  Hydraulic, 
Gas,  and  Colliery  PLANT,  &c. 

Illustrated  Catalogue,  giving  complete  list  of 
our  manufactures,  on  application. 


Newcastle-on-Tyne Offices:  MILBURN  HOUSE. 


Sperm  Value  878*85  lbs.  per  Ton. 

Pliasi  apply  for  Prict,  Analysts,  and  Report,  to  thi 


LONDON  :  16,  Park  Village  East,  N.W. 


Gas  Engineers'  Agents  and  Contractors  for 

Inquiriet  Salieited, 
Telephone  1806. 



Results  obtained  which  have  never  been  Sur- 
passed by  any  other  System  of  Carbonization. 

Plants  at  Work  and  under  Construction  for 
the  production  of  18,000,000  cubic  feet 
of  Gas  per  Day. 

See  our  large  Advertisement  appearing  la 
alternate  Issues  of  the  "JOURNAL." 



301,  Glossop  Road,  SHEFFIELD. 



No.  1.  No.  2,  No.  3. 

43,  Manchester  Steeet,  Gray's  Inn  Road,  W.C. 


Hlgheit  ResnltB  In  Qai,  ft  Excellent  Coke. 






BRBTTELIi'B   BSTATB,  i-'"'™!), 



Manataotnrers  of  GAB  RETORTS,  GLA88H0D8H 

TILES,  and  every  desoription  ot  FIRE-BRICKS. 
Bpeolal  Lnmpi,  Tiles,  and  Brloks  for  Regenerative 
and  Furnace  Work. 


London  Office  :  E.  C.  Brown  &  Co., 
Leadenhall  Chambers,  4,  St.  Mary  Axe,  E.C, 


from  the 



Rich  Id  Illamlnatlng  Power  and  Yield  ol  Gas. 
Above  the  Average  In  Weight  and  Quality 
of  Coke. 

Maintains  a  High  Standard  In  Resldnals. 




Wenlook  Iron  Wharf,  21  ft  22,  Wharf  Road,  \ 


Manufacture  and  keep  in  Stock  at  their  Works 
(also  large  Stock  in  London) 

PIPES  and  CONNECTIONS,  li  to  48  inches 
in  diameter,  and  make  and  erect  to  order 
or  without  planed  joints,  COLUMNS, 
quired by  Gas,  Water,  Railway,  Telegraph, 
Chemical,  Colliery,  and  other  Companies. 

Note.— Makers  of  HORSLEY  SYPHONS. 
These  are  cast  in  one  piece,  without  Chap- 
lets;  doing  away  with  Bolts,  Nuts,  and  Covers, 
and  rendering  Leakage  impossible. 


AND  SONS,  Limited, 







London  Office  1 

90,  CANNON    STREET,  E.C. 

ALL  the 

Boys  Calorimeters 

which  have  been  in  daily  use  in 
all  the  Official  Testing-Stations  in 
London  for  the  last  Three  Years 



—    LIMITED  — 


Those  desiring  to  obtain  Gas  Calorimeters 
as  used  in  the  Official  Testing  Places 
should  see  that  the  apparatus  bears  the 
name  of  the  Original  makers. 

Descriptive  Catalogue  on  Application. 

^  July  5,  1910.] 













Write  for  fullest  Particulars  to — 

R.  CORT  6;  SON,  Ltd., 


BARRY,  HENRY,  &  CO., 

Specialities : 




Rope  &  Belt  Pulleys, 
;  BpnF  &  Bevel  Wheels, 
j  Shafting  &  Conplings, 
^    Pedestals  &  Fixings. 




Specialities ; 



Grinding  Machinery, 


64,  MARK  LANE, 






JAMES;  MILNE  &  SON,  Ltd 





[July  5. 1910- 



COKE  SELLING  .  .  AT  11/6  A  TON 




Special  Pressure  and 
Pressure  &  Exhaust  Registers. 


Fullest  particulars  on  application  to  — 

X.  O.  MARSH, 

28,    Deansgate,  MANCHESTER. 



Horizontal  or  Inclined; 

also  Makers  of  Segmental 
Retorts  of  all  Sections. 





&  BLOCKS  of  every  S 
description  for  GENE-  i 


Large  Stockg  of  Bricks  of  all  sizes,  s 
Burrs,  Boiler  Seating  Blocks  and  Covers, 
Plain  and  Rebated  Tiles,  &a.,  <to.  5 

♦  Retorts  and  other  Fire-Clay 
Goods  carefully  packed  for  export 




PRICE  2s.  EACH. 


Is  synonymous  with  "Strength" 


Manufactured  by 


5,     LAMBETH     HILL,     LONDON,  E.G. 

■  LIMITED  ^ 

pepper  i(d. Branch. Hurvslet. Leeds. 

Irvterior'Yiew  of  'Works 
Emploj'cd  irv  the  Manufacture  of 

Weu)ED  SiEEiMams 

The  Strongest 
Mantle  made 


"  the  Star  of  the  Mantle  World,"  still  liolds  the  field  for  Strength  and  Light,  as  users 
have  proved  for  themselves.  The  Company  have  recently  quadrupled  their  powers  of  pro- 
duction to  meet  the  great  demand.    Facts  speak  for  themselves. 

The  Company  are  now  prepared  to  negotiate  large  contracts,  and  guarantee  prompt  deliveries. 


General  Offices  and  W«rks: 




LOCOMOTIVES  of  all  8iz,e>a  and  Gauges  epecially  oonBtructed  for  Main  a 
Branch  Lines,  Conlraotors,  Doi'^tB,  Gas-Works,  Collieries,  Iron-Works,  Brick  a 
Cement  Works,  &o.  LooomotiVBS  of  Tarious  Sizes  always  in  Btook,  ready  I 
immediate  delivery, 

Photographs,  Specifications,  and  Prices  on  Application. 

PECKETT  &  SONS,  ^»Ts';ot 

Telegraphic  Addi'ess:  "PECKETT,  BRISTOL." 



July  5,  1910.] 






^IfCCTUinnn  P  UIOinUTC  mouthpieces  wUH  detachable  faces,  also  AUTOMATIC  FASTENINGS 



W^lV  ■       ■■nWI^     ■    ■■    ■■W      also  VALVES  of  all  descriptions. 

i  LAIDLAW  &  SON,  Ltd., 


I  Wet  and  Dry  Gas  Meter  Manufacturer. 

PREPAYMENT  METERS  for  Pennies,  Shillings,  or  any  other  Coin. 

Sole  Agent  for  Scotland :    DANIEL  MACFIE,   1,  North  St.  Andrew  Street,  EDINBURGH. 

Telephone : 
743  City. 


Ittdla-Rubber  and  Alrproof  Manufacturers  and  Qeneral  Contractors, 

116-XX8,   GOSWElLiJLi   ROAD,  IL^ON^DON^,  E:.C. 

Largest  Manufacturers  of  Cas 
Main  Bags. 

Patentees  of  the  DENMAR  BAG, 

Impervious  to  Main  Liquor  and 
Climatic  InQuencea. 

Oilskin  Clothing,  Diving  and  Wading  Dresses, 
Gas  Bags  for  repairing  Mains.  Sewer  Boots,  Tar  Hose,  Stokers'  Mitts, 

All  Seams  Stitched  and  Taped.  Bellows,  &c. 

Gas  Bags  for  repairing 
Mains.     All  Seams 
Stitched  and  Taped. 

Contractors'  and  Miners' 



^Are  the  exclusive  Owners  of  the  welUknown  HAIQH  HALL  &  KIRKLESS  HALL  GAS  COAL  COLLIERIES, 
,  Wigan,  and  of  the  Manton  Steam  and  House  Coal  Collieries,  Worksop,  Notts,  and  supply  the  well-known 
Wigan  Arley  Mine  Gas  Coal,  Gas  Nuts,  Gas  Cannel,  Cannel  Nuts,  House  and  Steam  Coals,  &c. 

j^m^t^^lvk^mc^''^^mli,:   6,  CORPORATION  STREET,  BIRMINGHAM— Sole  Agont:  A.  C.  SCRIVENER. 

Telegraphic  Address:   "WIQAN,   BIRMINGHAM."  Telephone:   No.  200. 

6,  STRAND,  LONDON— C.  PARKER  d  SON,  Sole  Agents. 


Telegraphic  Address: 

JOHN  BROWN  &  CO.,  LTD.,  Sheffield, 



Analysis:  12,600  Feet  of  19-Candle  Gas  per  Ton. 

Value  in  Pounds  of  Sperm,  820*20. 

V  B  R  Y     FRBXB     F  R  O  I  IMt  P  U  R  X  X  I  E  S  . 




[July  5. 1910. 

^mik^  fittto  C^amkr  Jfimam. 

plants  alrcaby  built  anb  imbcr  Construction : 

®otul  capatitn:  45,000,000  r.ft.  of  pure  (Koal  (gas  per  H  hours. 

©be  foiiotoing  (fitics  ^attc  aboptrb   f  IBerltn,  Hamburg  (setonb  orb^r),  f  arts,  iltunttlj,  l&urstcin, 
riDuntcb  Cbambec  furnaces:  t  Jitoosaclj,  Idpaig,  Eome,  lanau,  Urgensburg. 

<ifor  llartitulars  anb  ST^nbu's  applji  lo  : 

^he  Coke  Ovens  and  IBg^Products  Co«,  Ittd*, 

3t,  Stcpf^cns  i^ousc,  IPcstminstcr,  5.tD. 

Coal  and  Coke 

etc.,  etc. 

Large  Installations 

at  work  and 
on  order. 


W.  J.  JENKINS  6l  CO.,  Limited, 







SILCO  BRICKS  prevent  all  settling  of  setting. 

SILICA  BRICKS  for  Combustion  Chambers,  any  shape. 

fuly  5,  1910.] 




Inverted  Arc  Lamp,  Fig.  625. 

Storm  Proof— 
or  Exterior  Lighting. 




Height  over  all. 

I  I -light    .    .  .    I  ft.  8  ins. 

2-  light    .    .  .    2  ft.  4  ins. 

3-  light    .     .  .    2  ft.  4  ins. 

4-  light    .     .  .    2  ft.  7  ins. 

(Patent)  Inverted  System 


Width  over  all. 

I  ft.  I  in. 

I  ft.  5  IDS. 

I  ft.  5  ins. 

I  ft.  8  ins. 

Fig.  623 


gNAMELLED  Qreen  Steel  Casing:,  fitted  with  Welsbach-Kern  Inverted  Burners,  Qas  and  Air  Regulators 
I  operated  from  outside.  Sliding  Door  to  give  access  to  Burners  for  cleaning  purposes.  Fitted  with  Mag- 
lesia  Nozzles,  Welsbach  Mantles,  and  Glass  Mantle  Protectors.    Complete  as  shown.    Highly  efficient  and 





Oas  per  hour.       CP.  Steel.  Copper  Case.  Oas  per  hour.       CP.  Steel.  Copper  Case. 

1-  light        4  feet        125        30/-         S/-  extra.       3-Hght       12  feet        400        52/6        6/-  extra. 

2-  light        8  feet        260        47/6        6/-  extra.       4-light       16  feet        550        T2/6        9/-  extra. 

AH  on  or  off,  or  One  light  on  and  the  rest  off,  T/6  per  Lamp  extra.       Cup  and  Ball,  3/6  per  Lamp  extra. 

RENE       A  I-  s . 

Glass  Mantle  Protectors  (Fig.  623)  3/4|  per  dozen,  or  in  case  lots  of  5  gross,  33/-  per  gross. 

I-Llgbt.   2. Light.   3-Llght.    4-Llgbt.  I-Llgbt.  2-Llgbt.  3-Llgbt.  4-Llgbt. 

Wired  Globes,  extra       each  2/-     2/-     2  9    3  6 
Parabolic  Reflector,  extra  „    3/6    6/-     T,  6 
Welsbach  Mantles,  each  6cl..  subject  as  usual. 

Clear  Glass  Globes,  each     2/3      5/9     5/9  9/- 
mcaseiota  19/6  57/9  57/9  93/- 

"  >>    per  dozen. 

Case  contains 






The  Welsbach  Mantles  for  Upright  lighting  are  "  C,"  "  CX,"  and  "  Plaissetty,"  price  4|<1..  each. 


Welsbach  House,  344-354,  Gray's  Inn  Road,  London,  W.C. 

Telegram  a  a  ad  Cableai 


Telepboae  2410  NORTH 



[July  5,  1910. 


ST0CK.T0»J-0M"-T3E:ES.  Te.e,.a«,s: 


London   Office:   39,   Victoria  Street,   Westminster,  S.W. 


Gasholders,    Purifiers,  Condensers, 
Washers,    Steel    Mains,  R.oofs, 



Is  sent  out  in  Skeins  all  ready  for  use. 
Every  Skein  of  equal  weight  and  length. 
The  Lead  Wool  Joint  is  built  up  evenly  all  the  way 

Lead  Wool  requires  no  melting  and  can  be  used  in 
water  without  risk. 

Lead  Wool  Joints  are  Twice  as  Strong  as  Cast  Lead 
Joints  and  cost  33;*,  per  cent.  less. 


Telegrams:  "  Strength,  Snodland."      Telephone  199  Snodland. 


Stoking  Mactiinery 





Fall  Partlcalars  may  be  obtained  from  the  Sole  Makers, 

SIR  WILLIAM  ARROL&  CO.,  Limited, 


[Se«  Illastrated  Advertisement,  June  14,  p.  728.] 

Buy  and  Sell  Street  Lighting  by  Candle  Power. 





Accurate  &  Simple. 

Alexander  Wright  &  Co.,  Ltd. 



TRADE    "€3.0."  MARK. 



Will  withstand  high  temperatures  and  is  Guaranteed 
not  to  Contract  or  Soften  under  Heat. 

For  Particulars  and  prices  apply — 


Cinder  Hills  Fire  Clay  Works, 


London  Agents:  DOW  &  WILSON,  32,  Fenchureh  Street,  LONDON,  E.G. 

Telegrams :  Established  1783. 

•MORTON,  HALIFAX."      Tel.  No.  134. 


Gas  Retort,  Fire=CIay,  Red  and  Blue  Brick  Works, 

S  07  O  XT  R  B  R  Z  X>  O- 9 

give  careful  and  prompt  attention  to  execution  of  all  Orders,  and  consequently 

give  all-round  satisfaction. 



Our  "HULO 






I.  HULEH  &  CO.,  Ltd. 

Gas  Engineers, 

55  &  56,  High  Holborn, 











^OLD  iyilNE  FIRE  CLAY.^ 




[July  5,  igio. 



Rotary  Compressor  driven  by  direct 
coupled  Gas=Engine  on 
one  base. 

Made  in  various  sizes  for  High 
Pressure  Lighting  or  Boosting 
District  Mains,  &c.,  and  arranged 
for  any  Pressure  up  to  5  lbs.  per 
square  inch. 

Also  made  for  driving  by  Steam 
Belt,  or  Electric  Motor. 



SOLE       IVr  A  Ft  E  F5  S       OF  THE 

Eclipse"  specialities 


iff  i 

'III.'  alMi\f  Is  a  \  iA  :i  rinilyin;;  I'laiii  fiiliirlv  iiihlcii  ;i  hen  liy  us  fni'  the  :\Taiirlicster  Corporation,  t.i  the  DpsiBiis  of  tlii'ii'  I '.niJiiic-rr,  .1.  i  :  Ni  i.  Esq., 
it  covers  llli  sijiuuu  jards  and  cuiilams  Twelve  I'luiliers  with  space  for  an  additional  Pour,  eacli  Xs  feet  square,  witli  a  total  area  ul  11,7m)  scjuaie  feet. 

Upwards  of  2190  Tons  of  Steel  and  Iron  were  used. 

London  Representative :   THOMAS  B.  YOUNQER,  C.E.,  30,  Queen  Anne's  Chambers,  Westminster,  S.W. 
Scotch  Representative :   JNO.  D.  (jlliSON,  2,  Causeyside  5treet,  Paisley. 

West  of  Bagland  Representative :   F.  HERBERT  STEVENSON,  Edgbaston  House,  Broad  Street,  Birmingham. 

Printed  and  Published  by  Walter  Kino,  at  No.  11,  Bolt  ConBi,  Fleet  Street,  in  the  City  op  London.— Tuesday,  July  5,  1910, 



Vol.  CXI.    No.  24G1.] 

LONDON,  JULY  12,  1910. 

[G2nd  Year.    Price  6d. 


Manufacturers  and  Contractors. 


Established  1830. 





n*0  I  CHI/   liiniPATnDC  with  an  Latest  Improvements. 

llAO'LtHIV   InUluHIUnO,  snort's   improved   and  Ansell  Clock  Form. 



li  to  12  in.  BORE. 



Bonlea.  Foundry, 

Formerly  Springbank  Iron-Works,  Glasgow. 

Ebtablishbb  1848, 

Also  Mannfaotorsrs  o< 

Sanitary  and  Raln-Water  Pipes,  Hot- 
Water  Pipes,  Stable  Fittings, 
and  Qeneral  Castings. 

TelegTamg:  "  Bohlea,  Thornait-on-Tees." 



This  Material  is  now  successfully  used  and  highly 
appreciated  In  many  Gas-Works  in  England  and  Scotland. 



Siite  Afients  for  F.niilaml,  Irelaiul,  II'<i/(S,  nml  Culcnies  : 
T.    DUXBURY    &  CO. 
6,  Qrosvenor  Chambers,  MANCHESTER. 

Tel. :  "  Darwinian,  Manchester."  'Plione  :  180G  City. 
Tel.:  "  DuxBURYiTE,  London."       'Phone:  40'2G  City. 

Sole  Aqeiil  for  ScotUind  : 
North  Saint  Andrew  Street.  EDINBURGH. 

Tel.:  "  Gaslux,  EDiNBURiiH." 
Descriptive  Pamphlet  on  Application. 


't  And  Tin  Scrap  Cuttings, 


Telegrams :  "  Stanncm,  London." 
Telephone:  1820,  1821  (2  Lines),  East. 

Metallurgical  and  Detinning  Works, 





Specially  distil  Carburine  Spirit,  specific  gravity  '680,  or  of  any  other  grade  suitable  for  Enriching  Gas; 

als**  ♦'•ns  Oil  best  adapted  for  injecting  into  the  Retorts,  as  in  the  Herring  Process. 
Importers  of  Petroleum  for  Carburetting  Water  Gas,  or  for  Manufacturing  Oil  Gas.    Distillers  of  Pentane, 
'  Petroleum  Ether,  and  Naphtha  for  clearing  the  pipes  of  Naphthalene,  &c. 

'  Samples   and   Pnices   may   be   had   on  application. 



[July  12,  1910. 



Conveying  Plants  for  Handling  Hot  Coke, 
Coal,  &c.    Coke  Handled  in  Bulk  and 

without  Breakage. 
Specially  suitable  for  Handling  Hot  Coke 
discharged  by  the  Mechanical  Discharger. 

Complete  Telpher  Track  u-ith  Screens  showing  Coke  Storage  Heap  and  Telpher  travelling  round  Curv 



Whitehall  Ironworks,  BRISTOL. 

M.H.  (h9  gas  punt,  LTD., 

19,  Great  Winchester  Street,  LONDON,  E.c. 

Telegrams:  "METHANOGEN  LONDON.' 
Tslephone:  5662  LONDON  WALL. 

Engineer  and  Manager: 
C.  B.  TULLY. 
Secretary:  JAMBS  C.  QENOB. 

From  Coke,  Tar,  Steam,  and  eithi^ 
Benzol  or  Tar  enrichment. 

The   M.H    GAS    PLANT  produces  at  will:— 


From  Coke  and  Steam. 


From  Coke,  Steam,  and  any  Crude  Oi 

Plants  at  Work  or  in  Course  of  Construction  at: — 

TRURO,  SWINDON  (Q.W.Rly.)  Two  Installations,  HYTHE,  BR0M5GR0VE,  QUAKER'S  YARD, 



Continental  Agent:  GEO.  BENKERT,  7,  Rue  du  Lombard,  BRUSSELS. 



London  Address : 
Sallsbnry  House,  London  Wall,  London,  E.C. 
FOR   CATALOGUE    No.  8. 


Telegrams : 
National  Telephone  No.  39. 

fie.550.  - 

See  next  Week's  Advertisement  for  Steam-Pumps,  Tar  and  Liquor  Pumps.  &c. 

1  July  12,  1910.] 




Chamber  Oven 

Results   have   been  obtained  which   have  never  been  equalled  by 

any  other  System  of  Carbonization. 

Charges  8  to  10  Tons  each 
Burning  off  in  24  Hours. 

Plants  in  Operation  and  unifer  Construction  at  the  following  Cas-Works 




Bochutn  Corporation  Oas  =  Works,  Westphalia 
Vienna  Corporation  Gas  =  Works,  Austria  . 

(1st  Repeat  Order) 
(2nd  Repeat  Order) 
(3rd  Repeat  Order) 

Innsbruck  Gas-Works,  Austria  . 

>»  » >  » »  • 

Halberstadt  Qas  =  Works,  Germany 

(Repeat  Order) 






Cub.  Ft.  per  Day. 





\^ull  Particulars  on  application  to  tfie 


(         301,   GIossop   Roa^d,  SHEFFIELD. 

Telephone  No.  1935.  Telegraphic  Address:  "KOCHS,  SHEFFIFLD." 



[July  12,  igio. 



fixed  Inside  or  outside  the  Purifiers. 

C.  &  W.  WALKER,  Ltd., 

110,  Cannon  Street,         MIDLAND  IRON-WORKS, 

R.  LAIDLAW  &  SON  (Edinburgh),  Ltd 


Thousands  of  our 
Meters  in  use  by  the 
largest  Gas  Companies 
and  Corporations  and 


Wet  Meters  in 
Cast-Iron  Cases. 

Dry  Meters  in 
Tinpiate  Cases. 


Simon  Square  Works,  EDINBURGH. 
6,  Little  Bush  Lane,  LONDON,  E.C. 

N.B. — To  meet  requirements  of  many  Gas  Engineers, 


Are  now  Manufacturing 


Of  a    SPECIAL  B.B.  QUALITY"  which  cannot  be  excelled. 

Ifuly  12,  1910.] 



fnRST.  " 


The  ORIGINAL  Inverted  Burners  and  Mantles 

Complete  with  "NICO"  Patent  Gas  Regulators. 






No.  4. 

,  Pitandard  "  Large  ' '  Size. 
75-candle  power. 

"  N  I  C  O  " 

BURNERS    are   used  and 
recommended  by  all  leading 
Gas  Companies. 



combined  with 

No.  5. 

Bijou  Size, 
30-candle  power, 

No.  6. 
Medium  Size. 
55-candle  power. 

"  N  r  c  o  " 

MANTLES  are  unrivalled 

Brilliancy  and  Durability. 


19  &i  23,  F£i,r*K*ixi^cloxi.      venue,  X^oncton,  S.C 

Telephone  :  Nos.  2680  and  2681  HOLBORN. 

Telegrams:  "VALIDNESS. 

TKe     F  E  R  Y 


Of  the  Gas  Engineers  who  repoited  to  the  Refractory 
[aterials  Committee  about  757/,  used  this  type  of  Pyro= 
leter  for  their  high  temperature  tests. 

{See  '•Journal  of  Gas  Lighting,"  June  21,  WIO,  page  857.) 

implicity,  Accuracy,  and  Reliability  are  its  Chief  Features. 



High  Pressure 
Service  Governors. 

High  Pressure  Mercurial  Oovernor. 

Large  Gas  Ways  Balanced  Valves,  also  High- 
Pressure  Diaphragm  Governors* 

PEEBLES  &  CO.,  LTD., 

Tay  Works,  Bonnington, 


Telegrams:  "Tanoent  Edinbuegh." 
Telephone  :  No.  244  Leiih, 



[July  12,  1910. 



FIRE-CLAY  GAS-RETORTS,  FIRE-BRICKS,  LDPS,  &  TILES  of  Etcij  Descriptioi. 



'  LIMITED.  '  'i 

LONDON  OFFICE:   Bx>ook   House,  10-12,  Walbrooli,    ILiONDON,  E.C. 

Telegraphic  Addresses:    '-NEWTON,  SHEFFIELD,"  "ACCOLADE,  LONDON."         National  Telephone  No.  2200. 




RETORTS  AND  FITTINGS,   MOUTHPIECES  with  Self-Sealing  Lids. 

PURIFIERS   with.   Planned  Joints   sl  Specia^lity* 

GASHOLDERS,  Cast-Iron  or  Steel  Tanks. 


PIG  IRON  (special  quality)  for  Engine  Cylinders.    GAS  COAL  famons  for  its  Unrivalled  excellence. 

  Established  1793.   


Steel  Tanks. 




Steel  Work. 

Steel  Storage 
Tanks  for 
Oil,  Water, 

Welded  and 
Riveted  5teel 


Clayton  and 
Patent  Quidei 

or  with 
Spiral  Plates 



Thrte-Lift  Telescopic  Gasholder  and  Steel  Tank,  to  the  Designs  of  Messrs.  CORBET  WOODALL  &  SON,  Made  and  Erected  by 

CLAYTON,   SON    &  CO.,   LTD.,  LEEDS, 

For  the  WELLINGTON  GAS  CO.,  Miramar  Works,  New  Zealand.   Tank,  152  ft.  6  in.  dia.   Gasholder,  150  ft.  dia.  by  30  ft.  Lifts. 

July  12,  1910.] 





Many  installed  in  conjunction  with  Coal 
Handling  Plants,   giving  in  every  case 
entire  satisfaction 








■V  I 


Give  universal  satisfaction 

Have  you  tried  them  ? 

Let  us  send  you 
Samples  and  Prices. 



SL^A  "L°:„t  WANDSWORTH,  S.W. 


[July  12,  1910. 

PORTER  &  CO., 

Gowt's  Bridge  Works,  LINCOLN,  ENG. 

Makers  of  GASHOLDERS 

from  10  cubic  feet  up  to  100,000  cubic  feet. 


Constructional  Ironwork  and  Castings 

CAST    IRON    COLUMNS,    TANKS,  &c. 


Telegrams:  "PORTER,  LINCOLN."         Telephone  No.  47. 

Only  First  Class  Materials  and  Workmanship. 


—  XI    IKE  ES  X>  Jfl.  Xji  — 





108,  Southwark  Street.       33,  King  Street  West.         14,  Colmore  Row.       6,  Mark  Lane.  New  BtiggaU, 

July  12,  1910.] 




^/>e    Super- Acme 


Gas  Cooker 

one    of  the   points   on    which    we  have 
expended  the  greatest  thought  and  effort 

The  degree  to  which  our  Interchange- 
abiUty  principle  is  carried  has  cut  down 
the  cost  of  maintaining  this  Cooker  ahnost 
to  disappearing  point — and  far  below  that 
entailed  by  an  ordinary  Gas  Cooker. 


RDEN   HILL  &  CO., 



EDGAR  ALLEN  &  CO.,  Limited 






Capable  of  dealing  with 
400   TUBS    pep  Hour. 



All  kinds  of  Material  a  Speciality. 

Steel  Strustural  Work. 


ALLEN'S  <i!vU^p^ 







[July  12,  1910. 


"  Standard  "  Specialties. 








LARGE  CAST  IRON  5^  i* 










I  LTD. 

Telegraphic  Addreesea : 
"  Benzole,  Manchestkk.' 
"Bemzole,  Blackbdrn." 
"Oxide,  Manchesteb," 

Telephone  Numbers :  Oxide  and  Laboratory,  2369  Manchester, 

Head  Office,  1112  Manchester.  Blackburn,  295  Blackburn. 
Works  Dept.,  2397  Manchester.      Clayton,  2397a  Manchester. 


All  Bye-Products  from  the  Distillation  of  Coal  dealt  with. 

|TII"A    fCarburetting  Benzol,  Benzol  Absorbing  Oil  for  Coke-Oven  Plants,  Toluol,  Solvent,  Heavy,  and  Burning 
yiJLM|ll|   |||Lv    J  Naphthas.  Pyridine  Bases.  Carbolic  Acid  and  Cresylic  Acid,  Soluble  Disinfecting  Fluid.  Creosote,  Fuel  and 
^ylfl^l  I  I  to    iLucigen  Oils,  Black  Varnish.  Dipping  Blacks,  Prepared  Tar  for  Asphalting,  and  for  Road  Treatment, 
(Timber  Creosoted  for  the  Trade,  &c.    See  our  Adveitisement  next  week. 








Sole    Makers : 


1,  Westminster  Palace  Gardens,  Victoria  Street,  LONDON,  S.W. 

ljuly  12,  igio.] 








Is  Extra  Strong  and  of  High  Class 


no  Candles  for  under 
4  feet  of  Gas  per  hour. 

Fitted  with  Patent  Gas  Adjuster  and  Con- 
venient Air  Regulator  :  both  the  thumbscrew 
of  Adjuster  and  lever  of  Air  Regulator  made  ot 
non-heat  conducting  material.  Takes  Graetzin 
Mantles  and  Glass,  or  nozzle  can  be  supplied  to 
take  Universal  fitting  Mantles. 


Brass  Casing  in  various  finislies. 
China  Casing  witli  Gold  Lines. 
Enamelled  Casing  with  Gold  Lines. 
Enamelled  Casing  and  Reflector  combined 

Also  made  in  Bijou  Size  for 
Domestic  Lighting. 


Nd.  7795.     CHINA  PATTERN. 



83,  85,  &  87,  Farringdon  Road,  E.G. 


74,  76,  &  78,  Great  Clyde  Street. 

I.  TAYLOR  &  CO.,  PLUMr»;To.Ks,  BOLTON 

Telegrams:    "  SATURATORS,  BOLTON." 

Telephones:   848  and  119. 



[July  12,  igio. 

"SHELL  BRAND"/         specialists  in 





is  the 









Possilpark  Paint  Works,  GLASGOW. 

Telogvams;  "SATISFY."  Telephones  {  N~;«85^^^^^^^^^^ 


Benzol,  Toluol,  Solvent  Naphtha,  Creosote  Oils,  Grease  Oils,  Carbolic  Acid, 
Dark  Cresylic  Acid,  Granulated  (Crude)  and  Sublimed  Naphthalene, 
Anthracene,   Refined   Tar  and  Pitch.     Sulphate   of  Ammonia   up  to 

20*75  per  cent.  Nitrogen. 

For  Prices  apply  to  tke  SOUTH  METROPOLITAN  GAS  COMPANY 



Telegraphic  Address :  "METROQAS,  LONDON." 






Also  all  Kinds  ot 



PIERS,    Etc.  . 

Works  &  Bead  0mm 



LoMDOH  OFnox; 




lljuly  12,  1910.] 





;s,  (Sc.— 

The  Fight  for  the  Standard  Burner  .     .  . 

,Lessons  from  Konigsberg  

Sulphate  of  Ammonia  Production  in  Gas- 

trhrough  Coalite  Glasses— Past  and  Future 
— Gas  in  Industry — A  Gross  Falsehood — 
The  Humorous  Side  of  Jealousy — Sepa- 
rate Management— The  Organization  of 
Labour — In  London  Suburbs  .... 


IS  Stock  and  Share  Market 

ectricity  Supply  Memoranda. 

)tes  from  Westminster  .    .  . 

jst  Dividend  Warrants.    By  H.  D. 

le  Quality  of  London  Gas  

coding  01  the  Gas- Works  and  Interruption 

of  the  Gas  Supply  at  Zurich  

IS  Association  Affairs  in  America 

le  New  Hoboken  Gas-Works  at  Antwerp  . 

St  of  Successful  Candidates — "Gas  Engin- 
eering "  and  "  Gas  Supply  "  Examinations 

samination  in  "  Gas  Supply,"  Third  Year — 

Answers  to  the  Questions  Set  .... 

itraction  of  Naphthalene  by  Water  Gas  Tar. 

By  G.M.Gill  

le  Konigsberg  Gas-Works  

russels  Municipal  Gas-Works  

he  Forrest  (Brussels)  Gas-Works. 

Prosperous  Cornish  Gas  Company  . 
i  lamination  of  Interiors — Artificial  Illumina- 
'  tion  by  Gas  and  Electricity  

)ciete  Technique  Papers — 

M.  Bromham  on  A  Turbine  for  the  Con- 
tinuous Treatment  of  Sulphate 

M.  Grebelon  Light- Economizing  Reflectors 
for  Street-Lamps  

M.   Chevalet  on    Treating  Ammoniacal 
Liquor  in  Small  Gas-Works  .... 

RI.  Largeron  on  a  New  Form  of  Pressure- 


j  M.  Camille  Roche  on  the  Use  of  Aluminium 

I     in  Gas-Works  

[  "roubles  with  Producer  Gas-Engines  . 
latural  Gas  and  Petroleum  in  America  . 
















Apparatus  for  Heating  Air — Cloake,  A.  G.  .  120 
Mouthpieces  or  Ascension-Pipes  of  Gas-Ke- 

torts — Farquhar,  W.  1'.  120 

Gas-Heated  Radiators — Yates,  H.  ].  .  .  .  120 
Stop  Mechanism  for  Prepayment  Gas- Meters 

— Milne,  J.,  and  Alexander,  W  121 

Torch  Traps  for  Street-Lamps — Parkinson 

and  W.  &  B.  Cowan  and  Cheshire,  W.  .  .  121 
Separating  Tar  from  Combustible  Gases — 

Burstall,  F.  W  121 

Applications  for  Letters  Patent  122 


Gasholder  Tanks  with  Bulging  Sides  .    .    ,  122 

The  Konigsberg  Chamber  Settings     .     ...  122 

A  Result  of  Electrolysis   122 

The  Coalite  Company  and  their  Patents  .     .  123 


Progress  of  Bills   123 

Brownhills  and  District  Gas  Order  .  .  .  123 
Gas  Companies  (Standard  Burner)  Bill  (No.  i) 

Glasgow  Gas  Consolidation  Bill     ....  133 

Swansea  Gas  Order   134 


Promotion  of  the  Amman  Valley  Gas  Bill — 
Action  by  Solicitors  to  Recover  Costs   .    .  134 

Gas  Poisoning  through  Alleged  Defective 
Fittings  134 

Mr.  Ewing's  Action  against  the  Greenock 
Corporation  .    .    .    ■    ,  134 


Belfast  Gas-Works  Extensions— The  Twin 

Island  Site  Again  135 

Bradford  Corporation  Gas  Department    .     .  135 
Oldham  Corporation  Gas  Department — An- 
nual Report  of  the  General  Manager    .     .  135 
Salford  Corporation  Gas  Department  .    .     .  136 
Stockport  Corporation  Gas   Department — 
The  Engineer's  Annual  Report  ....  136 

MISCELLANEOUS  NEWS  (conlinuei)— 

Progress  of  the  Lincoln  Gas-Works    .    .    .  137 

Hereford  Corporation  Gas  Undertaking  .    .  137 

Stoke-upon-Trent  Gas  Department     .     .     .  138 

Rhyl  District  Council  .Supply  ....  138 

Mansfield  Gas-Works  Extensions  ....  138 

Public  Lighting  of  Oswestry   138 

Rhymney  Valley  Water  Supply   139 

Port  of  London  Rates  —  Gas  Companies' 

Opposition  Withdrawn   139 

Gas  Stock  and  Share  List   139 

Gas  and  Electricity  .Sujiply  in  Massachusetts  140 

Electric  Lighting  at  Hastings   140 

Municipal  Engineers  and  Water  Supplies    .  141 

Notes  from  Scotland   142 

Current  Sales  of  Gas  Products   143 

Coal  Trade  Reports   144 


The  Professorship  of  Coal  Gas  and  Fuel  In- 
dustries at  Leeds    .     .         .  ...  99 

The  I^ate  Mr.  Greville  Williams   ....  105 

The  Life  of  a  Gas-Meter — Society  of  Chemi- 
cal Industry — Water  Gases  110 

Gas  Companies' Accounts  for  1909 .    .    .    .  116 

New  Water-Works  for  Bacup  122 

Gas  V.  Electricity  for  Museum  Lighting — 

Kenilworth  Gas  Company  134 

Suicide  by  Gas  at  Roystori  139 

East  Surrey  Water  Company  —  Reduction  in 

Price  at  Knaresborough  140 

St.  Helens  and  the  Standard  Burner  Bills  .  143 
Water  Scheme  for  Warrington — Liquidation  of 
the  Automatic  Gas-Ligfiter,  Limited — Cost 
of  Public  Lighting  at  Hackney — The  New 
Public  Lighting  Contract  for  Westminster  .  144 
Gas  and  Electricity  at  Manchester — Not 
Water-Gas  Victims — New  Joint-Stock  Com- 
panies— Water  Troubles  at  Uttoxeter — Pre- 
payment Meter  Charges  for  Gas  at  Bolton — 

Finsbury  Public  Lighting  145 

Increased  Meter-Rents  at  Salford — Carlisle 
Gas  Profits — Failure  of  the  Electric  Light 
at  Brighton — Fatal  Gas  Explosion  at  Meaux 
— Meldreth  and  Melbourn  District  Gas  and 
Water  Company,  Limited  146 


have  been  (and  are  being)   installed,  with  a  capacity  of 
233,000,000  cubic  feet  per  diem. 

Including  the  work  of  their  American  Colleagues,  XX09 
Sets  of  Double=Superheater  Plant  have  been  constructed 
with  a  total  daily  capacity  of  835,100,000  cubic  feet. 
These  Installations  represent  about  85  per  cent,  of  ALL 
Carburetted=Water=Qas  Construction,  and  will  produce  in 
150  Working  Days  the  whole  World's  consumption  of 
Carburetted=Water=Gas— about  120,000,000,000  cubic  feet 
per  annum  ! 

36  &  38,  VICTORIA  STREET,  LONDON,  S.W= 

Bureau  de  Bruxeiles,  209,  CHUSSe'e  D'IXELLES. 



[July  12,  igio. 





&  CO.,  LTD., 



Manchester,  Birmingham,  Glasgow, 
Falkirk,   Belfast,   and  Melbourne. 






W.  &  B.  COWAN,  LTD. 
(Parkinson  Branch). 

Cottage  Lane,  City  Road, 
Bell  Barn  Road,     |      Hill  Stheet, 


|:      Editor  &  Publisher:  WALTER  KING.  Office:  11,  Bolt  Court,  Fleet  St.,  London. 

,  VOL.  CXI.,  No.  2461.  TUESDAY,  JULY  12,  1910. 



I  The  Fight  for  the  Standard  Burner. 

It  has  seemed  an  interminable  lane  through  which  the  gas 
industry  has  been  passing  in  securing  as  the  recognized 
ii  standard  test-burner  the  "  Metropolitan  "  No.  2  ;  and  it  is 

imost  sincerely  hoped  that  the  end  of  the  lane  has  at  length 
about  been  reached.    The  whole  of  the  time  devoted  to  the 
\  sittings  of  Sir  Henry  Kimber's  Committee  last  parliamen- 
tary week  was  taken  up  in  pacing  ground  beaten  and  worn 
by  repeated  passage,  and  every  inch  of  which  is  now  so  well 
known.    But  the  opposition  weakens.    Of  that  there  is  not 
the  slightest  doubt.    For  every  contest  before  Committees 
leaves  the  case  that  hostility  has  so  laboriously  constructed 
more  and  more  dilapidated,  not  only  by  the  opponents'  own 
resistance  to  obvious  facts,  but  by  throwing  themselves 
-  blindly  against  the  strength  of  years  of  parliamentary  enact- 
i  ment  and  legislative  intention,  and  by  the  mass  of  incon- 
sistency of  which  their  own  case  is  composed.    Those  who 
represent  the  opposition  are  conscious  of  all  this.    It  is  as 
manifest  as  anything  can  well  be  to  close  observers  of  the 
proceedings  in  the  Committee  rooms.    Still  they  persist  in 
the  quest  for  something  definite  to  which  no  parliamentary 
'  enactment  has  given  them  the  right,  but  which  is  gained, 
excepting  in  the  case  of  some  local  authorities,  by  means 
,  which  Parliament,  in  its  wisdom  and  by  its  foresight,  has 
provided.    What  the  representatives  of  hostile  local  autho- 
^  rities  do  not,  or  will  not,  recognize,  some  of  the  hostile 
I  authorities  themselves  do  recognize.    They  see  the  strength 
of  the  case  for  the  burner ;  and  they  see  the  fatuity  of  con- 
tinuing to  oppose  the  inevitable,  with  the  result  that,  when 
i  Nos.  I,  2,  and  3  Standard  Burner  Bills  came,  on  Monday 
I  last  week,  before  Sir  Henry  Kimber's  Committee,  the  oppo- 
I  nents  were  comparatively  few,  although  the  whole  case 
\  had  to  be  fought  precisely  as  though  their  number  was  great. 
I  As  instructed  by  the  House,  the  Liverpool  case  was  set 
i  apart  for  distinct  consideration,  in  view  of  surrounding  special 
!  circumstances. 

I  We  will  not  devote  time  to  any  comment  on  the  case  for 
I  the  new  standard  burner.    It  is  known  by  all  professional 

gas  men  in  the  country ;  and  it  is  accepted  by  all  but  a 
I   modest  percentage — so  modest  as  to  be  negligible,  were  it 

not  that  this  infinitesimal  number  claim  the  only  exact 

i knowledge  on  the  question,  and  claim  to  have  discovered, 
by  their  exploration,  where  the  new  burner  leaves  loopholes 
and  invitations  to  the  gas  companies  of  the  country  (of 
.  course,  not  to  the  local  authorities)  to  depart  from  the  path 
||  of  administrative  morality.    All  that  we  will  say  in  passing 
is  that  the  case  for  the  Bills  was  presented  by  Counsel  (may 
we  without  exposing  ourselves  to  any  invidiousness  specially 
i  mention  as  having  done  yeoman  service,  Mr.  Honoratus 
Lloyd,  K.C.?)and  expert  witnesses  with  a  cogency  and  with 
a  full  sense  of  responsibility  to  the  gas  industry,  present  and 
future,  that  stand  in  striking  contrast  to  the  flimsy  and  dis- 
jointed case  of  the  antagonists — a  case  that  had  all  the  weak- 
'•  nesses  of  the  one  submitted  in  the  House  of  Lords  accen- 
tuated, and  a  case  in  which  the  witnesses  completely  failed 
to  support  one  another. 

The  Committee,  it  was  early  apparent,  through  the  inter- 
jections and  specific  inquiries  of  Sir  Henry  Kimber  and  his 
colleagues,  had  set  themselves  the  task  of  discovering  from 
Counsel  and  witnesses  two  things:  (i)  What  has  been  the 
intention  of  Parliament,  as  revealed  by  past  enactment,  in 
this  matter  of  testing ;  and  (2)  which  burner  of  those  at  pre- 
sent recognized  statutorily  is  the  most  accurate  for  testing 
all  qualities  of  gas  ?  From  these  two  points,  the  opposition 
struggled,  mainly  by  keen  and  deliberate  evasion,  to  escape. 
But  they  were  unsuccessful,  through  the  hrmness  of  Sir 
Henry  Kimber.  There  was  nothing  for  it,  but  in  the  end  to 
admit  that  Parliament  has  never  established  any  legislative 
finality  in  the  test-burner,  but  has  always  conceded  the  right 

of  gas  suppliers— aright  the  opposition  have  tried  their  best 
to  filch  from  them — to  have  the  burner  that  would  develop 
the  maximum  illuminating  power  of  their  gas.  The  standard 
candle  power  has  been  fixed,  the  standard  or  maximum 
price  (usually  the  actual  price  is  much  lower)  to  be  charged 
for  that  candle  power  has  been  fixed,  but  the  standard  test- 
burner  has  been  given  subject  to  the  right  of  unconditional 
revision,  either  through  Act  of  Parliament  or,  in  many  cases, 
on  appeal  to  the  Board  of  Trade.  In  the  changes  of  test- 
burner  that  have  been  made,  the  original  principle  of  maxi- 
mum illuminating  power  development  has  prevailed ;  but 
never  has  there  been  the  fuss,  the  allegations,  the  insinua- 
tions that  have  marked  the  latter-day  essential,  with  lower 
illuminating  power  standards,  of  a  burner  that  will  accurately 
and  relatively  deal  with  all  standards,  without  producing  the 
exaggerations  of  a  burner  designed  for  one  quality  of  gas, 
and  that  a  straight  coal  gas.  We  heard  again,  ad  nauseam, 
of  the  differences  between  the  readings  of  testings  with  the 
No.  I  and  No.  2  burners  on  grades  of  gas  for  which  the  No.  i 
burner  was  never  intended  to  be  used,  and  which  wide  differ- 
ences prove,  if  anything  at  all,  the  inefficiency  of  the  No.  i 
burner,  and  not  the  inaccuracy  of  the  No.  2. 

The  Committee  no  doubt  heard  with  amazement  from  Mr. 
Isaac  Carr  that,  though  the  intentions  of  Parliament  in  the 
past  may  have  been  good  enough,  the  House  of  Lords,  the 
fiouse  of  Commons,  and  the  Board  of  Trade  (though  techni- 
cally advised)  had  never  understood  this  question, and  that  the 
whole  of  the  legislation  in  gas  matters  has  been  directed  and 
dominated  by  the  gas  companies,  and  some  local  authorities 
— Manchester  for  example — have  ill-advisedly  followed. 
Similar  thoughts  possessed  his  mind  over  the  sulphur  com- 
pounds abrogation  clauses.  His  opinion  is  a  reflection  on  suc- 
cessive Parliaments  and  numerous  Committees  of  the  House 
of  Lords  and  House  of  Commons.  There  is  danger  in  telling 
a  Parliamentary  Committee  of  the  incapacity  of  their  kind 
for  judicially  dealing  with  a  question  of  this  sort.  Indirectly 
Sir  Henry  Kimber  pointed  out  the  reflection  by  remarking 
to  Mr.  Carr,  "  I  hope  you  will  give  the  present  Committee 
"  credit  for  endeavouring  to  understand."  Mr.  Ram,  K.C., 
rescued  Mr.  Carr  from  an  unhappy  predicament  with  the 
reply:  "We  feel  that.  Sir,  strongly."  But  the  assertion  of 
Mr.  Carr  that  Parliament  and  the  Board  of  Trade  have  the 
last  few  years  been  ignorantly  doing  this  thing,  is  an  admis- 
sion that  the  whole  of  the  educational  work  of  himself,  Mr. 
|.  G.  Newbigging,  and  Dr.  Frankland  has  been  an  utter 
failure.  Wherein  has  been  its  defect  in  enlightening  those 
whom  it  sought  to  instruct  ?  We  leave  the  answer  to  the 
gentlemen  named,  and  to  the  profession  generally. 

Then  as  to  the  question  of  the  most  accurate  burner  for 
all  qualities  of  gas,  one  after  another  the  witnesses  came 
forward  and  testified  that  of  statutorily  prescribed  burners 
the  No.  2  is  the  best — this  not  only  from  the  witnesses  for 
the  Bills,  but  from  the  witnesses  for  the  opposition,  with 
one  exception,  and  that  Mr.  Carr,  who  has  shifted  his 
ground  in  this  respect  since  Mr.  Charles  Carpenter's  evi- 
dence in  the  House  of  Lords.  Now  Mr.  Carr  is  of  opinion 
that  the  burner  is  capable  of  the  most  improper  use  at  the 
will  of  the  gas  maker.  "  In  other  words,  you  think  a  gas 
"  company  might  fraudulently  defeat  the  test  ? "  he  was  asked. 
His  reply  was  "  I  do.  I  say  that  this  opens  up  a  possibility 
"  I  never  dreamed  of  until  this  matter  came  forward."  To 
do  Mr.  Carr  full  justice,  readers  may  be  asked  to  refer  to 
the  report  of  the  cross-examination  on  the  point  in  our 
"  Parliamentary  Intelligence."  However,  while  Mr.  Carr's 
conscience  will  not  allow  him  to  use  the  burner  at  Widnes 
out  of  a  pure  affectionate  regard  for  the  consumers,  Mr. 
J.  G.  Newbigging's  conscience  will  allow  him  to  do  so  at 
Manchester,  and  the  consumers  do  not  appear  to  be  a  penny 
the  worse. 

The  latter  gentleman  sees  no  objection  to  the  burner  if 
a  quid  pro  quo  is  given  to  the  consumers.  Candle  power  has 
been  dropping  at  INIanchester  by  something  like  4  candles 
during  recent  years,  the  price  of  gas  remains  the  same, 



[July  12,  1910. 

profits  have  been  taken  in  aid  of  the  rates  to  the  tune  of 
from  ;^5o,ooo  to  /"yOjOoo  a  year,  and  prohts  have  also  been 
largely  spent  on  the  works.  Since  the  undertaking  has 
been  under  municipal  control,  an  amount  of  profit  greater 
than  the  whole  loan  capital  of  the  concern  has  been  trans- 
ferred in  aid  of  the  rates  !  But,  says  Mr.  Newbigging,  com- 
panies must  not  be  allowed  any  such  free  hand  in  dealing 
with  the  fruits  of  economy  that  may  arise  in  consequence 
of  the  change  of  burner;  and  he  doubts — in  the  case  of  gas 
companies — the  sufficiency  of  the  machinery  already  provided 
by  Parliament  to  produce  an  equitable  distribution  of  the 
fruits  of  economy,  to  which  machinery  local  authorities 
have  no  equivalent.  1 1  strikes  us  as  rather — well,  interesting 
to  have  some  one  from  Manchester  to  teach  the  portion  of 
the  industry  represented  by  private  enterprise  the  ethics  of 
this  question.  We  are  not  surprised  at  Sir  Henry  Kimber 
looking  up  wonderingly,  and  asking,  "  Are  the  gas  companies 
"  not  to  be  trusted  at  all  to  act  honestly  ?  "  For  whom, 
however,  is  the  compensation  required  that  has  not  been 
given  in  Manchester  ?  I'or  that  stupid  obstructionist,  the  Hat- 
flame  consumer,  who  continues  to  penalize  himself  by  re- 
jecting the  economy  and  efficiency  of  incandescent  burners. 
We  may  look  round  London,  Glasgow,  and  numerous  other 
places,  and  find  no  complaint  from  the  consumers,  and  no 
confirmation  of  swelling  gas  accounts  ;  and,  notwithstanding 
the  degradation  of  candle  power  ascribed  by  Messrs.  Carr 
and  Newbigging  and  Dr.  Frankland,  the  incandescent  street 
lamps  are  found  giving  excellent  illumination.  By  the  way, 
once  more  we  heard  from  Dr.  Frankland  that  the  higher  the 
illuminating  power  of  gas,  the  better;  and  from  Mr.  Carr, 
the  contradiction.  All  through  there  was  the  old  want  of 
cohesion  and  consistency  in  the  case  of  the  opposition.  But 
enough  of  it.  Do  let  the  opposition  witnesses  look  at  the 
matter  from  the  standpoint  of  solid  practical  experience,  and 
not  let  fancies  take  possession  of  them  to  such  a  degree  that 
they  become  a  petrified  part  of  their  professional  creed. 

The  case  has  been  concluded  for  Nos.  i,  2,  and  3  Bills; 
and  the  Committee  are  now  considering  the  separate  case  of 
Liverpool.  They  did  not  sit  yesterday ;  but  will  be  doing 
so  to-day.  The  case  should  not  take  a  great  while,  as 
so  much  has  been  disposed  of  in  considering  the  original 
Bills.  After  that,  the  decision  ;  and  we  look  for  justice 
being  done  to  the  promoters.  That  is  all  they  ask  for  ;  it  is 
all  they  expect.  And  in  the  Committee  they  have  complete 
reliance.  If  the  decision  is  as  we  fully  hope  it  will  be — an 
unconditional  one  as  in  the  Lords— uniform  gas  testing  will 
have  received  a  big  forward  move. 

Lessons  from  Konigsberg. 

The  full  description  of  the  Konigsberg  Gas- Works  which 
has  appeared  in  the  last  two  numbers  of  the  "Journal,"  and 
which  is  supplemented  to-day  by  an  account  of  the  develop- 
ment of  the  Konigsberg  gas  undertaking  and  of  the  methods 
of  charging  for  gas  supplied  which  have  been  adopted  from 
time  to  time  by  it,  contains  some  suggestive  information  for 
the  consideration  of  English  gas  managers.  On  the  Konigs- 
berg works,  most  types  of  gas- making  plant  have  been  tested 
on  a  fairly  large  working  scale  ;  and  the  more  important 
results  of  the  comparison  of  the  different  types  of  plant 
are  collected  in  the  table  which  appears  on  another  page 
of  to-day's  "  Journal."  This  table  is  worth  a  few  minutes' 
careful  study,  though  the  particulars  as  to  the  cost  of  water 
gas  relatively  to  coal  gas  are  naturally  not  complete  as  given. 
At  Konigsberg,  water-gas  plant  has  been  erected  more  than 
once  with  the  object  of  staving  off  the  time  when  an  exten- 
sion of  existing  carbonizing  plant  would  have  to  be  carried 
out ;  and  in  this  respect  it  has  proved  a  valuable  auxiliary 
to  the  latter.  It  undoubtedly  possesses  the  advantage  that 
in  the  summer  months  it  can  be  completely  shut  down,  as 
it  was  on  the  occasion  of  our  representative's  visit  to  the 
Konigsberg  works  a  fortnight  ago,  and  the  capital  and  ground 
space  so  rendered  idle  for  the  time  being  are  less  than  with 
coal-gas  plant  of  corresponding  productive  capacity.  At 
Konigsberg  no  serious  difficulty  has  apparently  been  expe- 
rienced by  consumers  from  the  supply  at  one  time  of  neat 
coal  gas,  and  at  another  of  coal  gas  mixed  with  a  large  pro- 
portion of  either  simple  or  carburetted  water  gas. 

The  rates  of  charge  for  gas  in  Konigsberg  seem  to  have 
been  the  subject  of  continual  alteration  since  the  earliest 
days  of  the  gas  undertaking,  when  it  was  open  to  consumers 
to  take  a  supply  either  by  meter  or  at  a  fixed  charge  per 
burner  for  a  specified  number  of  hours'  use  per  diem.  Differ- 
ential prices  were  introduced  in  1886,  and  a  supply  for  heat- 

ing or  power  purposes  could  thereafter  be  had  through  a 
separate  meter  for  3s.  5d.  per  1000  cubic  feet,  as  compared 
with  4s.  6d.  for  the  ordinary  lighting  service.  But  as  years 
went  by,  this  arrangement  proved  unsatisfactory  ;  and  it  was 
found  necessary  to  allow  at  first  one  and  then  two  lighting 
burners  on  each  heating  gas  supply.  Tliis  arrangement, 
however,  reduced  the  consumption  of  gas  at  the  higher  rate 
charged  for  lighting  purposes  ;  and  it  was  found  that  a  largt 
number  of  the  lighting  supply  meters  were  merely  retained 
to  give  a  reserve  supply  of  light  in  case  of  failure  of  the 
electric  light.  The  rents  of  the  larger  meters  were  accord 
ingly  increased,  with  the  result  that  more  and  more  of  tht 
consumers  were  driven  to  take  only  the  heating  gas  supply. 
Permission  was  then  granted  to  such  consumers  to  use  more 
than  two  lighting  burners  on  that  supply,  provided  a  small 
supplementary  payment  was  made  in  respect  of  each  addi 
tional  lighting  burner.  The  general  result  of  these  arrange 
ments  has  been  that  (as  is  shown  in  a  diagram  on  another 
page  of  to-day's  "Journal")  the  consumption  of  gas  in 
Konigsberg  has  increased  latterly  at  about  the  same,  01 
a  rather  grea.ter,  rate  than  the  consumption  in  Berlin,  where 
a  uniform  price  of  3s.  6d.  per  1000  feet  has  been  charged 
since  1901  for  gas  supplied  for  all  purposes. 

Reviewing  the  whole  course  of  procedure  in  Konigsberg 
since  differential  prices  were  introduced  in  i(S86,  it  seems 
hard  to  believe  that  any  adequate  compensation  has  been 
secured  by  the  gas  undertaking  or  the  consumers  for  the 
complications  involved  in  the  system  of  dual  supplies  of  gas 
for  different  purposes,  with  the  subsequent  modifications 
introduced  so  as  to  avoid  such  re-duplication  of  services  and 
meters  in  a  majority  of  the  tenements  supplied.  So  far  as  we 
can  judge  from  the  account  of  the  changes  which  have  been 
rung  from  time  to  time,  however,  it  would  appear  that  at 
first  gas  was  supplied  for  heating  purposes  at  an  unremunera- 
tive  rate,  and  that  it  would  have  been  impossible  at  the  time 
to  have  sold  the  whole  output  of  gas  at  that  rate.  It  was 
then  sought  to  maintain  the  lower  rate  for  the  bulk  of  the 
consumption,  while  reducing  the  duplication  of  services  as 
far  as  possible.  It  is  open  to  question,  however,  whether 
better  results  and  greater  economy  of  administration  would 
not  have  ensued  if  the  whole  of  the  gas  had  always  been 
supplied  at  a  uniform  price  slightly  above  that  charged  for 
gas  supplied  through  a  special  meter  for  heating  purposes, 
and  considerably  below  that  charged  for  gas  for  lighting 
purposes.  No  substantial  advantage  appears  to  have  been 
secured  by  the  varied  Konigsberg  methods  which  would  not 
have  been  obtained,  in  at  least  corresponding  measure,  by 
the  simple  English  practice  of  a  uniform  price,  which,  since 
its  adoption  in  Berlin,  has  proved  equally  successful  there. 

Sulphate  of  Ammonia  Production  in  Gas-Wori(S. 

The  report  of  the  Chief  Inspector  under  the  Alkali  Works 
Regulation  Act  for  igog,  which  was  noticed  in  the"  Journal" 
last  week,  is  the  last  that  Mr.  R.  Forbes  Carpenter  will 
sign  as  the  Chief  of  the  Department.  While  very  hearty 
welcome  and  good  wishes  are  accorded  his  successor,  Mr. 
Carpenter's  retirement  is  a  matter  of  regret  to  not  only 
those  who  have  been  brought  into  contact  with  him  in  his 
official  capacity,  but  to  all  technically  engaged  in  the  gas 
industry.  In  the  exercise  of  his  duties,  his  office  has  been 
kept  so  largely  in  the  background,  that  he  has  been  looked 
upon  as  a  "  guide,  philosopher,  and  friend,"  and  not  as  one 
whose  duties  it  has  been  to  see  that  the  law  is  complied 
with  in  the  particular  directions  that  come  within  the  scope 
of  the  Act. 

There  may  be  an  early  opportunity  of  looking  a  little 
deeper  into  the  report  in  connection  with  the  studies  as  to 
the  interaction  of  methane  and  ammonia  in  the  presence  of 
carbon.  Meantime,  however,  there  is  rather  an  interestin.; 
point  regarding  the  production  of  sulphate  of  ammonia  in 
this  country.  The  figures  that  we  published  earlier  in  the 
year  from  the  reports  of  Messrs.  Bradbury  and  Hirsch  are 
largely  estimates ;  the  figures  that  are  published  in  the 
annual  report  of  the  Chief  Inspector  are  obtained  direct 
from  the  manufacturers.  In  regard  to  the  total  as  to  pro- 
duction, it  is  remarkable  how  close  Messrs.  Bradbury  and 
Hirsch  get  their  figures;  but  in  the  constituent  items  of  the 
total  for  igog,  according  to  those  now  before  us,  they 
over-estimated,  by  between  6000  and  7000  tons,  the  produc- 
tion of  gas-works  (171,000  tons),  and  Avere  nearly  the  same 
amount  short  in  their  estimate  of  the  production  of  coke- 
ovens,  producer-gas  plants,  &c.  (101,000  tons).  The  more 
definite  figures  of  the  Chief  Inspector  show  a  total  recovery 


1   July  12,  1910.] 

I  ind  production  of  sulphate  of  ammonia  during  the  year  of 
,349,143  tons,  as  compared  with  325,228  tons  in  igo8,  or  an 
increase  of  23,915  tons,  as  compared  with  an  increase  of 
1 11,947  tons  in  igoS  upon  1907.    But  we  have  this  fact  to 
'face,  that  the  whole  of  the  large  increase  of  nearly  24,000 
j  tons  in  1909  came  from  sources  other  than  gas-works — 
^divided  between  coke-oven  works,  18,659  tons;  shale-works 
1 3420  tons  ;  iron-works  2097  tons  ;  and  producer-gas  and  car- 
^bonizing  works,  681  tons.    To  set  against  these  advances, 
there  was  an  actual  decline  from  gas-works  of  942  tons — 
i  164,276  tons,  against  165,218 — compared  with  1908;  and,  to 
I  show  that  this  decline  was  not  a  mere  accidental  or  tempo- 
'  rary  circumstance  of  the  year,  it  may  be  mentioned  that  the 
figures  for  1909  are  short  of  those  for  1907  by  1198  tons. 
^  This  may  appear  to  some  rather  singular,  seeing  that  the 
1,  vokime  of  gas  sold  continues  to  ascend.    The  chief  and 
'  most  probable  explanation  must  be  the  smaller  quantity  of 
coal  that  is  now  required,  under  new  methods  of  carboni- 
zation, for  a  larger  output  of  gas.    If  this  be  the  cause,  there 
is  no  need  for  regret  at  the  shrinkage  of  the  contribution  of 
[  gas-works  to  the  output  of  sulphate  of  ammonia. 

On  the  whole,  during  the  year,  sulphate  of  ammonia 
works  maintained  a  good  reputation.  I'here  were  two  or 
three  complaints  ;  and  they  were  subject  to  remedy.  There 
is  no  need  for  slovenliness,  negligence,  or  nuisance  in  con- 
nection with  sulphate  of  ammonia  plant ;  and  it  is  a  pity 
that  the  inspectors  should  have  any  ground  of  complaint, 
when  a  little  supervision  and  attention  would  obviate  such 
occurrences.  The  use  of  oxide  heaps  is  increasing  for 
arresting  the  sulphuretted  hydrogen  ;  but  in  relation  to  them, 
inattention  in  certain  cases  has  resulted  in  complaint ;  and 
yet  the  steps  were  not  difficult  that  transferred  official 
dissatisfaction  to  satisfaction.  This  makes  the  offence  all 
the  worse. 

!'  Through  Coalite  Glasses. 

The  British  Coalite  Company,  Limited,  have  distributed  a 
circular,  regarding  an  issue  of  ;f30o,ooo  of  5  per  cent.  "  par- 
ticipating "  first  mortgage  debentures.  On  paper,  never  was 
,  so  certain  and  lucrative  an  investment  offered  to  the  public ;  so 
j  certain  and  lucrative  is  it  that  the  Company  are  dangling  before 
[-  the  eyes  of  the  recipients  of  the  circular  a  maximum  interest  of 
i{  10  per  cent.  Ten  per  cent,  on  debentures !  The  debentures  are 
f)  to  receive  a  fixed  interest  of  5  per  cent.,  payable  half-yearly  ;  and 
I  they  are  also  to  participate  up  to  an  additional  5  per  cent,  in  the 
f  profits  of  the  Company  a/tey  the  ordinary  shareholders  have 
f  received  5  per  cent.  The  offer  of  this  magnificent  interest  on 
debentures  is  sufficient  to  make  the  careful  investor  shy,  and 
inquire  why  the  Company  find  it  necessary  to  angle  with  such  a 
big  interest.  It  is  airily  stated  that  it  will  only  require  ;f  125,000 
per  annum  to  pay  this  amount.  Is  it  going  to  be  any  easier  in 
(  the  future  than  in  the  past  to  earn  profits  instead  of  deficits  ?  The 
ordinary  shareholders  hope  it  is ;  but  they  have  already  had  to 
swallow,  with  negative  effect,  some  rather  big  doses  of  Coalite 
prognostications  and  capital  expenditure. 

Past  and  Future. 

It  is  seen  that  the  Company  have  spent  in  erecting  existing 
works  /|"i94,ooo,  apart  from  the  purchase  of  land,  which  has  cost 
about  ;^i65,ooo.  We  take  it  that  the  former  sum  includes  all 
the  rebuilding  work  that  has  been  proceeding,  at  periodical 
intervals  after  experience,  from  the  very  inception  of  the  Com- 
pany. In  view  of  this  reconstruction  work,  it  would  be  interest- 
ing to  know  what  is  meant  by  "  the  battery  has  passed  the  severest 
tests  over  a  lon^  period."  It  is  also  observed  that  the  battery  has 
proved  itself  capable  of  transforming  daily  50  tons  of  coal,  cost- 
about  13s.  per  ton,  into  225,000  cubic  feet  of  gas  of  i8-candle  power, 
38  tons  of  coalite,  and  over  £20  worth  of  bye-products.  If  there 
is  no  mistake  about  these  figures,  the  gas  product  works  out  to  an 
average  of  only  4500  cubic  feet  per  ton,  which  is  not  economical 
working  for  gas-supply  purposes,  seeing  that  12,000  cubic  feet  is 
nearer  the  mark  to  day.  Coalite,  too,  it  is  declared  "has  always 
found  a  very  ready  market  at  22s.  per  ton  net."  We  should  like 
to  know  whether  there  is  any  unsold  coalite  at  Hythe  ;  and,  if 
so,  why  ?  Also,  if  there  is,  whether  this  is  not  the  case  despite  the 
fact  that  the  plant  has  been,  or  was  arranged  to  be,  shut  down  for 
the  summer  months  ?  While  replying  to  these  questions,  it  would 
add  to  our  interest  to  be  informed  whether  there  is  any  undis- 
posed  of  coalite  at  Plymouth.    It  is  also  noticed  that  the  actual 

cost  of  erecting  a  battery  for  50  tons'  daily  carbonization,  and  a 
gas  production  of  225,000  cubic  feet,  is  about  ^"5000 ;  and  it  is 
asserted  the  annual  depreciation  is  "  very  small."  Presumably 
this  means  that  it  is  hoped  the  annual  depreciation  will  be  very 
small.  Hut  with  the  reconstruction  work  that  has  been  going 
on,  we  fail  to  see  how  fair  judgment  can  yet  have  been  made. 
However,  imagination  must  have  reached  the  utmost  possible 
point  when  it  is  said  "  each  battery  hIkhiUI  pay  for  itself  within 
one  year,  and  produce  subsequent  annual  profits  of  at  least  /"5000. 
To  the  fact  that  the  Company  have  not  been  able  to  make 
satisfactory  arrangements  with  gas  companies,  is  ascribed  the 
reason  for  the  absence  in  the  past  of  "  large  dividends."  The 
Directors  now  allege,  however,  that  they  have  demonstrated  to 
gas  companies  that  it  is  profitable  for  them  to  co-operate ;  and 
"  negotiations  are  now  going  on  with  over  forty  companies  who  are 
willing  to  treat  on  the  basis  of  a  working  arrangement  which  will 
give  them  a  handsome  profit,  and  give  to  this  Company  a  mini- 
mum profit  of  /"5000  per  annum  per  battery."  We  shall  see.  But 
people  are  getting  accustomed  to  the  Company's  "  negotiations ; " 
more  so  than  to  their  positive  contracts. 

Gas  in  Industry. 

In  the  gas  industry  we  are  nothing  more  than  shopkeepers 
said  the  (late)  President  of  the  Institution  of  Gas  Engineers  (Mr. 
James  W.  Helps)  in  his  address  to  the  members  less  than  a 
month  since ;  and  the  week  following  this  utterance.  Dr.  E 
Schilling,  in  a  paper  .contributed  to  the  proceedings  at  the  annual 
meeting  of  the  German  Association,  made  use  of  a  very  similar 
remark,  when  he  said  that  gas  suppliers  are  compelled,  like  other 
tradesmen,  to  work-up  their  business.  He  was  dealing  in  his 
paper  with  the  extensive  field  that  industrial  operations  offer  for 
the  use  of  gas  for  heating ;  and  the  paper  (an  abstract  of  which 
was  published  last  week)  will  be  found  to  be  very  suggestive  of 
the  numerous  fields  that  are  open  for  development.  In  turning 
attention  to  the  cultivation  of  the  industrial  side  of  his  business, 
it  is  essential  for  the  gas  engineer  to  make  himself  acquainted 
with  the  trades — large  and  small — followed  in  his  district,  in 
order  to  be  in  a  position  to  recommend  suitable  contrivances 
for  heating  purposes.  Success  in  one  instance  is  bound  to  be 
followed  by  development  in  the  same  branch  of  trade  in  other 
quarters.  There  is  no  question  that  the  possibilities  for  increas- 
ing the  uses  of  gas  for  industrial  purposes  are  wide ;  and  elec- 
tricians have  their  eyes  on  the  same  business.  Week  by  week, 
devices  are  seen  that  electrical  inventors  produce  for,  they  hope, 
inducing  new  business  in  heating;  but  they  labour  under  the 
disadvantage  of  low  efficiency  in  heating  power,  and  therefore  of 
uneconomy.  As  Dr.  Schilling  points  out,  electric  energy  is  the 
dearest  of  all  heating  agents ;  and  it  must  again  and  again  be 
brought  to  the  notice  of  the  public  that  1000  cubic  feet  of  gas 
contain  about  560,000  B.Th.U.,  whereas  a  unit  of  electricity  can, 
in  the  most  favourable  case,  develop  only  342S  B.Th.U.  Taking 
the  local  price  of  the  1000  cubic  feet  of  gas  and  of  the  unit  of 
electricity,  it  is  easy  to  calculate  the  thermal  value  to  be  realized 
for  any  given  expenditure. 

A  Gross  Falsehood. 

The  "  Metalite  "  lamp  has  been  having  it  all  its  own  way 
again  this  last  week  in  the  advertising  pages  of  the  daily  papers ; 
and  it  can  only  be  imagined  that  the  whole  of  this  grandiloquent 
writing,  with  its  sprinkling  of  untruth,  is  going  to  be  crowned  by 
a  prospectus.  Though  this  may  be  so,  certain  of  the  statements 
must  not  go  unheeded  by  the  gas  industry.  Page  advertisements 
last  week  were  headed  :  "  Gas  Superseded  by  Electricity :  Forty 
Hours'  Brilliant  Light  for  One  Penny."  The  public  is  not  in  a 
position  to  judge  that  the  "  brilliant  light  "  cannot  possibly  exceed 
8  candles  (we  have  misgivings  as  to  whether  it  would  reach  that 
figure),  and  that  the  price  taken  for  current  is  only  3d.  per  unit. 
An  8-candle  power  light  is  of  precious  little  use  for  practical 
purposes.  There  is,  however,  ground  for  a  refutation  of  the 
deliberate  untruth  that  is  contained  in  these  advertisements 
when  it  is  said  that  "  to  thoroughly  appreciate  the  value  of  this 
['  Metalite '  lamp]  invention,  it  is  only  necessary  to  point  out  that 
it  has  reduced  the  cost  of  electricity  to  a  figure  much  below  that 
of  gas ;  and  before  the  latter  could  compete  with  that  figure,  it 
would  have  to  be  supplied  at  7ld.  per  1000  cubic  feet."  This  is 
about  as  bad  a  falsehood  as  we  have  ever  seen,  even  in  the  many 
wild  flights  of  our  electrical  competitors.    If  gas  were  at  7.rd.  per 



[July  12,  1910. 

1000  cubic  feet,  id.  would  purchase  133  cubic  feet.  Forty  hours' 
lighting  by  an  S-candle  power  "  Metalite  "  lamp  is  equivalent  to 
320  candle-hours  (;/  the  lamp  has  an  efficiency  of  i  candle  per 
watt).  So  that  the  "  Metalite  "  lamp  people  are  insinuating  that, 
with  incandescent  gas  lighting,  an  efficiency  of  only  candles 
per  cubic  foot  of ■  gas  per  hour  can  be  obtained.  Whereas  if 
i33;cubic  feet  of  gas  could  be  purchased  for  id.,  with  an  efficiency 
of -aot  candles  per  cubic  foot  (using  the  bijou  or  other  inverted 
lamp),  the  result  would  be  .a  total  of  2660  candle-hours  for  id. 
At  a  cost  of  2S.  6d.  per  1000  cubic  feet,  can  a  20-candle  power 
light  be  maintained  for  33  hours  on  a  consumption  of  a  penny- 
worth of  gas,  or,  reducing  to  the  S-candle  power  basis,  for  the 
penny  can  82  hours'  lighting  be  obtained?  If  there  are  any  of 
our  electrical  contemporaries  in  favour  of  honesty  and  truth  in 
commercial  advertising,  they  will  surely  protest  against  this  flag- 
rant instance  of  distortion.  We  hope  that,  if  the  gas  industry  is 
not  prepared  to  immediately  unitedly  move  counteractively  in  the 
publicity  campaign,  that  some  of  the  loyal  concerns  of  the  gas 
industry  will  take  sharp  action  in  putting  the  facts  plainly  before 
the  public. 

The  Humorous  Side  of  Jealousy- 
Jealousy  has  its  humorous  side  ;  and  some  municipal  elec- 
trical managements  stand  in  peril  of  being  heartily  laughed  at 
for  their  childish  and  jealous  behaviour  towards  gas.  Some 
time  ago,  the  Croydon  Gas  Company  advertised  on  the  Corpora- 
tion tramway  tickets;  but  the  Company  were  not  allowed  to 
continue  their  contribution  to  the  revenue  of  the  Corporation  in 
this  way,  on  the  ground  that  it  was  against  the  interests  of  one 
of  the  Corporation  departments.  Much  the  same  thing  has  now 
happened  at  Ilford.  The  Ratepayers'  Association  publish  each 
month  a  little  paper  called  "The  Ratepayer."  In  its  pages,  the 
Council  have  for  some  time  advertised  the  virtues — true  and 
fancied — of  electricity.  The  Gas  Company  have  lately  entered 
the  paper  as  advertisers;  and  it  is  reported  that  the  courageous 
and  generous  Council  have  withdrawn  their  advertisement  "  now 
that  an  opponent  has  been  admitted  to  the  advertising  pages." 
What  folly!  If  the  Council  are  not  careful,  this  kind  of  thing 
will  grow  on  them ;  and  then  it  will  not  be  long  before  they  will 
refuse  to  allow  their  cables  to  continue  in  the  same  roads  as  gas- 
mains.  The  ratepayers  had  better  look  to  it  that  they  get  repre- 
sentatives with  a  little  more  balance  than  men  who  will  descend 
to  such  an  absurdity  as  withdrawing  from  a  periodical  an  adver- 
tisement because  a  competitor  is  permitted  to  have,  as  a  matter 
of  business,  its  announcements  in  the  same  columns. 

Separate  Management. 

The  advertisement  in  last  week's  "Joiknal"  for  an  Engi- 
neer and  Manager  of  the  Leicester  Corporation  Gas  Depart- 
ment, and  the  report  in  our  news  columns  as  to  the  separation 
of  the  management  of  that  department  from  the  electrical, 
raise  the  question  as  to  the  advisability  or  otherwise  of  run- 
ning the  two  undertakings  under  one  management,  as  in  the 
days  of  the  late  Mr.  Alfred  Colson.  Leicester  has  nothing  to 
regret  in  having  placed  the  two  undertakings  under  the  charge 
of  their  late  Gas  and  Electrical  Engineer.  He  worked  with  an 
eye  to  economy  and  efficiency,  as  well  as  with  impartiality.  But 
we  do  know  that  his  private  feelings  were  not  long  since  that,  if 
he  had  had  the  Gas  Department  only  to  deal  with,  and  had  not 
had  to  adopt  the  impartial  attitude  that  his  dual  responsibility 
imposed  on  him,  he  could  have  done  better  still  for  the  interests 
of  the  Gas  Department.  On  the  other  hand,  severance  will 
not  assist  economical  administration ;  and  certain  it  is  there 
will  arise,  if  not  on  the  surface,  below  it,  a  fairly  sharp  competi- 
tion between  the  separated  departments.  According  to  Alderman 
Smith,  the  Chairman  of  the  Gas  and  Electric  Lighting  Com- 
mittee, it  has  been  alleged  that  the  electricity  undertaking  has 
not  had  a  fair  chance  in  competition  with  gas  for  lighting  pur- 
poses;  and  it  is  contended  by  those  who  so  allege  that,  under 
separate  management,  it  could  do  much  better.  With  the  allega- 
tion we  do  not  agree ;  and  with  separate  management  the  keen 
competition  will  not  be  all  on  the  side  of  electricity.  But  on  the 
whole  perhaps  severance  is  the  better  way  to  ensure  impartiality 
at  all  times.  We  do  not  think  we  should  feel  disposed  to  ap- 
plaud the  Leicester  Corporation  if  they  put  a  trained  Electrical 
Engineer  in  charge  of  both  the  gas  and  electrical  undertakings. 

The  Organization  of  Labour. 

Some  interesting  details  with  regard  to  financial  resources 
were  given  at  the  eleventh  annual  general  council  meeting  of  the 
General  Federation  of  Trade  Unions,  which  was  held  last  week 
at  Swansea.  The  proceedings  included  an  address  by  the  Presi- 
dent, Alderman  Allen  Gee,  who,  in  the  course  of  his  remarks, 
explained  that  during  the  past  year  six  Societies  bad  been  added 
to,  and  two  withdrawn  from,  the  Federation;  the  net  gain  for  the 
twelve  months  being  thus  four  Societies,  with  5153  members. 
Comparing  the  number  of  Societies  aililiated  at  the  end  of  the 
first  year  with  the  number  to-day,  they  found  that  there  had  been 
an  increase  of  102  Societies.  The  reserve  fund  at  the  end  of  the 
first  year  was  /"1284 ;  and  this  increased,  until  in  igo8  the  fund 
amounted  to  ;f  162, 210.  In  igog,  the  reserve  was  drawn  upon 
to  meet  calls  for  large  disputes,  including  one  on  the  north- 
east coast  and  one  in  the  cotton  trade.  But  he  was  glad  to  say 
that  at  the  end  of  March  this  year  the  reserve  fund  in  hand  was 
close  on  /^ioo,ooo;  and  at  the  end  of  June  the  Treasurer  reported 
to  the  Executive  that  it  was  over  ;^io4,ooo.  One  branch  of  the 
work  of  the  Federation,  according  to  the  President,  has  been  to 
help  to  mould  public  opinion  and  shape  legislation  for  the  benefit  of 
the  large  mass  of  the  workers  of  the  country.  A  share  is  claimed 
in  the  movement  which  resulted  in  the  forniatiou  of  the  Labour 
Exchanges;  but  as  "everybody  now  knows"  these  "only  mean 
the  registering  of  the  unemployed,"  the  Federation  are  not  likely 
to  rest  satisfied  with  this  achievement.  In  fact,  the  President 
already  urges  that  it  is  clearly  the  duty  of  the  State  to  do  some- 
thing further  with  regard  to  finding  work.  "  The  right  to  work  " 
is  put  down  by  him  as  being  the  most  pressing  subject  for  legis- 
lation, after  the  Government's  present  proposals  to  go  a  step 
further  on  the  lines  of  insurance  for  the  unemployed  have  come 
to  fruition.  Another  matter  to  which  the  Federation  are  devoting 
their  energies  is  the  overcoming  of  the  difficulty  (for  Labour 
Members  of  Parliament)  created  by  the  decision  that  no  Trade 
Union  funds  can,  under  the  present  law,  be  utilized  for  political 
purposes.  The  Federation,  like  other  labour  organization  bodies, 
find  that  there  is  now  no  lack  of  subjects  to  discuss,  and  one 
cannot  suppose  that  there  ever  will  be. 

In  London  Suburbs. 

Mr.  Charles  Carpenter,  in  February  last  year,  was  telling  the 
proprietors  of  the  South  Metropolitan  Gas  Company  of  the  migra- 
tory habits  of  residents  in  Suburbia ;  and  of  how  at  that  time  the 
Company  had  no  less  than  18,000  services  laid  representing  capital 
expended,  but  producing  no  revenue,  through  empty  property. 
In  some  of  the  suburban  districts,  development  has  been  going 
on  apace  during  the  last  decade ;  for  in  that  period  80,000  houses 
have  been  built  in  twenty  of  the  principal  London  suburbs  outside 
the  county,  and  32,000  in  Wandsworth,  Woolwich,  and  Lewisham. 
Wandsworth  takes  the  lead  with  20,000  houses.  The  largest 
amount  of  building  in  the  outer  suburbs  took  place  in  Croydon, 
where  13,000  houses  were  erected  ;  and  in  Ilford  the  progress  has. 
been,  on  an  average,  1000  houses  a  year.  Willesden  has  added; 
8000  houses  in  the  ten  years.  West  Ham  7000,  Lewisham  8000, 
Leyton  7000,  Ealing  6000,  Wimbledon  4400,  Woolwich  4300. 
A  decline,  however,  set  in  in  igo7 ;  and  builders  are  beginning  to^ 
hope  that,  after  three  years'  depression,  there  will  be  a  revival. 
Building  booms  generally  run  in  cycles  of  seven  years.  Develop- 
ment of  the  kind,  however,  does  not  mean  all  grist  to  the  gas 
companies,  as  the  new  houses  attract  the  people  from  the  old; 
and  the  new  houses  mean  fresh  capital  expenditure. 

Sir  J.  J.  Thomson,  F.R.S.,  Cavendish  Professor  of  Experi- 
mental Physics  in  the  University  of  Cambridge,  has  been  elected 
President  of  the  Junior  Institution  of  Engineers,  in  succession  to 
Sir  Henry  J.  Oram,  K.C.B.,  Engineer-in-Chief  of  the  Fleet. 

The  pavilion  of  the  Belgian  Association  of  Gas  Managers  at 
the  Brussels  Exhibition  contains  some  framed  particulars  in 
regard  to  the  gas  supply  of  Belgium.  There  are  igo  communes 
served  by  70  gas-works,  the  annual  consumption  of  coal  in  which 
is  840,000  tons,  producing  rather  more  than  gooo  million  cubic 
feet.  The  population  lighted  is  3,054,000 ;  the  supply  per  head 
being,  in  round  numbers,  3000  cubic  feet. 

There  has  just  been  completed  at  the  Coatbridge  Gas- Works 
by  the  Whessoe  Foundry  Company,  Limited,  a  set  of  four  30  feet 
square  purifiers.  P'rom  the  date  of  commencement  of  erection 
until  the  last  box  was  working,  only  eleven  weeks  elapsed.  The 
plant  is  to  replace  the  purifiers  destroyed  by  an  explosion  which 
occurred  on  the  loth  of  February  last,  photographs  of  the  wreck- 
age of  which  appeared  at  the  time  in  the  "  Journal," 

1   July  12, 1910.] 




'  (For  Stock  and  Share  List,  see  p.  139.) 

I  Once  again  the  American  Market  with  its  enormous  operations 
has  been  the  controlling  factor.  Prices  wildly  and  widely  oscil- 
!  lated,  according  as  bull  or  bear  rumours  (more  or  less  fabulous) 
gained  credence  ;  but  the  fair  weather  prophets  had  the  best  of  it 
at  the  close.  All  this  sort  of  thing  had  a  disturbinginfluence,  and 
<  even  the  most  staid  and  respectable  lines  felt  it.  Business  was, 
I  of  course,  at  low  pressure  ;  and  the  counter-charms  of  Henley 
,  and  Lord's  were  responsible  for  several  absentees.  The  opening 
day  was  very  fair.  The  gilt-edged  class  were  firm,  Railways  were 
■  cheerful,  and  the  Foreign  Market  calm.  Tuesday  began  well ;  but 
0  another  bad  fall  in  Americans  took  the  rosy  colour  out.  Consols 
fell  5,  and  the  tendency  generally  was  weaker.  Wednesday  was 
dull  and  heavy,  still  oppressed  by  the  American  incubus.  Consols 
fell  another  ^  ;  and  most  of  the  gilt-edged  division  and  Kails  were 
lower.  On  Thursday,  obedient  to  promptings  from  New  York,  a 
better  tone  was  set.  A  recovery  was  made  in  the  lines  which 
had  given  way  the  day  before  ;  Consols  rising  g.  Friday  was  a 
quiet  day;  and,  with  an  upward  movement  in  Americans,  most 
departments  were  pretty  firm.  But  on  Saturday  a  dull  tone 
was  imparted  by  a  bad  move  in  New  York.  This,  after  some 
see-sawing,  was  quite  dispelled,  but  too  late  to  help  the  general 
markets.  Consols  fell  another  J.  The  Money  Market  was  most 
irregular.  Kates  were  at  first  fairly  easy,  but  hardened  later 
on,  and  then  eased  away  again  at  the  close.  Business  in  the  Gas 
Market  was  about  on  a  level  with  the  previous  week  in  point  of 
aggregate  volume,  but  it  was  better  distributed  through  the  list. 
The  tendency  was  good  ;  the  bigger  issues  being  especially  con- 
spicuous for  their  firmness.  In  Gaslight  and  Coke,  the  ordinary 
was  not  very  active  but  was  very  strong.  One  bargain  was  done 
at  104  J,  but  almost  the  next  was  at  105,  to  be  followed  later  on  by 
a  mark  of  105I — a  rise  of  In  the  secured  issues,  the  preference 
changed  hands  at  from  104  to  104],  and  the  debenture  at  from 
80^  to  815.  South  Metropolitan  was  dealt  in  at  close  figures — 
within  the  limits  of  121  j  and  122.  The  debenture  marked  from 
8oi  to  8i\.  In  Commercials,  the  4  per  cent,  realized  108^  and 
io8g,  and  the  3.'  per  cent.  103'  and  105.  Among  the  Suburban 
and  Provincial  group.  Alliance  and  Dublin  was  done  at  81^, 
Bournemouth  "  B  "  at  i6y,  British  at  from  44  to  45,  Brentford  old 
at  254,  ditto  new  at  i8g  and  igo,  ditto  debenture  at  gg.}.  South 
Suburban  at  121^,  Tottenham  "  A  "  at  133,  and  ditto  "  B  at  113.T. 
On  the  local  Exchanges,  Liverpool  "A"  was  dealt  in  at  2ig|  and 
220,  ditto  "  B"  at  164^,  and  Newcastle  at  1035 — a  rise  of  i.  In 
the  Continental  companies,  Imperial  marked  lygj  and  180, 
Union  94  (a  fall  of  i),  European  fully-paid  24^,  and  Tuscan  gi. 
Among  the  undertakings  of  the  remoter  world,  Bombay  changed 
hands  at  61',,  Cape  Town  mortgage  at  49??  and  49 J,  Oriental  at 
139-4,  Primitiva  at  from  7',  to  y^\^,  ditto  preference  at  from  5;^  to 
5J5,  ditto  debenture  at  gyi,  River  Plate  debenture  at  98,  and  San 
Paulo  at  15I. 


The  New  Factory  Regulations — Safety  and  Ignorance— Electricity 
Users  and  Expert  Advice— Exposed  Instructions  for  Treatment 
of  Shock  Victims— Non-Fatal  and  Fatal  Accidents— A  Magneto- 
Ignition  Fatality— Toppin's  Plan— Wiring  Scheme  Experience. 

A  THOROUGH  examination  of  electrical  installations  in  factories 
and  workshops  discloses  a  surprising  amount  of  defective  work. 
This,  applying  to  one  class  of  installation,  would  certainly  do  so 
to  other  classes ;  for  one  class  of  work  would  hardly  have  been 
picked  out  for  so  much  blundering  and  so  many  inherent  weak- 
nesses as  have  been  discovered  in  factories  and  workshops — 
necessitating  the  new  regulations  applying  to  such  premises  that 
came  into  force  on  July  i  last  year.  One  has  only  to  read  the 
section  of  the  annual  report  under  the  Factories  and  Workshops 
Act  for  which  the  Electrical  Inspector  of  Factories  (Mr.  G.  Scott 
Ram)  is  responsible,  to  see  that  there  has  been  found  to  exist 
an  almost  general  deficiency  from  the  standard  set  up  by  the  new 
regulations— a  standard  that  experience  suggested  should,  for 
safety,  be  higher  than  was  previously  the  case.  Much  time  was 
spent  during  the  year  over  the  coming  into  force  of  the  regula- 
tions ;  and  there  hao  been  an  evident  desire  on  the  part  of  Mr. 
Rarn  and  his  staff  to  render  as  much  aid  as  possible  in  the  way  of 
advice.  A  number  of  visits  were  paid  to  factories,  at  the  request 
of  the  owners,  respecting  the  application  of  the  regulations  to  the 
premises;  and  much  time  was  also  devoted  to  considering  and 
discussing  with  manufacturers  new  designs  and  methods  that 
would  conform  to  requirements. 

There  is  an  unspoken  reflection  in  all  this  upon  that  much 
abused  characteristic  of  electric  supply — safety.  We  had  almost 
written  "danger."  It  is  said  in  the  report  that  "owing  to  its 
highly  technical  nature,  electricity  is  a  subject  that  is  not  easily 
understood  by  the  ordinary  person."  We  firmly  believed  this 
long  before  the  statement  came  from  the  pen  of  the  l':iectrical 
Inspector  of  Factories.  But,  in  order  to  render  instruction,  Mr. 
Ram  some  time  since  issued  an  extensive  memorandum  dealing 
with  each  regulation,  which,  it  is  hoped,  will  be  of  great  use  for 
the  guidance  not  only  of  occupiers,  but  also  of  inspectors.  See- 
ing that  explanations  of  the  explanatory  statements  have  been 

asked  for,  it  would  seem  that  the  memorandum  has  not  been 
altogether  successful  in  its  mission.  With  all  the  regulations, 
and  with  all  the  instruction  as  to  their  meanings,  it  is  observed 
that  Mr.  Scott  Ram  still  finds  "  much  ignorance  "  is  prevalent 
among  "small  users  who  do  not  employ  electrical  engineers  on 
their  premises."  No  doubt  it  is  preferable— electricity  being  of 
"  such  a  highly  technical  nature  " — that  small  users  should  keep 
an  electrical  engineer  on  their  premises  permanently  standing 
guard  ;  but  if  they  cannot  afford  to  do  this,  then  the  small  users, 
who  have  not  the  necessary  technical  knowledge  and  experience, 
should  undoubtedly  adopt  the  counsel  of  the  I'^lectrical  Inspector, 
and  seek  proper  expert  advice,  and  not  rely  merely  on  a  bell- 
hanger  or  house  decorator.  But  it  is  not  only  among  ignorant 
users  that  expert  advice  is  required,  but  among  men  who  are 
supposed  to  be  qualified  electricians.  Numerous  accidents  are 
reported  ;  and  of  them  thirteen  were  due  to  short-circuits  by  men 
engaged  in  working  on  live  switchboards  at  low  or  medium  pres- 
sure, and  in  several  cases  the  resulting  injuries  were  extremely 
severe.  Most  of  these  accidents  appear  to  have  been  due  to  the 
want  of  elementary  precautions.  One  was  due  to  the  "  elec- 
trician "  taking  measurements  of  the  switchboard  with  a  steel 
rule.  There  is  a  stinging  rebuke  by  Mr.  Ram  in  his  comment : 
"  People  who  make  this  particular  variety  of  accident  would 
probably  also  look  for  a  gas  escape  with  a  match."  If  there  is 
such  carelessness  on  the  part  of  electrically-trained  men  in  one 
place,  it  is  pretty  certain  that  similar  carelessness  will  be  found  in 
other  places  where  factory  and  workshop  inspectors  do  not  pene- 
trate, and  where  there  is  no  real  supervising  authority. 

Further  regarding  the  question  of  "  safety,"  it  is  advised  that 
printed  notices  should  be  prominent  where  danger  may  lurk. 
But  these  should  not  be  relied  upon  solely  for  protection.  It  is 
a  singular  thing  that  electricians  do  not  like  warnings  of  any  kind 
to  be  seen  in  connection  with  electricity,  although  it  is  classed 
as  a  "  dangerous  trade."  When  the  new  regulations  were  being 
considered  in  draft  form,  objection  was  even  taken  to  the  exhibi- 
tion, though  highly  essential,  of  illustrated  cards  in  factories, 
showing  the  method  of  treating  persons  suffering  from  electric 
shock,  on  the  ground  that  this  would  unnecessarily  frighten  work- 
people, and  retard  the  use  of  electricity.  Mr.  Ram  has  found  no 
evidence  to  support  the  contention.  On  the  contrary,  he  has 
seen  notices  exhibited  by  conscientious  employers;  but  some  of 
them  carry  warning  a  bit  too  far.  In  one  case,  for  example,  Mr. 
Ram  found  a  skull  and  cross-bones  above  the  words  "  Sudden 
Death."  It  is  not  pleasant  to  be  for  ever  reminded  that  "  in  the 
midst  of  life  we  are  in  death."  Such  a  constant  reminder  does 
not  assist  to  make  a  joy  of  one's  occupation.  Besides,  it  is  un- 
necessary. It  is  quite  sufficient  to  have  a  prominent  warning  at 
danger-points ;  and  illustrated  directions  as  to  treatment  for 
shock  should  be  regarded  as  indispensable  in  all  factories  in 
which  electricity  is  employed. 

Although  the  new  regulations  came  into  force  on  July  i  last 
year,  and  consequently  there  must  earlier  in  the  year  have  been 
much  work  going  forward  to  bring  about  compliance  with  them, 
there  is  no  noticeable  difference  in  the  number  of  electrical  acci- 
dents recorded  in  the  report  for  the  whole  year.  Omitting  the 
non-electrical  accidents,  and  taking  only  the  electrical  ones  at 
generating-stations  and  sub-stations,  it  is  seen  that  at  company 
and  local  authority  stations  there  were  54  non-fatal  accidents 
and  4  fatal  ones  ;  while  at  privately  owned  stations,  there  were  32. 
The  total  number  of  accidents  is  practically  identical  with  that 
of  the  previous  year,  though  somewhat  fewer  occurred  in  public 
stations,  and  more  in  private  ones.  Against  the  four  fatalities  of  the 
year,  only  two  were  recorded  the  preceding  year.  When  we  turn 
to  the  statistics  as  to  reported  electrical  accidents  in  factories, 
engineering  works,  &c.,  other  than  electrical  generating-stations 
and  sub-stations,  it  is  seen  that  there  were  no  less  than  24g  (27 
more  than  in  igo8)  non-fatal  electrical  accidents  and  8  fatal  ones 
(4  less).  Of  the  accidents  with  portable  apparatus,  23  were  due 
to  burns  from  short-circuits  or  shock  when  handling  flexible  wires, 
which  are  frequently  insufficiently  protected  against  damage,  to 
which  they  are  particularly  liable  in  factories  and  engineering 
works.  Twelve  were  due  to  short-circuits  at  connectors  when 
plugging  in  or  out ;  the  operator  getting  his  hand  severely  burned. 
Three  accidents  were  due  to  shocks  from  portable  lamps — one 
being  fatal,  and  this  on  a  250-volt  alternating  current !  The 
danger  from  shock  to  men  when  working  at  heights  is  illustrated 
by  a  non-fatal  one,  in  which  serious  injuries  occurred  to  the  victim 
by  falling  from  an  iron  platform  13  feet  from  the  floor.  In  this 
case  the  pressure  was  105  volts  only.  A  similar  accident  was 
due  to  a  portable  breast  drill.  The  accidents  from  unprotected 
conductors  include  six  fatalities.  One  of  these  occurred  on  a 
230-volt  single-phase  alternating  system.  A  lighting  wire,  having 
no  protection  beyond  the  ordinary  covering  of  insulating  material, 
was  attached  to  a  wooden  beam.  A  sling  had  been  put  round 
the  beam,  and  a  block  and  tackle  were  suspended  therefrom  for 
lifting  an  iron  plate  weighing  ^  ton.  The  chain  cut  through  the 
insulating  material  of  the  wire,  and  the  whole  tackle  and  iron 
plate  became  alive.  Two  men  received  shocks — one  being  killed. 
The  danger  to  workers  from  electric  light  extinction  is  exemplified 
by  the  case,  in  the  Bristol  district,  of  a  man  falling  down  a  ship's 
hold,  through  the  sudden  collapse  of  the  electric  light.  The  point 
is  well  worth  consideration  by  employers,  many  of  whom  who  use 
electrical  energy  know  something  about  the  trouble  caused  by 
machine  and  works  stoppage  through  cessation  of  the  supply  of 
energy  from  the  town  service. 

There  is  one  fatal  accident  not  classified  as  electrical,  but  in 



[July  12,  1910. 

which  electricity  was  concerned,  which  will  be  particularly  in- 
teresting to  gas  engineers.  It  occurred  in  connection  with  the 
magneto-ignition  of  a  gas-engine.  The  engine  had  stopped 
through  the  failure  of  the  ignition.  The  attendant  was  slackening 
the  bolts  of  the  ignition  plug,  in  order  to  withdraw  it  for  examina- 
tion, and  had  partially  removed  it  when,  accidentally,  he  knocked 
against  the  lever  of  the  magneto  machine,  causing  a  spark  at  the 
plug,  and  the  ignition  of  the  explosive  charge  in  the  cylinder, 
which,  finding  a  vent  round  the  partially  removed  plug,  severely 
burned  him.  The  obvious  precautiou  of  disconnecting  the  wire 
between  the  magneto  and  the  plug  before  slackening  the  bolts  had 
been  neglected. 

Turning  to  matters  of  another  character,  we  have  that,  for 
station  engineers,  perennially  interesting  question  of  the  charges 
for  electric  supply  brought  before  us  in  an  article  (published  by 
the  "  Electrical  Review  ")  by  Mr.  W.  A.  Toppin,  headed  "  Systems 
of  Charging  and  Metal  Filament  Lamps."  The  first  sentence  of 
the  article  is  pristine  in  the  matter  of  its  intelligence.  "  Electricity 
supply  authorities  have  universally  felt  the  advent  of  the  metallic 
filament  lamp."  No  one  has  said  they  have  not ;  no  one  is  better 
aware  of  the  fact  than  electricity  supply  authorities  themselves  ; 
and  they  do  not  want  to  be  publicly  reminded  of  the  fact.  Con- 
sidering the  causes  of  the  metallic  lamp  effect,  it  is  pointed  out 
that  the  electricity  supplier  sells  energy  and  not  light ;  and  there- 
fore, unless  a  consumer  trebles  or  quadruples  the  amount  of  light 
he  obtained  with  carbon  lamps,  the  quantity  of  energy  he  uses 
will  be  decreased  by  using  the  new  lamps.  The  small  lighting 
consumer  becomes  hardly  worth  supplying,  owing  to  his  modest 
consumption  of  energy.  The  low  loads  at  which  his  meter  nor- 
mally works  are  more  difficult  to  measure  accurately  than  the 
higher  loads  demanded  by  the  larger  consumer.  To  get  over 
this  difficulty,  several  towns  have  dispensed  with  meters  for  this 
class  of  consumer.  To  bring  up  the  revenue,  station  engineers 
are  obliged  to  rely  on  increasing  the  number  of  the  consumers ; 
and  this  means  increased  expenditure  on  services  and  cables. 
The  capital  charges  on  the  undertaking  are  thus  increased.  From 
this  indication  of  points  in  the  article,  it  is  clear  that  Mr.  Toppin 
thinks  the  situation  is  not  altogether  a  rosy  one.  But  he  has  a 
plan  for  giving  relief,  not  only  to  the  station  engineer,  but  to  the 
British  lamp  manufacturer,  and  so  away  with  metallic  filaments 
of  German  production.  The  plan  seems  to  be  this,  that  the  car- 
bon filament  lamp  costs  less  than  the  metallic  filament,  and  has  a 
long  life  ;  and  as  the  high  voltage  metallic  filament  lamp  does  not 
burn  equally  well  in  any  position,  and  does  not  stand  frequent  hand- 
ling and  much  vibration,  the  consumer  will  prefer  the  carbon  lamp 
that  has  not  these  defects.  Mr.  Toppin  wants  to  make  it  a  matter 
of  indifference  to  the  consumer  whether  he  uses  carbon  filament 
or  metallic  filament  lamps,  so  as  to  encourage  the  use  of  the  former. 
He  thinks  this  is  to  be  effected  by  the  system  of  a  fixed  annual  or 
quarterly  charge,  and  id.  per  unit  for  all  electricity  used.  We 
do  not  follow  the  argument  as  to  how  this  will  cultivate  favour  for 
carbon  filament  lamps;  but  Mr.  Toppin  seems  to  think  it  will,  so 
that  it  must  be  all  right. 

Of  the  making  of  plans  to  stimulate  consumption,  there  is  no 
end.  A  report  on  a  scheme  has  just  come  from  I^oplar ;  but 
it  does  not  read  as  though  there  is  any  great  enthusiasm  over 
the  matter,  or  over  the  experience  on  which  certain  recommen- 
dations are  based.  It  is  evident  that  the  experience  does  not 
support  the  Electricity  Committee  in  striking  out  boldly  in  the 
same  direction,  but  only  to  make  further  tentative  efforts.  In 
March,  igocj,  the  Council  approved  the  wiring  of  25  houses,  at  a 
tariff  of  i2j  per  cent,  on  the  cost  of  installation  to  cover  interest, 
depreciation,  and  repairs,  with  a  further  charge  of  £4  per  annum 
per  kilowatt  in  respect  of  the  capacity  of  the  lamps  connected, 
and  £1  per  kilowatt  for  heating,  &c.,  plus  ^d.  a  unit  in  each  case 
for  all  current  consumed — lighting  in  cellars,  lavatories,  &c.,  not 
extensively  used  at  the  time  of  maximum  load,  being  charged  at 
the  same  rate  as  for  heating.  The  Electricity  Committee  report 
that  the  results  "  appear  "  to  have  been  satisfactory;  and  they 
are  of  opinion  that  this  class  of  installation  may  be  usefully 
extended.  Appear  !  Are  the  Committee  so  uncertain  that  they 
cannot  speak  a  little  more  definitely?  It  is  suggested  that  a 
similar  system  of  charging  should  be  adopted  in  respect  of  light- 
ing business  premises ;  but  in  these  cases,  while  the  charge  for 
consumed  current  will  remain  the  same,  it  is  proposed  to  fix  the 
rate  per  kilowatt  installed  at  for  inside  lighting  and  £6  los. 
for  outside  arc  lighting — the  latter  demand  coming  only  partially 
on  the  peak  of  the  load.  With  regard  to  power  consumers,  it  is 
intended  to  establish  a  general  rate  of  ^"4  per  kilowatt  demanded, 
plus  ^d.  per  unit  for  all  current  consumed  (discarding  the  rate  of 
£^  per  kilowatt  and  8d.  per  unit),  and  to  offer  rebates  to  large 
consumers.  The  Committee  only  recommend  that  authority  be 
given  to  wire  a  certain  number  of  premises,  not  exceeding  50,  for 
domestic  and  business  supplies,  on  the  terms  and  conditions  here 
stated,  at  a  cost  not  exceeding  £20  for  any  one  installation ;  also 
that  the  proposed  rate  for  direct-current  power  be  £4  per  kilowatt 
demanded,  with  ^d.  per  unit  for  the  current  suppUed,  subject  to 
rebates.  The  Council  ought  not  to  concur  in  any  such  proposal 
until  the  Committee  can  use  a  more  definite  word  than  "  appear." 

A  banquet  is  to  be  given  early  in  November,  at  the  Savoy 
Hotel,  to  the  five  Past- Presidents  of  the  Chemical  Society  (Pro- 
fessor William  Odling,  Sir  Henry  E.  Roscoe,  Sir  William  Crookes, 
Dr.  Hugo  Miiller,  and  Dr.  A.  G.  Vernon  Harcourt),  who  have  now 
attained  their  jubilee  as  Fellows  of  the  Society. 


The  great  feature  of  the  week  has  been  the  fight  over  the  Standard 
Burners  Bills,  about  which  more  in  succeeding  paragraphs.  The 
Liverpool  Gas  Company,  who  have  now,  through  their  excep- 
tional circumstances,  a  Bill  all  to  themselves,  commenced  their 
innings  on  Friday  afternoon.  There  is  not  much  more  contested 
Private  Bill  work  of  any  kind  to  receive  attention ;  and  if  there  were, 
there  would  be  very  little  time  to  give  to  it,  seeing  that  talk  in  the 
lobbies  is  as  to  it  being  almost  certain  now  that  the  House  of 
Commons  will  rise  some  time  the  last  week  of  this  month  for  a 
holiday  period,  and  will  reassemble  for  an  "  autumn "  session 
early  in  November. 

Standard  Burner  Bills,  f/'J^^  ^h^f,^  'l^^/^f  "  are  published, 

we  shall  be  at  the  final  stage  of  the  Stan- 
dard Burner  Bills,  which  will  be  historic  in  the  struggle  of  the 
gas  industry  for  fair  and  open  treatment  in  the  conduct  and  the 
control  of  their  business.  There  is  only  the  special  case  of  the 
Liverpool  Gas  Company  to  be  considered  now  (with  it  a  start  was 
made  on  Friday)  ;  and  then  the  Committee  will  give  their  decision 
on  the  whole  of  the  measures.  Though  the  number  of  opponents 
had  decreased  considerably,  there  was  no  lessening  of  the  mass 
of  evidence  to  which  Sir  Henry  Kimber  and  his  colleagues  had  to 
listen ;  and  though  to  those  who  have  followed  the  struggle  from 
the  beginning,  there  was  nothing  really  new  in  the  several  features 
of  the  case  pro  and  con,  one  could  not  help  feeling,  throughout  the 
proceedings  from  Monday  morning  to  Friday  afternoon,  that  there 
was  something  important  at  stake,  and  interest  was  kept  at  high 
level  the  whole  while.  The  manner  in  which  the  case  was  con- 
ducted for  the  promoters  was  worthy  the  big  cause ;  and  let  it 
here  be  said  that  the  organization  of  the  case  by  Messrs.  K.  W. 
Cooper  and  Sons,  and  their  watchful  care  from  the  very  intro- 
duction of  the  Bills  to  the  present  time,  deserve  the  highest 
praise.  They  and  all  associated  in  the  promoters'  case  have 
worked  hard  and  persistently  for  victory,  believing  fully  in  the  jus- 
tice of  what  they  have  asked  for  ;  and  we  hope  next  week  to  re- 
cord that  the  laurels  are  completely  theirs.  The  Hon.  J.  D.  Fitz- 
gerald, K.C.,  Mr.  Honoratus  Lloyd,  Mr.  C.  C.  Hutchinson,  and 
Mr.  A.  M.  Paddon  were  Counsel  for  the  Bill.  On  the  opposing 
side,  representing  various  bodies,  were  Mr.  Balfour  Browne,  K.C. 
(Mersey  Docks  and  Harbour  Board),  Mr.  Ram,  K.C,  Mr.  Talbot, 
K.C,  and  Mr.  Courthope  Munroe.  The  legal  forces  were  strong  ; 
and  not  less  so  the  expert  representation  that  had  been  chosen 
on  behalf  of  the  promoters.  Naming  them  in  the  order  in  which 
they  were  called,  there  were  Mr.  Charles  Carpenter,  Professor 
Vivian  B.  Lewes,  Mr.  W.  J.  A.  Butterfield,  Mr.  Corbet  Woodall, 
Mr.  Alex.  Wilson,  Mr.  H.  E.  Jones,  Mr.  William  Cash,  Mr.  W.  C 
Young,  Mr.  C.  E.  Botley,  and  Mr.  Robert  Beynon.  Mr.  Car- 
penter, Mr.  Butterfield,  and  Mr.  E.  H.  Stevenson  were  in  close 
consultative  attendance  on  Counsel.  The  opposing  bodies  called 
Mr.  T.  S.  Berry,  Mr.  Benjamin  F.  Meadows,  Mr.  A.  G.  Smith, 
Professor  Percy  Frankland,  Mr.  Isaac  Carr,  and  Mr.  J.  G.  New- 
bigging,  upon  the  three  latter  of  whom  fell  the  full  force  of  the 
promoters'  resistance. 

We  heard  once  more  of  the  injustice  of  the  old  burner  to  those 
gas  undertakings  supplying  grades  of  gas  other  than  16  candles  ; 
we  re-traversed  the  history  of  gas  supply  from  the  time  when 
Parliament  gave  gas  suppliers  the  right  to  a  burner  that  should 
show  the  maximum  illuminating  power  of  the  gas  ;  we  heard  how 
Parliament  had  consistently  maintamed  that  principle  in  all  their 
dealings  with  gas  suppliers;  we  heard,  too,  how  the  old  burner 
distorted  the  differences  between  readings  by  it  and  by  the 
No.  2  burner  through  its  unsuitability  with  gases  other  than  that 
for  which  it  was  made  ;  and  there  was  only  one  dissentient — Mr. 
Isaac  Carr — to  the  No.  2  being  the  most  accurate  burner  for  ob- 
taining relative  results  with  all  grades  of  gas.  But  there  was  the 
"  contract "  between  gas  suppliers  and  consumers,  in  which  the  oppo- 
nents would  insert  the  test-burner  as  a  fixed  condition,  only  subject 
to  revision  by  giving  compensation  to  flat-flame  laggards.  P'or 
their  sake,  and  theirs  alone,  gas  companies  must  be  tied  hand 
and  foot,  to  ensure  them  this  compensation,  while  the  gas  con- 
sumers of  local  authorities  who  adopt  the  burner  must  take  their 
chance  of  getting  something,  unless  Parliament  positively  com- 
mands that  any  profits  are  utilized  for  the  benefit  of  the  under- 
taking and  of  the  consumers.  Little,  however,  was  said  about 
the  imposition  of  a  calorific  power  test.  So  we  went  on  over  the 
ground  that  has  been  traversed  again  and  again,  and  in  every 
particular,  but  a  few  weeks  since  in  the  Lords.  We  will  not 
attempt  to  review  it  all  here.  Comment  is  made  in  our  editorial 
columns  on  the  opposition  case;  and  touching  that  case.  Pro- 
fessor Frankland,  Mr.  Carr,  and  Mr.  Newbigging  will  not  soon 
forget  the  trenchant  cross-examination  that  they  underwent  at  the 
hands  of  Mr.  Honoratus  Lloyd,  whose  powerful  speech,  in  reply 
on  Bills  Nos.  1,2,  and  3  stands  as  an  unanswerable  casein  favour 
of  the  new  standard  burner.  It  will  be  found  fully  reported 
in  our  "  Parliamentary  Intelligence  ;  "  and  it  should  be  read  by 
all  gas  men.  The  desire  of  the  Committee  to  thoroughly  under- 
stand the  use  of  the  burners  led  them  on  Thursday  night  to  the 
Craven  Street  testing-room  of  the  London  County  Council, 
accompanied  (among  others)  by  Mr.  Charles  Carpenter,  Mr. 
Isaac  Carr,  and  junior  Counsel  (Mr.  Hutchinson  and  Mr.  Court- 
hope  Munroe). 

1    July  12,  1910.] 



T  I  As  was  mentioned  last  week  in  the  con- 

GlasSow  paragraph  of  the  "  Notes  "  refer- 

°    '  ring  to  the  proceedings  on  the  Glasgow 

Bill,  the  Corporation  Gas  Department  are  thoroughly  satisfied  with 
their  Bill  as  it  now  stands.  Its  position  has  been,  between  the 
House  of  Commons  and  the  House  of  Lords,  materially  altered,  to 
the  commercial  advantage  of  both  gas  undertaking  and  consumers. 
There  is  nogrief  on  the  part  of  the  Gas  Department,  and  we  think  it 
may  be  said  of  the  major  part  of  the  Corporation,  that  there  has 
been  a  withdrawal  of  the  (almost  unexercised)  liberty  to  take  from 
the  profits  of  the  gas  undertaking  and  distribute  them  among 
the  ratepayers,  who,  qua  ratepayers,  have  never  been  asked  for  a 
penny-piece  in  support  of  the  concern.  But  there  is  rejoicing 
that  the  rigidity  in  regard  to  charges  that  existed  as  the  Bill  passed 
from  the  House  of  Commons  has  given  place  to  greater  flexibility, 
as  this  affords  the  department  trading  freedom  that  must  con- 
tribute to  the  maintenance  of  business.  As  was  stated  in  the 
"  Journal  "  at  the  time  of  the  Commons  Committee's  decision, 
we  regarded  the  price  limitations  put  upon  the  department  as  ex- 
ceeding the  bounds  of  fairness  and  propriety  in  relation  to  a  trad- 
ing concern  in  competition  with  other  commodities.  However, 
we  are  sure  that  the  Glasgow  Corporation  are  now  glad  they  did 
not  sacrifice  the  measure  as  it  left  the  Commons  ;  for  they  have 
to-day  a  Bill  under  which  they  can  conduct  the  gas  undertaking 
in  the  best  interests  of  the  consumers.  The  general  terms  of  the 
decision  in  the  House  of  Lords  were  published  last  week.  When 
clauses  were  considered  on  Monday,  the  only  two  matters  of  im- 
portance to  claim  the  attention  of  the  Committee  were  the  pro- 
visions as  to  discounts  up  to  10  per  cent,  for  prompt  payment  and 
15  per  cent,  for  large  consumption,  and  regarding  the  formation 
Ota  reserve  fund.  A  little  supplement  was  made  to  the  discounts 
clause  at  the  instance  of  Lord  Robert  Cecil,  K.C.,  whose  point  was 
concurred  in  by  Mr.  Balfour  Browne,  K.C.,  for  the  promoters.  It 
arose  thus :  A  previous  clause  enacts  that  there  should  be  an 
equal  rate  of  charge  for  public  lighting  purposes  ;  and  this  con- 
flicted with  the  discounts  clause,  inasmuch  as  there  was  an  open- 
ing for  a  reduction  to  the  large  local  authorities  which  would  not 
be  shared  by  the  small  local  authorities.  Obviously,  it  would  not 
have  been  fair  for  the  local  authorities  to  be  treated  differently. 
Lord  Robert's  suggestion  was  that  the  discounts  clause  should  be 
prefaced  by  the  words,  "  Subject  to  the  provisions  of  sub-section 
4  of  section  26  of  this  Act."  This  was  agreed  to ;  and  in  this 
simple  way  was  effected  the  re-establishment  of  equality.  The 
terms  of  the  reserve  fund  were  also  agreed  to;  the  Corporation 
being  allowed  to  accumulate  such  a  fund  up  to  10  per  cent,  of  the 
borrowed  moneys  outstanding,  by  appropriations  of  ^  per  cent,  per 
annum  upon  the  money  outstanding  for  the  time  being. 

Out=Dlstrict  Prices.  Swansea  Gas  Company  and  the 

Swansea  Rural  District  Council  were  in  a 
friendly  frame  of  mind  last  Tuesday  when  the  Confirmation  Bill 
which  includes  the  Company's  Order  came  before  Lord  Donough- 
more's  Committee.  The  sole  point  in  dispute  was  the  territorial 
boundary  in  respect  of  gas  prices;  and  the  Committee  were  in- 
formed at  once  that  the  parties  had  arrived  at  terms  of  peace,  so 
that  their  Lordships  would  not  be  troubled,  beyond  bestowing 
their  approval.  The  agreement  provides  for  the  price  of  gas 
within  a  mile  of  the  existing  borough  boundary  being  the  same 
as  that  charged  within  the  borough.  Outside  the  mile  limit,  the 
price  is  not  to  exceed  the  borough  price  by  more  than  4d.  per 
1000  cubic  feet,  except  Oystermouth,  with  which  the  parties  were 
not  concerned.  Omission  to  extend  the  gas-mains  to  Birchgrove 
within  a  year  of  the  confirmation  of  the  Order  is  to  give  the 
Council  liberty  to  put  into  force  their  electric  lighting  powers 
there.  Other  extensions  of  mains  into  the  outside  districts  are 
arranged  for.  On  Wednesday,  there  was  ratification  by  the  Com- 
mittee of  the  proposals,  and  approval  of  the  Confirmation  Bill. 
"  Black  "  Smoke  London  County  Council  have  failed 

and  Gas-Works.  m  mducing  the  Local  Legislation  Com- 
mittee  to  strengthen  their  hands,  in  ad- 
ministering the  law  as  to  the  emission  of  smoke  from  factories, 
by  expunging  from  existing  enactment  the  word  "  black  "  now  ap- 
pearing before  smoke,  and  so  exposing  manufacturers  to  attack  in 
the  matter  of  nuisance  where  they  have  hitherto  been  free  from  it. 
The  case  of  the  County  Council  lacked  evidence  as  to  the  existence 
of  nuisance  that  would  justify  the  Committee  in  making  the  change 
proposed.  The  Committee,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  did  not  find  that, 
in  the  case  of  the  gas  companies,  there  had  been  any  testimony 
pointing  to  nuisance  that  would  justify  them  in  laying  the  Com- 
panies open  to  any  more  rigorous  supervision  or  frequency  of 
attack  than  at  present.  Mr.  Fitzgerald,  K.C.,  had,  indeed,  to 
admit  that  the  South  Metropolitan  Gas  Company  had  never 
been  proceeded  against  at  all  during  the  past  forty  years  ;  but 
what  would  happen  if  they  had  not  the  protection  of  some 
term  defining  and  giving  a  character  to  the  smoke,  can  hardly  be 
said.  There  would  no  doubt  in  future  have  been  a  magnificent 
display  of  energy,  and  a  grand  conflict  of  testimony,  had  the  Com- 
mittee accepted  the  proposal  for  the  excision  of  the  defining  word 
"  black."  The  Committee  have  declined  to  interfere  with  the 
status  quo  ;  and  "  black  "  smoke  remains  the  evidence  of  a  viola- 
tion ol  the  law. 

Cambridge  Water. 

In  the  "Notes"  published  on  April  19, 
reference  was  made  to  the  proceedings 
{   in  the  House  of  Lords  on  the  Cambridge  Water  Company's  Bill. 
I   The  Corporation  did  not  gain  any  notable  laurels  then  as  the 
result  of  their  opposition,  as  it  was  apparent  to  all  that  the  Water 
]j  Company  have  been  doing  (and  their  present  plans  are  directed 

to  the  same  end)  all  possible  to  serve  Cambridge  well.  The  best 
expert  testimony  that  could  be  procured  by  the  Company  con- 
firmed their  actions.  But  the  Corporation  appear  to  have  been 
exerting  themselves  to,  in  some  way,  get  the  Company  into  a  net 
through  the  medium  of  the  Bill.  When  before  Sir  Luke  White's 
Committee  recently,  they  asked  for  a  suspensory  clause,  to  pave 
the  way  for  a  Purchase  Bill  of  their  own.  They  could  not  have 
gone  to  work  in  a  better  manner  than  they  have  done  in  an 
endeavour  to  depreciate  the  value  of  the  Company's  property; 
and  the  suggestion  as  to  a  suspensory  clause,  if  it  had  been 
adopted,  could  only  have  interfered  with  the  progress  of  the 
Company  in  their  service  to  the  town.  The  Committee  would 
not  agree  to  the  insertion  of  such  a  clause.  It  was  evident  the 
Committee  saw  that  the  Water  Company  had  fulfilled  their  obli- 
gations in  the  past,  and  that  their  new  works  scheme  purposed 
putting  them  in  a  position  to  do  the  same  in  the  future  ;  and 
therefore  the  only  thing  the  Committee  did  was  to  put  certain 
limits  on  the  Company's  financial  proposals.  Back-dividends  were 
restricted  to  six  years ;  a  provision  as  to  charges  for  high  service 
was  deleted  ;  and  regarding  proposed  increases  in  the  sc.ile  of 
water  charges,  the  Company  were  ordered  to  put  in  the  Bill 
certain  terms  as  to  the  date  from  which  the  rates  should  be 
chargeable — the  Committee  considering  that,  after  the  Company 
had  expended  ^^25,000  of  the  extra  capital,  they  should  be  en- 
titled to  charge  the  whole  of  the  increased  rates.  As  to  new 
capital,  (''200,000  was  allowed ;  the  Company's  suggestion  being 
£21 3,000.  Regarding  debentures,  the  Committee  were  of  opinion 
that  none  should  be  issued  bearing  more  than  4  per  cent,  interest 
without  being  put  up  to  auction. 


By  H.  D.  Ellis. 
The  case  of  "  Thairlwall  v.  Great  Northern  Railway  Company," 
recently  decided  in  the  King's  Bench  Division,  on  appeal  by  the 
defendants  from  a  judgment  in  the  Clerkenwell  County  Court, 
should  possess  interest  for  all  Directors  and  Secretaries. 

In  brief,  the  case  was  as  follows  :  The  plaintiff  was  a  holder  of 
certain  stocks  of  the  defendants,  the  dividends  upon  which  are 
from  time  to  time  paid  by  warrants  in  the  usual  manner.  With 
the  sanction  of  the  shareholders,  these  warrants  are  sent  to  them 
through  the  post,  addressed  to  them  at  their  registered  addresses. 
In  pursuance  of  this  practice,  such  a  warrant  was  addressed  to 
the  plaintiff  last  February.  It  failed  to  reach  him,  and  has  not 
been  found  since.  After  an  interval  of  three  months,  the  plaintiff 
applied  to  the  defendants  for  a  duplicate  warrant.  The  defen- 
dants demanded  an  indemnity  from  the  plaintiff,  as  a  condition 
precedent  to  their  issuing  such  duplicate.  The  plaintiff  refused 
to  give  the  indemnity  ;  and  the  defendants  thereupon  refused  to 
issue  the  duplicate.  The  plaintiff  thereupon  brought  an  action 
in  the  County  Court  to  recover  the  amount  of  the  dividend.  The 
County  Court  judge  decided  in  favour  of  the  plaintiff;  and  the 
defendants  appealed. 

In  delivering  judgment  in  favour  of  the  defendants,  the  Appeal 
Court  (as  reported  in  "  The  Times  Law  Report,"  June  20)  held 

(rt)  That  the  warrant  was  a  cheque  within  the  meaning  of 
the  Bills  of  Exchange  Act,  1882. 

(b)  That  in  accordance  with  the  principle  laid  down  in 
"  Norman  7'.  Ricketts  (3  "The  Times  Law  Reports,"  182),  the 
sending  of  the  warrant  by  post  was  payment.  The  only 
obligation  on  the  Company  was  to  send  plaintiff  a  dividend 
warrant,  and,  having  done  this,  they  became  discharged. 

The  dictum  of  the  Court  in  paragraph  {b)  may  perhaps  be  im- 
perfectly reported.  For  if  the  posting  was  "  payment,"  and  the 
Company  were  "  discharged,"  then  the  Company  were  under  no 
liability  whatever  to  the  plaintiff ;  and  they  would  not  be  justified 
in  paying  him  the  amount  of  the  dividend  whether  in  considera- 
tion of  an  indemnity  or  otherwise. 

The  dividend  warrant  bore  upon  the  face  of  it  the  usual  notice 
to  this  or  the  like  effect :  "  This  warrant  will  not  be  honoured 
after  three  months  from  date  of  issue  unless  specially  endorsed 
for  payment  by  the  Secretary."  The  three  months  had  elapsed 
prior  to  the  plaintiff  bringing  his  action ;  and  the  warrant  was 
dead.  The  notice  upon  the  face  of  it  was  the  Company's  own 
warranty  that  it  was  dead.  A  l)anker  who  honoured  it  after  the 
expiration  of  the  three  months  would  be  liable  to  make  good  the 
amount.  In  demanding  an  indemnity  from  the  plaintiff,  the  Com- 
pany were  asking  to  be  guaranteed  against  a  liability  which  could 
only  be  created  by  their  own  laches — viz.,  the  revival  by  their  own 
act  of  a  dead  "  chose  in  action."  The  shareholder  had  not  been 
guilty  of  any  laclus,  and  he  was  absolutely  powerless  in  the 
matter — powerless  even  to  prevent  the  Company  wrongfully  or 
negligently  reviving  the  warrant. 

There  is  little  likelihood  of  the  case  being  carried  to  a  higher 
Court — though  Lord  Halsbury's  judgment  in  the  House  of  Lords 
on  appeal  might  be  interesting  reading.  But  anyhow,  as  the 
matter  stands,  Boards  of  Directors  may  extract  one  wholesome 
admonition  from  it ;  and  that  is,  that  they  should  not  harass 
shareholders  with  needless  and  irritating  red-tape.  By  laws 
and  regulations,  in  addition  to  being  in  harmony  with  l\iblic  and 
Private  Acts,  should  be  equitable  and  reasonable,  and  not  oppres- 
sive and  vexatious.  It  is  to  be  feared  a  good  many  companies — 
some  very  old  and  very  respectable — cling  to  antiquated  prescrip- 
tions which  should  long  ago  have  been  swept  aside. 



[July  12,  igio. 


We  have  given  from  time  to  time  in  the  "Jouunal"  reviews  of 
the  results  of  the  testings  made  by  the  Gas  Examiners  appointed 
by  the  London  County  Council  on  the  gas  supplied  by  the  three 
MetropoHtan  Gas  Companies.  The  last  of  these  reviews  appeared 
in  the  issue  dated  Oct.  12,  and  carried  the  information  as  to 
these  testings  down  to  the  end  of  the  third  quarter  of  1909.  In 
view  of  the  references  made,  in  the  course  ot  the  evidence  given 
last  week  before  the  Committee  of  the  House  of  Commons  on  the 
Standard  Burner  Bills,  to  the  calorific  power  of  the  gas  supplied 
to  London,  it  seems  a  fitting  opportunity  to  carry  down  to  a  re- 
cent date  the  information  given  in  the  "Journal"  on  the  results 
of  the  Metropolitan  gas  testings.  In  this  article,  allusion  will  be 
made  to  the  fourth  quarter  of  last  year,  and  the  results  obtained 
compared  with  those  for  the  corresponding  quarter  of  the  two 
preceding  years.  In  next  week's  issue,  similar  information  will  be 
published  for  the  complete  years  (1907-1909)  and  in  regard  to  the 
first  half  of  the  current  year. 

The  testings  of  illuminating  power  for  the  fourth  quarter  of  the 
last  three  years  have  given  results  of  which  the  average  is  shown 
for  each  of  the  three  Metropolitan  Gas  Companies  in  the  appended 
table.  (Table  I.)  The  precise  period  to  which  the  1909  figures 
refer  is  the  fourteen  weeks  ending  Jan.  i,  1910;  while  the  figures 
for  1907  and  igo8  are  for  thirteen  weeks  ending  Dec.  28  and  26 
respectively : — 

Table  I. — Averages  of  all  Testings  of  Illuminating  Pou'er  for  the 
Fourth  Quarter  of  the  Year  [Candles"\ . 

No.  2  Metropolitan  Argand, 



1 90S. 





Gaslight  and  Coke 

Company  . 






10'  10 

South  Metropolitan 

Gas  Company. 







Commercial  Gas 

Company  . 

15  'OI 






The  minimum  results  of  any  one  day's  testings  with  the  argand 
burner  in  the  fourth  quarter  of  1909  were,  for  the  Gaslight  and 
Coke  Company  i4"03  candles,  for  the  South  Metropolitan  Gas 
Company  13-93  candles,  and  for  the  Commercial  Gas  Company 
i3'co  candles.  These  results  are  of  importance,  because  the 
Companies  are  liable  to  incur  forfeitures  if  the  illuminating  power 
of  the  gas,  on  the  average  of  three  consecutive  days'  testings,  is 
found  to  be  more  than  half-a-candle  below  the  prescribed  illumi- 
nating power.  The  latter  was  in  the  quarter  to  which  these 
results  refer,  14  candles  for  the  South  Metropolitan  and  Com- 
mercial Gas  Companies,  and  16  candles  for  the  Gaslight  and  Coke 
Company ;  but  actually  the  last-named  Company  were,  by  agree- 
ment with  the  London  County  Council,  working  to  a  14-cundle 
standard  of  illuminating  power  by  way  of  anticipation  of  the 
drop  from  a  16  to  a  14  candle  standard  which  the  Company's  Act 
of  1909  sanctioned,  with  effect  from  Jan.  i,  1910. 

Table  II. — Summary  of  Testings  of  Calorific  Power  (Net)  for  the 
Fourth  Quarter  of  the  Year  [Calories  per  Cubic  Foot] . 













Gaslight    and  Coke 

South  Metropolitan 










Gas  Company  . 
Commercial  Gas 







127-  I 



Company  . 


124- : 






1 16-7 


*  There  is  a  doubt  as  to  whether  this  is  the  minimum  result  for  the  quarter,  as  is 
pointed  out  in  the  text  of  this  article. 

The  average  maximum  and  minimum  results  of  the  testings 
made  for  calorific  power  are  shown  in  Table  II.  for  each  of  the 
three  Companies  for  the  fourth  quarter  of  the  three  years.  The 
figures  refer  to  the  net  calorific  power  stated  in  calories  per  cubic 
foot.  They  may  be  converted  into  British  thermal  units  per  cubic 
foot  by  multiplying  by  4  (if  great  exactness  is  required,  by  3"968) ; 
and  the  gross  calorific  power,  which  has  not  been  stated  in  the 
returns  published  by  the  London  County  Council  prior  to  the  last 
few  weeks  of  1908,  may  be  found  approximately  by  adding  15  to 
17  calories  to  the  net  calorific  power.  In  the  fourth  quarter  ot  the 
year  1909,  the  average  gross  calorific  power  returned  was,  for  the 
Gaslight  and  Coke  Company  15-4  calories  per  cubic  foot  higher 
than  the  average  net  calorific  power,  and  for  the  South  Metro- 
politan and  Commercial  Gas  Companies  i6-6  and  15-4  calories 
higher  respectively.  The  minimum  return  of  gross  calorific  power 
for  the  Gaslight  and  Coke  Company  for  the  same  quarter  was 
I29'9  calories.  In  regard  to  this  and  the  minimum  net  calorific 
power  of  I  i6-o  calories  recorded  in  Table  II.,  it  should  be  pointed 
out  that  for  one  week  of  the  quarter  the  London  County  Council 
omitted  to  report  any  minimum  figures  for  the  calorimetric  test- 
ings— an  omission  which  may  be  taken  to  imply  that  an  improbably 

low  result  had  been  reported  from  one  testing-place,  and  the 
Council  did  not  feel  justified  in  publishing  it.  The  minimum 
returns  of  gross  calorific  power  for  the  South  Metropolitan  and 
Commercial  Companies  were  137-7  ^^nd  132-3  calories  per  cubic 
foot  respectively. 

Table  III. — Summary  of  Testings  of  the  Sulphur  in  London  Gas 
for  tlie  Fourth  Quarter  of  the  Year  [Grains  per  100  Cubic  Feet]. 









G.aslight  and  Coke 

Company  . 







South  Metropolitan 

Gas  Company  . 







Commercial  Gas 

Company  . 







The  results  of  the  testings  for  sulphur  other  than  in  the  form  of 
sulphuretted  hydrogen  are  summarized  in  Table  III.  They  are 
interesting,  as  showing  that  the  somewhat  high  returns  which 
characterized  the  years  immediately  following  the  abolition  of 
lime  purification  in  London  were  due  to  temporary  causes.  Even 
the  South  Metropolitan  Gas  Company,  who  have  not  the  benefit 
in  this  respect  which  is  obtained  by  the  admixture  of  carburetted 
water  gas  with  coal  gas,  were  able  during  the  fourth  quarter  of 
1909  to  work  to  as  low  an  average  as  38-6  grains  of  sulphur  per 
100  cubic  feet  of  gas. 

We  will  reserve  further  comment  on  this  and  other  figures 
quoted  in  this  article  until  the  similar  figures  for  the  whole  year 
and  for  the  last  six  months  are  given  in  next  week's  issue. 


It  was  mentioned  in  the  "Journal"  for  the  21st  ult.,  that  the 
gas  lighting  of  parts  of  the  City  of  Ziirich  had  been  affected  by 
the  floods  which  visited  Switzerland  last  month.  The  damage 
and  inconvenience  appear,  however,  to  have  been  considerably 
greater  than  was  then  indicated,  since  the  whole  of  the  gas- 
works was  flooded  on  June  15,  and  work  could  not  be  resumed 
fully  until  the  i8th  of  that  month.  The  following  details  of  the 
catastrophe  are  taken  from  a  report  in  the  current  number  of 
the  "Journal  fiir  Gasbeleuchtung." 

The  ground  level  of  the  Schlieren  Works  at  Ziirich  was  raised, 
at  the  time  of  their  erection,  about  32  inches  above  that  of  the 
surrounding  land,  in  order  to  diminish  the  danger  through  the 
flooding  of  the  Limmat  Valley,  which  occurs  when  the  water  rises 
in  the  River  Limmat  and  the  Lake  of  Ziirich.  The  gas  works,  it 
will  be  remembered,  from  the  description  which  is  published  as  a 
brochure  from  the  office  of  the  "Journal,"  and  an  account  of  the 
extensions  given  recently  in  our  columns  (see  "Journal,"  Vol. 
ex.,  pp.  371,  426,  490),  is  situated  between  the  dam  which  -was 
constructed  to  confine  the  river  to  a  definite  course  and  the  raised 
roadway  known  as  "  Industrie  Strasse."  The  bank  on  which  this 
roadway  runs  is  a  solid  construction  without  tunnels  or  culverts 
for  the  passage  of  water  from  one  side  of  it  to  the  other. 

It  appears  that  on  the  15th  of  June  the  water  overflowed  from 
the  River  Limmat  above  the  end  ot  the  confining  dam  already  men- 
tioned, and  swept  down  the  valley  between  the  roadway  and  the 
river  dam.  Had  there  been  culverts  by  which  it  could  escape 
under  the  roadway,  the  damage  done  would  have  been  con- 
siderably less  serious.  It  was  noticed  about  ten  o'clock  on  the 
morning  of  June  15  that  the  water  in  the  river  was  rising  to  an 
abnormal  height ;  but  no  serious  flooding  was  then  anticipated. 
By  12.30,  however,  the  whole  of  the  gas-works  site  was  flooded 
to  a  depth  of  about  12.2  inches,  and  the  cellars  and  underground 
channels  containing  works'  plant  were  filled  with  water — in  some 
cases  to  a  depth  of  68  inches.  The  channels  in  which  the  coal 
conveyors  were  situated  were  flooded,  and  the  water  entered  the 
main  flue  of  the  retort-furnaces  and  caused  the  fires  to  be  nearly 
extinguished.  It  also  blocked  the  flues  from  the  boilers,  and,  by 
so  cutting  off  the  supply  of  steam,  interrupted  the  working  of  the 
works'  power  station  for  some  time.  When  the  flood  occurred, 
there  was  about  2,140,000  cubic  feet  of  gas  in  the  holders. 

The  cellars  on  the  gas-works  are,  as  far  as  possible,  connected 
with  the  drainage  system  of  the  works  ;  and  it  will  be  remembered 
that  special  provision  has  been  made  for  pumping  the  drainage 
water  into  the  river.  In  the  extensions  of  the  works  which  were 
described  in  the  "Journal"  recently,  reference  was  made  to 
the  fact  that  a  new  pumping-station  had  been  established,  with  a 
Sulzer's  dirty-water  pump  of  9  inches  bore  and  a  capacity  of  i3-;o 
gallons  per  minute,  for  pumping  out  the  drainage  system  in  times 
pf  flood  of  the  river,  so  as  to  avoid  the  flooding  of  the  gas  works 
which  had  occurred  on  two  occasions  since  their  construction.  It 
was  believed  that  this  provision  had  met  all  risk  of  further  flood- 
ing of  the  works.  But  the  floods  last  month  were  caused  not 
by  the  return  of  water  from  the  river  through  the  drainage 



t     July  12,  igio.] 



system  or  by  the  rise  in  the  level  of  the  underground  water,  but 
I,  by  the  overflow  of  water  from  the  river  above  the  pouit  at  which 
j  the  confining  dam  terminates.    The  interruption  of  the  woridng 
^  of  the  power  station  naturally  prevented  the  water  being  pumped 
I  out  quickly  after  the  flood  had  occurred.    Moreover,  the  flood 
I  water,  coming  down  in  such  amount  and  in  this  manner,  carried 
^  with  it  quantities  of  mud  and  dihris,  which  blocked  all  the  chan- 
nels and  the  suctions  of  the  pumping  plant.    The  following  day, 
however,  locomotives  and  hand  pumps  were  put  to  work  and 
rapidly  emptied  the  water  from  the  boiler  and  engine  house,  and 
the  main  flue  of  the  retort-settings.   By  mid  day,  it  was  hoped  that 
the  retort-furnaces  could  be  re-started  ;  but  it  was  found  that  the 
mud  had  partially  blocked  the  flue,  and  the  latter  had  (o  be  cleaned 
before  the  furnaces  could  be  recharged  with  safety.    As  soon  as 
the  flue  was  cleared,  the  retorts  were  charged  ;  the  coal  being 
brought  into  the  bunkers  over  the  settings  by  hand,  as  it  was  not 
till  mid-day  on  June  17  that  a  portion  of  the  coal-conveying  plant 
could  be  again  bronght  into  action. 

Thanks  to  the  large  store  of  gas  in  the  holders  at  the  time  of 
the  catastrophe,  the  supply  to  the  town  was  not  affected  on  the 
15th  uU.,  though  on  the  evening  of  that  day  only  one-third  of  the 
public  lamps  were  lighted  by  way  of  economizing  the  store  of  gas, 
and  the  supply  was  cut  off  to  the  outlying  suburbs.  Notices  were 
circulated  the  same  day  from  house  to  house  asking  consumers 
to  curtail  or  stop  their  consumption  of  gas ;  but  apparently  they 
had  little  effect.  The